Publications by authors named "Abid Ali"

127 Publications

Challenges and Strategies for Pakistan in the Third Wave of COVID-19: A Mini Review.

Front Public Health 2021;9:690820. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Zoology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

The world is currently gripped by the fear of the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The causative agent of COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that attacks humans without prejudice, and primarily targets the respiratory system. Pakistan is a developing country with a large population and a weak economy. Currently, it is facing a major challenge to cope with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, especially the third wave. This fatal virus has increased its presence many folds in Pakistan. On average, 100 deaths per day were being recorded in the late spring of 2021. Delay in the acquisition of vaccine has slowed down the vaccination program for this disease. This in turn will accelerate the spreading of virus, and thus will lead to a lockdown situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.690820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8409507PMC
September 2021

Potato plant variety affects the performance and oviposition preference of Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Damage by the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella is one of the major constraints to commercial production of potato in many areas of the world. To promote effective pest management practices for P. operculella based on host plant, larval and adult performance of P. operculella fed on Lishu 6, Hezuo 88, Yunshu 304, and Qingshu 9 potato varieties was compared by examining their survival rate, larval feeding, pupal weight, and oviposition preference.

Results: Compared with larvae fed on the other three potato plants, those fed on Lishu 6 exhibited the highest survival rate, with almost 61.67% developing to the adult stage. Females also preferred to lay their eggs on Lishu 6 over Hezuo 88, Yunshu 304 and Qingshu 9; and the weight of P. operculella pupa on Lishu 6 plant (0.0085 g) was significantly heavier than that of on others, especially on Qingshu 9 (0.0062 g). Moreover, first instar larvae fed on Lishu 6 showed host preference to Qingshu 9.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that Lishu 6 is susceptible to P. operculella, and Qingshu 9 is not relatively susceptible to P. operculella, which suggested that the P. operculella feeding responses to dominant potato varieties in China is different. This variation can be applied for the potato breeding and pest management practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6625DOI Listing
September 2021

Phytochemical and Biological Screening of Leaf, Bark and Fruit Extracts from Wall.

Life (Basel) 2021 Aug 16;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Botany, Islamia College University, Peshawar 25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

The Aquifoliaceae is an important family and has been used traditionally for some time. One of the members of this family is the wall, which itself possesses a potential medicinal importance. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments including pain, swelling, burns, and fever. The current study was designed to screen out the antioxidant and analgesic potential of this plant and to verify its traditional uses, along with its phytochemical profile. Extracts were subjected to antioxidant, analgesic, and phytochemical analysis using DPPH, chemical-induced (acetic acid and formalin) nociception models and GC-MS analysis, respectively. The leaf, bark, and fruit extracts showed significant antioxidant activity compared to that of standard. Likewise, all the extracts demonstrated significant ( < 0.01) analgesic activity in a mice model. In acetic acid induced analgesia, the leaf, bark, and fruit extracts caused 51.64, 56.13 and 59.52% inhibition, respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg while at 200 mg/kg it showed 83.01, 71.69 and 75.47% inhibition, respectively. In Formalin-induced paw-licking assay, fruit extract showed 59.42 and 64.19% inhibition at 200 mg/kg dose in the first and second phase, respectively. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of cathinone, phenylpropanolamine, dl-phenylephrine, amphetamine, myristic acid, and palmitic acid. Results of the study suggest that crude extracts from different parts of this plant may be a useful source for the development of novel analgesics. However, further investigation in terms of isolation of bioactive compounds and their toxicological evaluations are needed to validate the observed results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11080837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401985PMC
August 2021

Proposed Geometrical Tool for Cases of Laterally Adapted Tibial Tubercle during Total Knee Replacement.

Adv Orthop 2021 7;2021:5244034. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Orthopedics Department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq.

The alignment of tibial component in total knee replacement operation must be achieved in three planes to ensure optimum results. In coronal plane, the alignment depends on three anatomical landmarks. These landmarks are tibial tuberosity, leg shin, and midtalar point. In eastern community, people get used to sit cross-legged which causes additional tension in the quadriceps muscle which is attached distally to the tibial tuberosity. This tension causes adaptation of the tuberosity laterally. Tuberosity adaptation causes the three anatomical landmarks being not collinear. In this work, eight cases of lateral adapted tubercle were diagnosed of this condition before the surgery and their X-ray images after the surgery were checked regarding tibial alignment. Tibial alignment has been checked by measuring the medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA) which is the angle between the mechanical tibial axis and the tibial component plateau. MPTAs for the eight cases were (86.9°-93.6°). Three cases had MPTA less than 90° indicating varus alignment and five of them had MPTA more than 90° indicating valgus alignment. A geometrical tool was designed using the DesignSpark Mechanical software as a proposed solution to solve the adaptation problem. The tool can give a method for fixing the tibial component precisely without any varus\valgus malalignment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5244034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369185PMC
August 2021

Electrochemically Deposited Amorphous Cobalt-Nickel-Doped Copper Oxide as an Efficient Electrocatalyst toward Water Oxidation Reaction.

ACS Omega 2021 Aug 19;6(30):19419-19426. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.

Production of hydrogen through water splitting is one of the green and the most practical solutions to cope with the energy crisis and greenhouse effect. However, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) being a sluggish step, the use of precious metal-based catalysts is the main impediment toward the viability of water splitting. In this work, amorphous copper oxide and doped binary- and ternary-metal oxides (containing Co, Ni, and Cu) have been prepared on the surface of fluorine-doped tin oxide by a facile electrodeposition route followed by thermal treatment. The fabricated electrodes have been employed as efficient binder-free OER electrocatalysts possessing a high electrochemical surface area due to their amorphous nature. The cobalt-nickel-doped copper oxide (ternary-metal oxide)-based electrode showed promising OER activity with a high current density of 100 mA cm at 1.65 V versus RHE that escalates to 313 mA cm at 1.76 V in alkaline media at pH 14. The high activity of the ternary-metal oxide-based electrode was further supported by a smaller semicircle in the Nyquist plot. Furthermore, all metal-oxide-based electrodes offered high stability when tested for continuous production of oxygen for 50 h. This work highlights the synthesis of efficient and cost-effective amorphous metal-based oxide catalysts to execute electrocatalytic OER employing an electrodeposition approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8340103PMC
August 2021

Permissive action of HO mediated ClUGT75 expression for auxin glycosylation and Al- tolerance in watermelon.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 24;167:77-90. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Laboratory of Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, PR China; Hainan Institute of Zhejiang University, Yazhou District, Sanya, 572025, PR China; Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture, Hangzhou, 310058, PR China.

Although Al-toxicity is one of the limiting factors for crop production in acidic soils, little is known about the Al-tolerance mechanism in watermelon, a fairly acid-tolerant crop. This work aimed to identify the interaction between the HO scavenging pathway and auxin glycosylation relevant to watermelon Al-tolerance. By analyzing expressions of hormone-related ClUGTs and antioxidant enzyme genes in Al-tolerant (ZJ) and Al-sensitive (NBT) cultivars, we identified ClUGT75s (B1, B2, and D1) and ClSOD1-2-ClCAT as crucial components associated with Al-tolerance. Al-stress significantly increased HO content by 92.7% in NBT and 42.3% in ZJ, accompanied by less Al-, auxin (IAA and IBA), and MDA contents in ZJ than NBT. These findings coincided with significant ClSOD1-2 expression and stable dismutation activity in NBT than ZJ. Hence, higher HO content in the root apex of NBT than ZJ correlated with a significant increase in auxin content and ClSOD1-2 up-regulation. Moreover, Al-activated ClUGT75D1 and ClUGT75B2 in ZJ coincided with no considerable change in IBA content, suggesting that glycosylation-mediated changes in IBA content might be relevant to Al-tolerance in watermelon. Furthermore, exogenous HO and IBA indicated ClUGT75D1 modulating IBA is likely dependent on HO background. We hypothesize that a higher HO level in NBT represses ClUGT75, resulting in increased auxin than those in ZJ roots. Thus, excess in both HO and auxin aggravated the inhibition of root elongation under Al-stress. Our findings provide insights on the permissive action of HO in the mediation of auxin glycosylation by ClUGT75 in root apex for Al-tolerance in watermelon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.07.022DOI Listing
July 2021

An Efficient Dynamic-Decision Based Task Scheduler for Task Offloading Optimization and Energy Management in Mobile Cloud Computing.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 1;21(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Computer Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea.

Restricted abilities of mobile devices in terms of storage, computation, time, energy supply, and transmission causes issues related to energy optimization and time management while processing tasks on mobile phones. This issue pertains to multifarious mobile device-related dimensions, including mobile cloud computing, fog computing, and edge computing. On the contrary, mobile devices' dearth of storage and processing power originates several issues for optimal energy and time management. These problems intensify the process of task retaining and offloading on mobile devices. This paper presents a novel task scheduling algorithm that addresses energy consumption and time execution by proposing an energy-efficient dynamic decision-based method. The proposed model quickly adapts to the cloud computing tasks and energy and time computation of mobile devices. Furthermore, we present a novel task scheduling server that performs the offloading computation process on the cloud, enhancing the mobile device's decision-making ability and computational performance during task offloading. The process of task scheduling harnesses the proposed empirical algorithm. The outcomes of this study enable effective task scheduling wherein energy consumption and task scheduling reduces significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21134527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271536PMC
July 2021

Risk factors associated with tick infestations on equids in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, with notes on Rickettsia massiliae detection.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Jul 13;14(1):363. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Studies on ticks infesting equids are lacking in various parts of the world, including Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of ticks infesting equids, associated risk factors and rickettsial detection in ticks from equids in KP.

Methods: Inspection of 404 equid hosts from November 2018 to October 2019 resulted in the collection of 550 ticks. Data on tick-associated risk factors were collected from equid owners by means of a questionnaire. After morphological identification, partial DNA sequences of the tick mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene were used for taxonomic confirmation of species. Partial sequences of the gltA and ompA genes were used for Rickettsia detection in ticks.

Results: A total of 550 tick specimens were collected on 324 (80.2%) of the equids inspected, of which 161 were horses (50%), 145 (45%) were donkeys and 18 were mules (5%). The ticks were identified as belonging to the following five species: Rhipicephalus microplus (341 specimens, 62% of the total ticks), Rh. haemaphysaloides (126, 23%), Rh. turanicus (39, 7%), Rh. sanguineus (s.l.) (33, 6%) and Hyalomma anatolicum (11, 2%). The most prevalent tick life stage was adult females (279, 51%) followed by adult males (186, 34%) and nymphs (85, 15%). Higher tick infestations were observed on male equids (relative risk [RR] 0.7432, P < 0.0005) and adult equids (RR 1.268, P < 0.0020). Ticks were frequently attached to the axial region of horses (55, 21%), sternum of donkeys (44, 21%) and belly of mules (19, 23%) (P < 0.04). Temporal patterns of tick infestation in association with temperature and humidity were highly significant (P < 0.05). Risk factors, such as animal housing (P < 0.0003), living management (P < 0.006), grazing type (P < 0.01) and location in hilly areas (P < 0.02), significantly enhanced the chances for tick infestation. Tick species analyzed in this study were phylogenetically related to species from Afghanistan, China, South Africa and Taiwan. Partial sequences of the gltA and ompA genes obtained from Rh. microplus and Rh. haemaphysaloides were 100% identical to the spotted fever group pathogen Rickettsia massiliae.

Conclusions: Equids exposed to significant risk factors were infected by one or more of at least five tick species in KP, Pakistan, and some of the ticks harbored the human pathogen R. massiliae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04836-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276440PMC
July 2021

Different Performance of Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) among Four Potato Tuber Varieties under Laboratory Condition.

Insects 2021 Jun 25;12(7). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.

The potato tuber moth Zeller is one of the most damaging potato pests in the world and is difficult to control as the larvae feed only inside potatoes. Evaluating the effects of performance of on different potato varieties may help to facilitate the development of effective pest management practices. In our study, reared on potato variety Lishu6 showed strong performance and on Qingshu 9 exhibited the poorest performance, while fed on Hezuo 88 and Yunshu 304 performed moderately. Firstly, larval performance of fed on Lishu 6 with that on Hezuo 88, Yunshu 304, and Qingshu 9 was compared by using an age-stage two-sex life table. Compared with larvae fed on Lishu 6, those fed on Qingshu 9 exhibited significantly lower survival, with only 5.56% developing to the adult stage. Secondly, the pupal weight experiment showed that the pupae weight of feeding on Lishu 6 tubers (0.0123 g) was significantly heavier than that those feeding on Qingshu 9 (0.0102 g) ( < 0.001). Thirdly, female oviposition and larvae feeding preference indicated that females oviposited on Lishu 6 in preference to Qingshu 9 ( < 0.05, < 0.001). Overall, this study demonstrated that Qingshu 9 is the least suitable host, and planting this variety over a large scale can provide a basis for the next step of control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12070580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303611PMC
June 2021

Population Dynamics and Reproductive Developmental Analysis of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Trapped Using Food Attractants in the Field.

J Econ Entomol 2021 Aug;114(4):1533-1541

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.

Monitoring adult populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a major agricultural pest, provides data useful for its control. Food attractants, considered as adult insect behavior regulators based on the preference of an herbivorous pest for food sources or their volatiles, also have great potential for monitoring populations. To study the feasibility of monitoring the population dynamics and reproductive development of H. armigera in the field using food attractants, we quantitatively analyzed reproductive organ development of adults in a laboratory population as a way to predict the reproductive development of adults trapped using food attractants in the field in 2019 and 2020. The adults trapped using food attractants had obvious generational changes and the same trends in variation for females and males. The extent of ovarian development in trapped females tended to increase within each generation, and the major axis length of testis in trapped males tended to decrease. Reproductive developmental status of trapped adults also differed significantly among months. This study shows that by trapping H. armigera with food attractants, the population dynamics of adults in the field can be monitored, and reproductive anatomy can also be used to monitor adult reproductive status. These approaches are a new way to forecast the population dynamics of this pest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab113DOI Listing
August 2021

Occurrence, distribution, and pollution indices of potentially toxic elements within the bed sediments of the riverine system in Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, Pakistan.

Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) are a major source of pollution due to their toxicity, persistence, and bio-accumulating nature in riverine bed sediments. The sediment, as the largest storage and source of PTEs, plays an important role in transformation of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and other toxic PTEs. Several important industrial hubs that contain a large population along the banks of different rivers, such as Kabul, Sutlej, Ravi, Jhelum, and Chenab in Pakistan, are acting as major sources of PTEs. In this study, 150 bed sediment samples (n=30 from each river) were collected from different sites. Total (acid extracted) PTE (Hg, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Pb) concentrations in bed sediments were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sediment pollution indices were calculated in the major rivers of Pakistan. The results demonstrated high levels of Hg and Ni concentrations which exceeded the guideline standards of river authorities in the world. The contamination factor (CF) and contamination degree (CD) indices for Hg, Ni, and Pb showed a moderate to high (CF≥6 and CD≥24) contamination level in all the selected rivers. The values of geo-accumulation index (I) were also high (I≥5) for Hg and Pb and heavily polluted for Ni, while Cr, Cu, and Zn showed low to unpolluted (I) values. Similarly, the enrichment factor (EF) values were moderately severe (5≤EF≤10) for Hg, Pb, and Ni in Sutlej, Ravi, and Jhelum, and severe (10≤EF≤25) in Kabul and Jhelum. Moreover, Hg and Ni showed severe to very severe enrichment in all the sampling sites. The ecological risk index (ERI) values represented considerable, moderate, and low risks, respectively, for Hg (The ERI value should not be bold. Please unbold the  ERI in the whole paper. It should be same like RI, CD and EF. [Formula: see text]≥160), Pb and Ni (40≤[Formula: see text]≤80), and Cr, Cu, and Zn ([Formula: see text]≤40). Similarly, potential ecological risk index (PERI) values posed considerable (300≤RI≤600) risk in Ravi and moderate (150≤RI≤300) in Kabul and Jhelum, but low (RI≤150) risk in Ravi and Chenab. On the basis of the abovementioned results, it is concluded that bed sediment pollution can be dangerous for both ecological resources and human beings. Therefore, PTE contamination should be regularly monitored and a cost-effective and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment plant should be installed to ensure removal of PTEs before the discharge of effluents into the freshwater ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14783-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Life Cycle and Genetic Identification of Infesting Domestic Fowl in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Front Vet Sci 2021 19;8:664731. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Zoology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, Pakistan.

Ticks transmit numerous pathogens to animals including humans; therefore, they are parasites of health concern. Soft ticks infesting domestic fowl in Pakistan are carriers of viruses and bacteria and cause unestimated economic losses in the poultry sector. The current study was intended to identify soft ticks infesting domestic fowl and understand their spatiotemporal distribution along 1 year. A sum of 7,219 soft ticks were collected from 608 domestic fowl in 58 infested shelters; 938 (12.9%) ticks were found on the host and 6,281 (87%) in the shelters. The collected ticks comprised 3,503 (48.52%) adults including 1,547 (21.42%) males and 1,956 (27.09%) females, 3,238 (44.85%) nymphs, and 478 (6.62%) larvae. The most prevalent life stages were adults, followed by nymphs and larvae. Overall tick prevalence considering all visited shelters was 38.66% (58/150). The highest tick prevalence was found in district Lakki Marwat (50.03%) followed by Peshawar (31.08%) and Chitral (18.88%) districts. All ticks were morpho-taxonomically identified as . To determine their life cycle, adult were reared in the laboratory infesting domestic fowl (). The life cycle was completed in 113-132 days (egg to egg) with a mean temperature of 33 ± 3°C and relative humidity of 65 ± 5%. Individual ticks were used for DNA extraction and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for the amplification of a partial fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I () and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) genes. Obtained amplicons were compared using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) to scan for homologous sequences. Phylogenetic trees showed from Pakistan clustering with conspecific sequences reported from Australia, Chile, China, Kenya, and the United States. This is the first study aiming to reproduce the life cycle of and genetically identify this tick in the region. Further studies are encouraged to investigate the pathogens associated with this soft tick species in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.664731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170322PMC
May 2021

Spammer group detection and diversification of customers' reviews.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 9;7:e472. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Online reviews regarding different products or services have become the main source to determine public opinions. Consequently, manufacturers and sellers are extremely concerned with customer reviews as these have a direct impact on their businesses. Unfortunately, to gain profit or fame, spam reviews are written to promote or demote targeted products or services. This practice is known as review spamming. In recent years, Spam Review Detection problem (SRD) has gained much attention from researchers, but still there is a need to identify review spammers who often work collaboratively to promote or demote targeted products. It can severely harm the review system. This work presents the Spammer Group Detection (SGD) method which identifies suspicious spammer groups based on the similarity of all reviewer's activities considering their review time and review ratings. After removing these identified spammer groups and spam reviews, the resulting non-spam reviews are displayed using diversification technique. For the diversification, this study proposed Diversified Set of Reviews (DSR) method which selects diversified set of top-k reviews having positive, negative, and neutral reviews/feedback covering all possible product features. Experimental evaluations are conducted on Roman Urdu and English real-world review datasets. The results show that the proposed methods outperformed the existing approaches when compared in terms of accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj-cs.472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049124PMC
April 2021

Thirty-five new species of the spider genus (Araneae, Pimoidae) from Pan-Himalaya.

Zookeys 2021 8;1029:1-92. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China.

Thirty-five new species of the Chamberlin & Ivie, 1943 are described from Pan-Himalaya: Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, s (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀). The DNA barcodes of the thirty-five new species are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1029.64080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050015PMC
April 2021

COVID-19 Pandemic and Ramadan Fasting among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Isr Med Assoc J 2021 Apr;23(4):203-207

Department of Internal Medicine, Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Background: This year Ramadan occurs during the global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data has shown that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are prone to severe disease with COVID-19 and with increased mortality. Acute complications such as dehydration, starvation ketosis, ketoacidosis, and the increased risk of coagulopathy and thrombosis should be considered particularly during this pandemic period. Fasting during Ramadan this year and the COVID-19 pandemic is more challenging, not only for patients with T2DM but also for healthcare providers. We present healthcare providers with important aspects to consider during the COVID-19 pandemic for patients with T2DM who intend to fast during Ramadan and other fasting days.
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April 2021

Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors treatment in acromegalic patients with diabetes-a case series and literature review.

Endocrine 2021 07 15;73(1):65-70. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Neurology Department, Galilee Medical Center Bar-Ilan Faculty of Medicine, Safed, Israel.

Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents one of the most frequent comorbidities in patients with acromegaly. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) represent an important class for diabetes management. However, limited data is reported regarding the use of this class in patients with acromegaly and diabetes.

Methods: Reporting data regarding patients with acromegaly and diabetes under treatment with SGLT2i.

Results: 29 acromegalic patients with diabetes were identified. Treatment with SGLT-2i was documented in nine patients, out of them 5 females and 4 males with a mean age (SD) of 61 ± 12 yr. The mean (SD) duration of treatment with SGLT2i was 27.5 ± 7.3 months. Mean HbA1c before and after SGLT-2i initiation was 8.1 ± 1.1 and 7.0 ± 0.9% respectively. Mean IGF-1 level (SD) before SGLT-2i initiation was 177 ± 68 ng/mL and the mean GH level (SD) was 0.7 ± 0.5 µg/L. All nine patients are still under treatment with SGLT2i and none of them had reported any adverse reaction related to SGLT2i.

Conclusions: The present article provides us for the first time with new data regarding the use of SGLT2i among acromegalic patients with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-021-02718-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Ambient Humidity Affects Development, Survival, and Reproduction of the Invasive Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in China.

J Econ Entomol 2021 06;114(3):1145-1158

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, P.R. China.

Ambient humidity can directly affect the water balance in insects. The migratory fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda Smith, has spread to more than 60 countries and regions in Africa, Asia, and Oceania that have a great difference in average ambient humidity. Understanding the effects of ambient humidity changes on its development, survival, and reproduction can help to predict its population dynamics in different habitats. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of atmospheric relative humidity (RH) on the development, survival, and reproduction and soil moisture on the pupation and emergence of fall armyworm. As a result, survival and pupal mass increased significantly with increasing RH. Among the five RHs tested, 80% RH was the most suitable for fall armyworm with the highest intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproduction rate (R0). The population growth at the different RHs in decreasing order was 80 > 100 > 60 > 40 > 20%. A relative moisture (RM) of soil from 6.80 to 47.59% was suitable for fall armyworm pupation, survival, and eclosion, but fall armyworm could not pupate normally in soil with 88.39 and 95.19% RM. The survival and emergence rate of fall armyworm pupae were reduced by irrigation that increased the RM after the mature larvae entered the soil. These findings may be helpful for refining laboratory rearing protocols, population forecasting, and management of fall armyworm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab056DOI Listing
June 2021

Hippophae rhamnoides mediate gene expression profiles against keratinocytes infection of Staphylococcus aureus.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Feb 19;48(2):1409-1422. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Chemical and Life Sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.

Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of skin diseases such as bacterial keratitis, follicles, psoriasis, cellulitis and atopic dermatitis. This study aims to investigate the S. aureus mediated molecular modulation, and the effect of HR in reversing the deleterious impact of S. aureus in keratinocytes. Human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells were cultured in DMEM, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin. Subcultures were divided into three flasks: control with no S. aureus and extract (C), S. aureus infected (SA) and S. aureus infected cells and extract (SE). RNA was isolated and microarray analysis was performed. The data was annotated using GO functional analysis and DAVID functional annotation. For each comparison group, significant probes were filtered out at significant cut off by fold change (P < 0.05 and/or > twofold change). For SA vs control, SE vs control, and SE vs SA, 204, 9369, 9900 probes were filtered respectively. In SA vs control, TNF signaling, NOD-like receptor and chemokine receptor signaling pathways were upregulated with key genes such as CCL2, CCL20 and BIRC3. The SE vs SA, showed significant expression variations of a number of important genes. Molecular pathways associated with ILs, TNFs, TGFs, IFNs, FGFs, MAPKs, MMPs, caspases and Wnts were either up regulated or downregulated. This effect was reversed by the extract, possibly through downregulating various proinflammatory cytokines and apoptotic pathways. Our study reveals that S. aureus inserts a negative impact on the regulation of various key genes which is apparently reversed by the HR extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06221-3DOI Listing
February 2021

Plant communities exhibit low resource partitioning for pollinator guilds under sub-tropical conditions of Pakistan.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(2):e0247124. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

College of Life Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Assessment of resource partitioning in pollinators at a particular place can be used to conserve plant communities by minimizing their inter-specific competition. Current study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of this phenomenon among plant communities under sub-tropical conditions for the first time in Pakistan. We considered the entire available flowering plant and floral visitor communities in the study area-Lal Suhanra forest of Bahawalpur, Pakistan- along with different variations among them based on morphology, color and symmetry (functional groups) i.e. four functional groups among insects and nine among plants. Weekly floral visitor censuses were conducted during spring season -from the first week of March to the fourth week of May 2018. Thirty individuals of each plant species -in bloom- were observed for floral visitors in each census. Plant species with different floral shapes, colors and symmetry did not show any significant resource partitioning. The Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis followed by one-way ANOSIM test showed non- significant differences among all the pair of floral shapes, colors (except white and yellow) and symmetry (R-value < 0.168). However, SIMPER test suggested that flies were the most common group that contributed more towards within group similarities of different floral shapes (19 to 21% similarity), colors (16 to 30%) and symmetry (19%) followed by long-tongue bees i.e. 14 to 21%, 9 to 19% and 18%, respectively. Our results suggest that plant communities under sub-tropical conditions of Pakistan exhibit a generalist pollination system with no significant resource partitioning in pollinator species. Therefore, plant communities may have high competition for pollinator species which exhibits fewer implications of species loss on overall pollination process. Our study provides the basis for understanding the partitioning of pollinator guilds under sub-tropical conditions. Future studies should focus on functional traits in more detail at the community and the population scales for their possible impact on resource partitioning.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247124PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894816PMC
August 2021

Spatiotemporal patterns of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the district upper and lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A GIS-based spatial approaches.

Acta Trop 2021 May 12;217:105861. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan.

While Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is not a life-threatening disease, it leads to devastating effects on local community. CL is widely scattered manifesting a noticeable epidemiological pattern around the globe. The present study was planned to address the role of Geographic Information System (GIS) using CL clinico-epidemiological data to determine the high-risk areas of CL. Recorded data (2014-2018) of 3630 positive individuals was collected from Basic Health Units of the Upper and Lower Dir Districts, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Descriptive and statistical analysis was used for clinico-epidemiological characterization. For spatial analysis, ArcGIS V.10.3 was used and the CL average incidence was tagged on the proportional, choropleth, and digital elevation model maps. For focal transmission and high-risk zones, Inverse Density Weight (IDW) spatial interpolation, focal statistics, hot spot, cluster and outlier, and Bayesian geostatistical analysis were used. The trend of CL cases was elevated from 2014 to 2016 except for 2017 and 2018. Individuals of both genders younger than 20 years old were highly susceptible. Single lesions were more prominent (56%) and frequently affected facial parts (51%). The size and pretreatment duration of the CL lesion was significantly associated. Spatially, a choropleth map displayed the maximum CL incidences in Tehsil Balambat, Khal, and Termergara (31%-13%) located within a range of 948-1947m elevation in the central regions with proximal CL transmissions. Hot spot and cluster and outlier analysis affirmed that Tehsil Khal was the high-risk CL foci. The Bayesian geostatistical analysis revealed high temperature, less altitude, and annual precipitation as important risk factors. An increasing trend in CL transmission has become evident, affecting both genders and <20 years old children. GIS resolute the concealed CL hubs in the least elevated central regions which warrant the control strategies to restrict future epidemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105861DOI Listing
May 2021

Govaniadine Ameliorates Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Kupffer Cell Activation in Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

ACS Omega 2021 Feb 21;6(4):2462-2472. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

Liver diseases such as hepatic carcinoma are one of the main health problems worldwide. Herbal drugs are largely used to treat liver injury in the indigenous system of medicine and may provide lead compounds for hepatoprotective drug discovery. The present study is investigated to test the Wall. extract, fraction, and isolate therapeutically active constituents to explore their hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. For this purpose, the antioxidant activity of govaniadine, caseadine, caseamine, and protopine was performed by assessing the scavenging events of the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Hepatoprotection of govaniadine was assessed in terms of reduction in serum enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase) caused by CCl-induced liver injury in rats and by histopathological techniques. All the compounds showed significant antioxidant activity with a percentage inhibition of 92.2, 86.7, 85.3, and 79.7, respectively, compared to propyl gallate 90.3%. Treatment with govaniadine reduced the serum enzyme level down to normal levels in the CCl-treated group while inhibiting the increase of malondialdehyde, and the induction of superoxide dismutase and the glutathione level was upregulated. Histopathology showed ∼47% damage to the liver cells in the CCl-treated group; reduction in this damaged area was found to be better upon using govaniadine. Immunohistochemistry results showed that govaniadine as compared to silymarin has exceedingly decreased the inflammation by halting the CCl-induced activation of hepatic macrophages. In carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, govaniadine significantly alleviated the edema after 1-5 h at a dose of 20 mg/kg (26.00 and 28.5%), 50 mg/kg (22.05 and 27.0%), and 100 mg/kg (20.02 and 25.30%), respectively. The results of our experiments suggest that govaniadine showed antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity in liver injury. The hepatoprotective function of govaniadine may be associated to the scavenging of the free radical and attenuation of oxidative stress as well as inflammatory responses in the liver. Hence, govaniadine may be a lead compound for the hepatoprotective drug discovery process and further research is needed to find out their molecular mechanism of protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c02261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859953PMC
February 2021

A cross-sectional study of hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) on horse farms to assess the risk factors associated with tick-borne diseases.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 05 31;68(3):247-262. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of Zoology, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan.

Zoonotic diseases are significant public health issues. There is an urgent need to focus our efforts on the development of strategies that prevent and control potential arthropod vector-borne pathogens. Hard ticks transmit a variety of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens to their vertebrate hosts. This is becoming of more concern, as anthropogenic alterations of the environment may unleash the spread of tick-borne diseases throughout the world. Developing countries that are highly dependent on the livestock economy are a hot spot for tick-borne infectious diseases. In this work, through a cross-sectional approach that included a bibliographic survey, field collection and epidemiological questionnaire, we identified five tick species that were found to parasitize equines and transmit tick-borne pathogens. Our data revealed a gap in fundamental knowledge of ticks and tick-borne infectious diseases among equine breeders and owners. This article highlights the relevant risk factors that were found and the urgent actions that are needed to prevent the wide spread of hard ticks and their associated zoonotic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12809DOI Listing
May 2021

Hyalomma anatolicum resistance against ivermectin and fipronil is associated with indiscriminate use of acaricides in southwestern Balochistan, Pakistan.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jan 22;120(1):15-25. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Ivermectin and fipronil have been used regularly to control the hard tick Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae) in domestic ruminants for more than a half-decade in Balochistan, Pakistan. Inappropriate and indiscriminate use of these acaricides has resulted in the development of resistances in tick species. In this work, acaricides (ivermectin and fipronil) resistance was evaluated in H. anatolicum through in vitro and in vivo bioassays in a horse farm of Quetta, Balochistan province, Pakistan. A participatory epidemiological survey was conducted to assess potential risk factors associated with the development of acaricide resistance in H. anatolicum. The results of the epidemiological survey revealed that the horse keepers did not follow the manufacturer's instructions for the use of acaricides and applied indiscriminate doses of acaricides. The results of in vitro bioassays (adult immersion test and larval immersion test) showed that fipronil and ivermectin have protective efficacy against H. anatolicum. The results of in vivo bioassay (adult-tick mortality assay) revealed that fipronil had a higher efficacy (78.16%) than ivermectin (49.94%). More than 80% of tick mortality was not achieved in any bioassays, even for the highest acaricide concentration (100 ppm), which suggests the development of acaricide resistance against fipronil and ivermectin. This study highlights the urgency to implement a country-wide awareness about resistance monitoring and effective tick control. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06981-0DOI Listing
January 2021

Vitamin D exerts neuroprotection via SIRT1/nrf-2/ NF-kB signaling pathways against D-galactose-induced memory impairment in adult mice.

Neurochem Int 2021 01 4;142:104893. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Biotechnology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Vitamin D (Vt. D) is one of the vital hormone having multiple functions in various tissues, including brain. Several evidences reported that Vt. D plays a significant part in memory and cognition as its inadequate amount may accelerate cognitive impairment. This study shows for the first time the antioxidant potential of Vt. D against D-Galactose (D-gal) induced oxidative stress mediated Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in male adult albino mice. The result reveals that the mice exposed to D-gal (120 mg/kg) for eight weeks have pre-and post-synaptic dysfunction and impaired memory investigated through Morris water maze and Y-maze tests. This is followed by the suppressed Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and elevated expressions of Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kB), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) proteins in the brain homogenates evaluated through western blotting technique. On the other hand Vt. D (100 μg/kg) administration (three times a week for 4 weeks) activated Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) and significantly improved both the neuronal synapse and memory, reduced oxidative stress by upregulating NRF-2 and HO-1 and downregulating NF-kB, TNF-α and IL-1β proteins expression. Most importantly, Vt. D significantly abrogate the amyloidogenic pathway of amyloid beta (Aβ) production against D-gal in the brains of adult male albino mice. These results reveal that Vt. D being an antioxidant agent plays a vital role in reducing the AD pathophysiology in D-gal induced animal model of aging, therefore act as a potential drug candidate in neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2020.104893DOI Listing
January 2021

Two new species of the spider genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 (Araneae: Pholcidae) from Pakistan.

Zootaxa 2020 Jul 27;4820(1):zootaxa.4820.1.9. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

College of Life Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034, Liaoning, China.

The genus Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805 is reported from Pakistan for the first time. Two new species of the Pholcus nenjukovi species-group are described: Pholcus hamuchal Yao Li sp. nov. (Gilgit Baltistan, male and female) and Pholcus kalam Yao Li sp. nov. (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, male and female). Type material is deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IZCAS) in Beijing, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4820.1.9DOI Listing
July 2020

Bone Age Assessment Empowered with Deep Learning: A Survey, Open Research Challenges and Future Directions.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Oct 3;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (FICT), Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), 31900 Kampar, Perak, Malaysia.

Deep learning is a quite useful and proliferating technique of machine learning. Various applications, such as medical images analysis, medical images processing, text understanding, and speech recognition, have been using deep learning, and it has been providing rather promising results. Both supervised and unsupervised approaches are being used to extract and learn features as well as for the multi-level representation of pattern recognition and classification. Hence, the way of prediction, recognition, and diagnosis in various domains of healthcare including the abdomen, lung cancer, brain tumor, skeletal bone age assessment, and so on, have been transformed and improved significantly by deep learning. By considering a wide range of deep-learning applications, the main aim of this paper is to present a detailed survey on emerging research of deep-learning models for bone age assessment (e.g., segmentation, prediction, and classification). An enormous number of scientific research publications related to bone age assessment using deep learning are explored, studied, and presented in this survey. Furthermore, the emerging trends of this research domain have been analyzed and discussed. Finally, a critical discussion section on the limitations of deep-learning models has been presented. Open research challenges and future directions in this promising area have been included as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10100781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601134PMC
October 2020

Efflux pumps as interventions to control infection caused by drug-resistance bacteria.

Drug Discov Today 2020 12 1;25(12):2307-2316. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Medical Microbiology and Molecular Biology Lab, Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Electronic address:

Antibiotic resistance has become a global concern for healthcare workers and physicians. Efflux pumps are one of the major mechanisms of resistance. Hence, we describe examples of natural efflux pump inhibitors used to combat antibiotic resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2020.09.028DOI Listing
December 2020

New insights into the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in remote alpine lakes located in Himalayas, Pakistan.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jun 7:114952. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Fujian Key Laboratory of Watershed Ecology Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021, China; Ningbo Urban Environment Observatory and Monitoring Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315830, China.

The current study assesses the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in water and their bioaccumulation in Brown Trout (BT) and Rainbow Trout (RT) present in the remote alpine lakes (RALs) of Himalayas, Pakistan. Hence, these environments might receive POPs by long range atmospheric transport (LRAT) with little interferences from local anthropogenic activities. The potential transportation pathways for such accumulation can be atmospheric precipitation, melting ice and glacial runoff. The results indicated that the sum of mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs (DDTs + HCHs)) in water of Glacial-fed lakes, Ice melting-fed lake and Rain-fed lake ranged from 0.21 to 317, 0.14-293, 0.16-235 pg L, respectively, while those of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are 0.275-16.02, 0-15.88, 0.234-14.46 pg L, respectively. Similarly, the sum of mean concentrations of all investigated PCBs and OCPs in BT ranged from 0.008 to 0.715 ng g and 0.003-3.835 ng g based on wet weight (ww), while for RT these concentrations were 0.002-0.557 ng g and 0.001-1.402 ng g (ww), respectively in the selected RALs. The PCBs and OCPs levels in both water and fish tissues were observed in order of Glacial-fed lakes > Ice melting-fed lake > Rain-fed lake. The results proposed that melting of ice and glacial water are more significant sources of the contaminants (PCBs and OCPs) in the freshwaters of RALs of Himalayas as compared to rainfall water. The positive correlation between water contamination and the selected fish species confirmed that these can be used as a bio-indicator for future research studies. However, the impact of POPs as they cascade through downstream ecosystems remains largely unexplored. The additional study of contaminant dynamics should be extended to a wide range of mountain environments of Himalayas, where melt-water used for drinking and irrigation purposes by billions of people reside alone the waterways that originated from these remote areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114952DOI Listing
June 2020

Modeling Novel Putative Drugs and Vaccine Candidates against Tick-Borne Pathogens: A Subtractive Proteomics Approach.

Vet Sci 2020 Sep 7;7(3). Epub 2020 Sep 7.

King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh 12354, Saudi Arabia.

Ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) continuously causing substantial losses to the public and veterinary health sectors. The identification of putative drug targets and vaccine candidates is crucial to control TBPs. No information has been recorded on designing novel drug targets and vaccine candidates based on proteins. Subtractive proteomics is an in silico approach that utilizes extensive screening for the identification of novel drug targets or vaccine candidates based on the determination of potential target proteins available in a pathogen proteome that may be used effectively to control diseases caused by these infectious agents. The present study aimed to investigate novel drug targets and vaccine candidates by utilizing subtractive proteomics to scan the available proteomes of TBPs and predict essential and non-host homologous proteins required for the survival of these diseases causing agents. Subtractive proteome analysis revealed a list of fifteen essential, non-host homologous, and unique metabolic proteins in the complete proteome of selected pathogens. Among these therapeutic target proteins, three were excluded due to the presence in host gut metagenome, eleven were found to be highly potential drug targets, while only one was found as a potential vaccine candidate against TBPs. The present study may provide a foundation to design potential drug targets and vaccine candidates for the effective control of infections caused by TBPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557734PMC
September 2020
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