Publications by authors named "Abhishek Parolia"

32 Publications

Characterization of multiscale interactions between high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and tooth dentin: the effect on matrix-metalloproteinases, bacterial biofilms and biological properties.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jul;9(15):5344-5358

UWA Dental School, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia.

The aim of this study was to characterize multiscale interactions between high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and dentin collagen and associated matrix-metalloproteinases, in addition to the analysis of the effect of HIFU on bacterial biofilms and biological properties. Dentin specimens were subjected to 5, 10 or 20 s HIFU. XPS spectra were acquired and TEM was performed on dentin slabs. Collagen orientation was performed using Raman spectroscopy. Calcium measurements in human dental pulpal cells (hDPCs) were carried out after 7 and 14 days. For macrophages, CD36+ and CD163+ were analysed. Biofilms were analyzed using CLSM. Tandem mass spectroscopy was performed for the detection of hydroxyproline sequences along with human MMP-2 quantification. Phosphorus, calcium, and nitrogen were detected in HIFU specimens. TEM images demonstrated the collagen network appearing to be fused together in the HIFU 10 and 20 s specimens. The band associated with 960 cm-1 corresponds to the stretching ν1 PO43-. The control specimens showed intensive calcium staining followed by HIFU 20 s > HIFU 10 s > HIFU 5 s specimens. Macrophages in the HIFU specimens co-expressed CD80+ and CD163+ cells. CLSM images showed the HIFU treatment inhibiting bacterial growth. SiteScore propensity determined the effect of HIFU on the binding site with a higher DScore representing better site exposure on MMPs. Multiscale mapping of dentin collagen after HIFU treatment showed no deleterious alterations on the organic structure of dentin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00555cDOI Listing
July 2021

Recent update on potential cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and preventive measures of biomaterials used in dentistry.

Biomater Sci 2021 May;9(9):3244-3283

Faculty, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, India.

Dental treatment is provided for a wide variety of oral health problems like dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical infections, replacement of missing teeth and orthodontic problems. Various biomaterials, like composite resins, amalgam, glass ionomer cement, acrylic resins, metal alloys, impression materials, bone grafts, membranes, local anaesthetics, etc., are used for dental applications. The physical and chemical characteristics of these materials influence the outcome of dental treatment. It also impacts on the biological, allergic and toxic potential of biomaterials. With innovations in science and their positive results, there is also a need for awareness about the biological risks of these biomaterials. The aim of dental treatment is to have effective, yet safe, and long-lasting results for the benefit of patients. For this, it is important to have a thorough understanding of biomaterials and their effects on local and systemic health. Materials used in dentistry undergo a series of analyses before their oral applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and original review that discusses the reasons for and studies on the toxicity of commonly used biomaterials for applications in dentistry. It will help clinicians to formulate a methodical approach for the selection of dental biomaterials, thus providing an awareness for forecasting their risk of toxic reactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00233cDOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of Propolis Nanoparticles against Biofilm in the Root Canal.

Molecules 2021 Jan 30;26(3). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia.

To determine the antibacterial effect of propolis nanoparticles (PNs) as an endodontic irrigant against biofilm inside the endodontic root canal system. Two-hundred-ten extracted human teeth were sectioned to obtain 6 mm of the middle third of the root. The root canal was enlarged to an internal diameter of 0.9 mm. The specimens were inoculated with for 21 days. Following this, specimens were randomly divided into seven groups, with 30 dentinal blocks in each group including: group I-saline; group II-propolis 100 µg/mL; group III-propolis 300 µg/mL; group IV-propolis nanoparticle 100 µg/mL; group V-propolis nanoparticle 300µg/mL; group VI-6% sodium hypochlorite; group VII-2% chlorhexidine. Dentin shavings were collected at 200 and 400 μm depths, and total numbers of CFUs were determined at the end of one, five, and ten minutes. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the differences in reduction in CFUs between all groups, and probability values of < 0.05 were set as the reference for statistically significant results. The antibacterial effect of PNs as an endodontic irrigant was also assessed against isolates from patients with failed root canal treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were also performed after exposure to PNs. A Raman spectroscope, equipped with a Leica microscope and lenses with curve-fitting Raman software, was used for analysis. The molecular interactions between bioactive compounds of propolis (Pinocembrin, Kaempferol, and Quercetin) and the proteins Sortase A and β-galactosidase were also understood by computational molecular docking studies. PN300 was significantly more effective in reducing CFUs compared to all other groups ( < 0.05) except 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX ( > 0.05) at all time intervals and both depths. At five minutes, 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX were the most effective in reducing CFUs ( < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at 10 min ( > 0.05). SEM images also showed the maximum reduction in with PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at five and ten minutes. CLSM images showed the number of dead cells in dentin were highest with PN300 compared to PN100 and saline. There was a reduction in the 484 cm band and an increase in the 870 cm band in the PN300 group. The detailed observations of the docking poses of bioactive compounds and their interactions with key residues of the binding site in all the three docking protocols revealed that the interactions were consistent with reasonable docking and IFD docking scores. PN300 was equally as effective as 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX in reducing the biofilms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866495PMC
January 2021

Effectiveness of chitosan-propolis nanoparticle against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in the root canal.

BMC Oral Health 2020 11 25;20(1):339. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Division of Clinical Dentistry, School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: The successful outcome of endodontic treatment depends on controlling the intra-radicular microbial biofilm by effective instrumentation and disinfection using various irrigants and intracanal medicaments. Instrumentation alone cannot effectively debride the root canals specially due to the complex morphology of the root canal system. A number of antibiotics and surfactants are being widely used in the treatment of biofilms however, the current trend is towards identification of natural products in disinfection. The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial effect of chitosan-propolis nanoparticle (CPN) as an intracanal medicament against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in root canal.

Methods: 240 extracted human teeth were sectioned to obtain 6 mm of the middle third of the root. The root canal was enlarged to an internal diameter of 0.9 mm. The specimens were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Following this, specimens were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 30) according to the intracanal medicament placed: group I: saline, group II: chitosan, group III: propolis100 µg/ml (P100), group IV: propolis 250 µg/ml (P250), group V: chitosan-propolis nanoparticle 100 µg/ml (CPN100), group VI: chitosan-propolis nanoparticle 250 µg/ml (CPN250), group VII: calcium hydroxide(CH) and group VIII: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel. Dentine shavings were collected at 200 and 400 μm depths, and total numbers of CFUs were determined at the end of day one, three and seven. The non-parametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the differences in reduction of CFUs between all groups and probability values of p < 0.05 were set as the reference for statistically significant results. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were also performed after exposure to CPNs. The effectiveness of CPNs were also evaluated against E. faecalis isolated obtained from patients having failed root canal treatment.

Results: The treatments of chitosan, P100, P250, CPN100, CPN250, CH and 2% CHX reduced the CFUs significantly compared to saline (p < .05). On day one and three, at 200 and 400-μm, CPN250 showed significant reduction of CFUs compared to all other groups (p < .05), while CPN100 was significantly better than other groups (p < .05) except CPN250 and 2% CHX. On day seven, at 200-μm CPN250 showed significant reduction of CFUs compared to all other groups (p < .05) except CPN100 and CHX, while at 400 μm CPN250 showed similar effectiveness as CPN100, CH and 2% CHX. SEM images showed root canal dentin treated with CPN250 had less coverage with E. faecalis bacteria similarly, CLSM images also showed higher percentage of dead E. faecalis bacteria with CPN250 than to CPN100.

Conclusion: CPN250 was the most effective in reducing E. faecalis colonies on day one, three at both depths and at day seven CPN250 was equally effective as CPN100 and 2% CHX.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-01330-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690148PMC
November 2020

A Review on COVID-19 Mediated Impacts and Risk Mitigation Strategies for Dental Health Professionals.

Eur J Dent 2020 Dec 9;14(S 01):S159-S164. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Endodontology, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.

In the light of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), dentistry is facing unprecedented challenges. The closure of clinics has impacted dental health professionals (DHPs) not only financially but also psychologically. In this review, these consequences are discussed in detail to highlight the challenges that DHPs are facing thus far, in both developing and developed nations. Compromised mental health among DHPs is an important area that requires attention during this difficult period. Although, in previous pandemics, dentists have not worked on the frontline, the article discusses how their wide range of skillsets can be leveraged if another wave of COVID-19 pandemic appears. Finally, guidelines to reopen clinics and patient management have been discussed in detail that could serve as a quick reference guide for DHPs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1718240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775253PMC
December 2020

Effectiveness of Autologous Platelet Concentrates in Management of Young Immature Necrotic Permanent Teeth-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Cells 2020 10 7;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milano, Italy.

The use of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) in regenerative endodontic procedures is inconsistent and unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of autologous platelet concentrates compared to traditional blood-clot regeneration for the management of young, immature, necrotic, permanent teeth. The digital databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and EMBASE were searched to identify ten randomized clinical trials. The outcomes at postoperative follow-up, such as dentinal wall thickness (DWT), increase in root length (RL), calcific barrier formation (CB), apical closure (AC), vitality response (VR), and success rate (SR), were subjected to both qualitative synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that APCs significantly improved apical closure (risk ratio (RR) = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.37; = 0.04) and response to vitality pulp tests (RR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.52; = 0.04), whereas no significant effect was observed on root lengthening, dentin wall thickness, or success rate of immature, necrotic teeth treated with regenerative endodontics. APCs could be beneficial when treating young, immature, necrotic, permanent teeth regarding better apical closure and improved response to vitality tests.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9102241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600252PMC
October 2020

Properties of a modified quaternary ammonium silane formulation as a potential root canal irrigant in endodontics.

Dent Mater 2020 12 1;36(12):e386-e402. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

UWA Dental School, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia.

Objectives: Evaluate a new modified quaternary ammonium silane irrigant solution for its antimicrobial, cytotoxic and mechanical properties of dentine substrate.

Methods: Root canal preparation was performed using stainless steel K-files™ and F4 size protaper with irrigation protocols of 6% NaOCl + 2% CHX; 3.5% QIS; 2% QIS and sterile saline. Biofilms were prepared using E. faecalis adjusted and allowed to grow for 3 days, treated with irrigants, and allowed to grow for 7 days. AFM was performed and surface free energy calculated. MC3T3 cells were infected with endo irrigant treated E. faecalis biofilms. Raman spectroscopy of biofilms were performed after bacterial re-growth on root dentine and exposed to different irrigation protocols and collagen fibers analysed collagen fibers using TEM. Antimicrobial potency against E. faecalis biofilms and cytoxicity against 3T3 NIH cells were also. Resin penetration and MitoTracker green were also evaluated for sealer penetration and mitochondrial viability. Data were analysed using One-way ANOVA, principal component analysis and post-hoc Fisher's least-significant difference.

Results: Elastic moduli were maintained amongst control (5.5 ± 0.9) and 3.5% QIS (4.4 ± 1.1) specimens with surface free energy higher in QIS specimens. MC3T3 cells showed reduced viability in 6%NaOCl+2%CHX specimens compared to QIS specimens. DNA/purine were expressed in increased intensities in control and 6% NaOCl + 2% CHX specimens with bands around 480-490 cm reduced in QIS specimens. 3.5% QIS specimens showed intact collagen fibrillar network and predominantly dead bacterial cells in confocal microscopy. 3.5% QIS irrigant formed a thin crust-type surface layer with cytoplasmic extensions of 3T3NIH spread over root dentine. Experiments confirmed MitoTracker accumulation in 3.5% treated cells.

Significance: Novel QIS root canal irrigant achieved optimum antimicrobial protection inside the root canals facilitating a toxic effect against the Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. Root dentine substrates exhibited optimum mechanical properties and there was viability of fibroblastic mitochondria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2020.09.008DOI Listing
December 2020

Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases: a troubleshooting for dentin adhesion.

Restor Dent Endod 2020 Aug 22;45(3):e31. Epub 2020 May 22.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Food Analysis, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Alagoas, Campus A. C. Simões, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that can degrade collagen in hybrid layer and reduce the longevity of adhesive restorations. As scientific understanding of the MMPs has advanced, useful strategies focusing on preventing these enzymes' actions by MMP inhibitors have quickly developed in many medical fields. However, in restorative dentistry, it is still not well established. This paper is an overview of the strategies to inhibit MMPs that can achieve a long-lasting material-tooth adhesion. Literature search was performed comprehensively using the electronic databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus including articles from May 2007 to December 2019 and the main search terms were "matrix metalloproteinases", "collagen", and "dentin" and "hybrid layer". MMPs typical structure consists of several distinct domains. MMP inhibitors can be divided into 2 main groups: synthetic (synthetic-peptides, non-peptide molecules and compounds, tetracyclines, metallic ions, and others) and natural bioactive inhibitors mainly flavonoids. Selective inhibitors of MMPs promise to be the future for specific targeting of preventing dentin proteolysis. The knowledge about MMPs functionality should be considered to synthesize drugs capable to efficiently and selectively block MMPs chemical routes targeting their inactivation in order to overcome the current limitations of the therapeutic use of MMPs inhibitors, ., easy clinical application and long-lasting effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2020.45.e31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431940PMC
August 2020

Effect of QMix irrigant in removal of smear layer in root canal system: a systematic review of studies.

Restor Dent Endod 2020 Aug 21;45(3):e28. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, AL, Brazil.

Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of studies comparing the effectiveness of QMix irrigant in removing the smear layer in the root canal system compared with other irrigants.

Materials And Methods: The research question was developed by using Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome and Study design framework. Literature search was performed using 3 electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and EBSCOhost until October 2019. Two reviewers were independently involved in the selection of the articles and data extraction process. Risk of bias of the studies was independently appraised using revised Cochrane Risk of Bias tool (RoB 2.0) based on 5 domains.

Results: Thirteen studies fulfilled the selection criteria. The overall risk of bias was moderate. QMix was found to have better smear layer removal ability than mixture of tetracycline isonomer, an acid and a detergent (MTAD), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and phytic acid. The efficacy was less effective than 7% maleic acid and 10% citric acid. No conclusive results could be drawn between QMix and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid due to conflicting results. QMix was more effective when used for 3 minutes than 1 minute.

Conclusions: QMix has better smear layer removal ability compared to MTAD, NaOCl, Tubulicid Plus, and Phytic acid. In order to remove the smear layer more effectively with QMix, it is recommended to use it for a longer duration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2020.45.e28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431937PMC
August 2020

Antimicrobial efficacy of QMix on infected root canals: a systematic review of studies.

Restor Dent Endod 2020 May 11;45(2):e23. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Division of Clinical Dentistry, School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objectives: This study aimed to summarize the outcome of in vitro studies comparing the antibacterial effectiveness of QMix with other irrigants against .

Materials And Methods: The research question was developed by using population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and study design framework. The literature search was performed using 3 electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, and EBSCOhost until October 2019. The additional hand search was performed from the reference list of the eligible studies. The risk of bias of the studies was independently appraised using the revised Cochrane Risk of Bias tool (RoB 2.0).

Results: Fourteen studies were included in this systematic review. The overall risk of bias for the selected studies was moderate. QMix was found to have a higher antimicrobial activity compared to 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), mixture of tetracycline isonomer, an acid and a detergent (MTAD), 0.2% Cetrimide, SilverSol/H2O2, HYBENX, and grape seed extract (GSE). QMix had higher antibacterial efficacy compared to NaOCl, only when used for a longer time (10 minutes) and with higher volume (above 3 mL).

Conclusions: QMix has higher antibacterial activity than 17% EDTA, 2% CHX, MTAD, 0.2% Cetrimide, SilverSol/H2O2, HYBENX, GSE and NaOCl with lower concentration. To improve the effectiveness, QMix is to use for a longer time and at a higher volume.

Trial Registration: PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews Identifier: CRD42018096763.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2020.45.e23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239686PMC
May 2020

Root canal morphology of permanent teeth in a Malaysian subpopulation using cone-beam computed tomography.

BMC Oral Health 2019 01 14;19(1):14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Dean, School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: To determine the root canal morphology of human permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth in a Malaysian subpopulation using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Methods: A total of 208 CBCT images were examined retrospectively. Prevalence of an extra root/canal and internal morphology based on Vertucci's classification were observed in human maxillary and mandibular permanent teeth. Variations in the external and internal morphology were compared in relation to gender and tooth side (left vs right) using Pearson Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with significance level set at p < 0.05.

Results: In the maxillary arch, the prevalence of three canals were observed in 0.3% of first premolars and two canals in 46.5% of second premolars. Males displayed significantly higher prevalence of two canals in maxillary second premolars than females (p < 0.05). The prevalence of a second mesiobuccal canal in maxillary first and second molars were 36.3 and 8.5%, respectively. Males displayed significantly higher prevalence of a second mesiobuccal canal in maxillary second molars than females (p < 0.05). The prevalence of a second palatal canal in maxillary first and second molars were 0.9 and 0.6%, respectively. In the mandibular arch, the prevalence of two canals were observed in 5.1% of central incisors, 12.3% of lateral incisors, 6.1% of canines, 18.7% of first premolars and 0.5% of second premolars. The prevalence of a middle mesial canal, second distal canal and extra root (radix entomolaris) were detected in 1.9, 19.5 and 21.4% of mandibular first molars, respectively. The prevalence of a C-shaped canal was observed in 48.7% of mandibular second molars. Females displayed significantly higher prevalence of a C-shaped canal in the right mandibular second molars than males (p < 0.05). No other statistically significant differences in root anatomy and root canal morphology were observed in relation to gender and tooth side.

Conclusions: Wide variations in the root canal morphology exist among Malaysians. CBCT is a clinically useful tool in the identification of external and internal morphological variations in the human teeth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-019-0710-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332542PMC
January 2019

Brazilian red propolis: phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity and effect against cancer cells.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2015 Oct 14;15:357. Epub 2015 Oct 14.

Laboratory of Experimental Oncology (LOE), Medical School, Federal University of Ceará, Rua Cel. Nunes de Melo 1127, 60430-270, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

Background: The implementation of new public healthcare models that stimulate the use of natural products from traditional medicine, as a so-called integrated medicine, refers to an approach that use best of both conventional medicine and traditional medicine. Propolis is a widely used natural product by different ancient cultures and known to exhibit biological activities beneficial for health. The large number of studies conducted with propolis had shown that its chemical composition differs as a function of the climate, plant diversity and bee species and plays an important role on its therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to analyse the phytochemical profile of the ethanolic extract of red propolis (EEP) and its fractionation, antioxidant action of EEP and its fractions hexane, cloroform and ethyl acetate and cytotoxic activity of EEP on human tumour cell lines SF-295 (glioblastoma), OVCAR-8 (ovary) and HCT-116 (colon).

Methods: EEP was obtained by maceration with absolute ethanol, then it was concentrated in rotaevaporator up to complete evaporation of the solvent. The crude extract was fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol and they were subjected to phytochemical screening and total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity of EEP and fractions was done by means of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Biomarkers of red propolis were identified by LC-Orbitrap-FTMS. To assess cytotoxic activity of the extract, cells were exposed to EEP over 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by means of MTT assay. The percentage of cell growth inhibition (IC50) was analysed by means of non-linear regression, and the absorbance values of the various investigated concentrations were subjected to one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's or Tamhane's tests (α = 0.05).

Results: The results obtained using phytochemical screening and LC-Orbitrap-FTMS indicated the presence of phlobaphene tannins, catechins, chalcones, aurones, flavonones, flavonols, xanthones, pentacyclic triterpenoids and guttiferones in Brazilian red propolis. EEP and its hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions obtained by liquid-liquid partitioning exhibited satisfactory antioxidant percentages. EEP (IC50 < 34.27 μg/mL) exhibited high levels of cytotoxicity on all human tumour cell lines tested when compared to negative control.

Conclusions: C-Orbitrap-FTMS was useful to establish the chemical profile of the red propolis. Brazilian red propolis has antioxidant properties and decreases substantially the percentage of cell survival of human tumour cells; thus, it has potential to serve as an anticancer drug.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0888-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604764PMC
October 2015

The effects of Malaysian propolis and Brazilian red propolis on connective tissue fibroblasts in the wound healing process.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2015 Aug 25;15:294. Epub 2015 Aug 25.

School of Human Biology, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: To evaluate and compare the effects of ethanolic extracts of Malaysian propolis and Brazilian red propolis at different concentrations on the migration and proliferation of fibroblast cells.

Methods: Malaysian and Brazilian red propolis crude samples were extracted using ethanol. Their wound healing effects were tested in vitro on the normal human fibroblast cell line CRL-7522. Cell migration and proliferation assays were carried out using propolis concentrations of 1, 10, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/mL. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni tests (α=0.05).

Results: Malaysian and Brazilian red propolis followed a concentration-dependent increasing and decreasing trend. Malaysian propolis showed the fastest migration rate at 250 μg/mL which was statistically significant (p<0.05) and maximum proliferation at 500 μg/mL with no significant difference (p>0.05) compared to control. Brazilian red propolis showed a slight increase in migration and proliferation at 10 and 100 μg/mL, respectively with no significant difference (p>0.05) compared to control, while concentrations above these conferred inhibitory effects.

Conclusion: Malaysian and Brazilian red propolis show potential to assist in wound healing, depending on their concentration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0814-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4549008PMC
August 2015

A comparative effect of various surface chemical treatments on the resin composite-composite repair bond strength.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2015 Jul-Sep;33(3):245-9

Division of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was an attempt to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength between pre-existing composite and repair composite resin.

Materials And Methods: Forty acrylic blocks were prepared in a cuboidal mould. In each block, a well of 5 mm diameter and 5 mm depth was prepared to retain the composite resin (Filtek™ Z350, 3M/ESPE). Aging of the composite discs was achieved by storing them in water at 37°C for 1 week, and after that were divided into 5 groups (n = 8) according to surface treatment: Group I- 37% phosphoric acid, Group II-10% hydrofluoric acid, Group III-30% citric acid, Group IV-7% maleic acid and Group V- Adhesive (no etchant). The etched surfaces were rinsed and dried followed by application of bonding agent (Adper™ Single Bond 2. 3M/ESPE). The repair composite was placed on aged composite, light-cured for 40 seconds and stored in water at 37°C for 1 week. Shear bond strength between the aged and the new composite resin was determined with a universal testing machine (crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min).

Statistical Analysis: The compressive shear strengths were compared for differences using ANOVA test followed by Tamhane's T2 post hoc analysis.

Results: The surface treatment with 10% hydrofluoric acid showed the maximum bond strength followed by 30% citric acid, 7% maleic acid and 37% phosphoric acid in decreasing order.

Conclusion: The use of 10% hydrofluoric acid can be a good alternative for surface treatment in repair of composite resin restoration as compared to commonly used 37% orthophosphoric acid.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-4388.160402DOI Listing
January 2017

Biofilm in endodontics: A review.

J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2015 Jan-Feb;5(1):1-12

Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, P. D. M. Dental College and Research Institute, Jhajjar, Haryana, India.

Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated infection, and primary aim in the management of endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganisms. It is important to apply the biofilm concept to endodontic microbiology to understand the pathogenic potential of the root canal microbiota as well as to form the basis for new approaches for disinfection. It is foremost to understand how the biofilm formed by root canal bacteria resists endodontic treatment measures. Bacterial etiology has been confirmed for common oral diseases such as caries and periodontal and endodontic infections. Bacteria causing these diseases are organized in biofilm structures, which are complex microbial communities composed of a great variety of bacteria with different ecological requirements and pathogenic potential. The biofilm community not only gives bacteria effective protection against the host's defense system but also makes them more resistant to a variety of disinfecting agents used as oral hygiene products or in the treatment of infections. Successful treatment of these diseases depends on biofilm removal as well as effective killing of biofilm bacteria. So, the fundamental to maintain oral health and prevent dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis is to control the oral biofilms. From these aspects, the formation of biofilms carries particular clinical significance because not only host defense mechanisms but also therapeutic efforts including chemical and mechanical antimicrobial treatment measures have the most difficult task of dealing with organisms that are gathered in a biofilm. The aim of this article was to review the mechanisms of biofilms' formation, their roles in pulpal and periapical pathosis, the different types of biofilms, the factors influencing biofilm formation, the mechanisms of their antimicrobial resistance, techniques to identify biofilms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2231-0762.151956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355843PMC
March 2015

Antifungal effectiveness of various intracanal medicaments against Candida albicans: an ex-vivo study.

BMC Oral Health 2014 May 13;14:53. Epub 2014 May 13.

School of Dentistry, International Medical University, No,126, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: To investigate the antifungal activity of propolis, triple antibiotic paste (TAP), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide with propylene glycol on Candida albicans-infected root canal dentinal tubules at two different depths (200 μm and 400 μm) and two time intervals (day 1 and 7).

Methods: A total of 90 extracted human teeth were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction and the apical part of the root to obtain 6 mm of the middle third of the root. The root canal was enlarged to an internal diameter of 0.9 mm using Pesso Reamer size no. 2 (Mani®, UT, Japan), followed by canal irrigation and autoclaved. The specimens were infected for 21 days with C. albicans. Then, the specimens were divided into five groups prior to placement of intracanal medicaments. Group 1 (propolis), Group 2 (triple antibiotic paste), Group 3 (2% chlorhexidine Gel), Group 4 (calcium hydroxide with propylene glycol), and Group 5 (sterile saline as negative control). At the end of 1 and 7 days, dentine shavings were collected at two depths into the dentinal tubules (200 μm and 400 μm), and the total numbers of colony forming units were calculated for assessing the remaining vital viable fungal population. The values were analysed statistically using non-paramatric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney-U tests to compare the median reduction of Candida albicans between all intracanal medicaments. Probability values of P < 0.05 were set as the reference for statistically significant results.

Results: The reduction in number of colony forming units was statistically significant in all groups compared to the control group (sterile saline), except propolis at day 1 (400 μm depth).

Conclusion: Propolis was less effective than triple antibiotic paste, 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide with propylene glycol against C. albicans on day 1 at 400 μm deep inside the dentinal tubules, but equally effective after 7 days at both depths.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6831-14-53DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4024013PMC
May 2014

A comparative evaluation of microleakage around class V cavities restored with different tooth colored restorative materials.

Oral Health Dent Manag 2014 Mar;13(1):120-6

Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, 57000, Malaysia, Tel: 919815493618; e-mail:

Objectives: To evaluate and compare microleakage around class V cavities restored with silorane and dimethacrylate-based composite resins.

Methods: Standard Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of 60 non-carious human molars. Teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=20) depending on the restorative materials used, Silorane-based composite resin (Filtek P90-SIL), dimethacrylate-based composite resin (Solare P-SOLP) and light-cure glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II LC -LCGIC). The restored teeth with these tooth-coloured restorative materials were thermo-cycled and then immersed in 2% Rhodamine B dye under vacuum pressure for 48 hours. All teeth were bisected longitudinally in a bucco-lingual direction and observed under stereo-microscope at 30X magnification for the evidence of dye penetration. The data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Post Hoc tests (α=0.05).

Results: SIL composite resin showed the least microleakage in Class V cavity restorations with a statistically significant difference to SOLP and LCGIC. Sixty five percent of specimens in SIL group, 30% in SOLP group and 5% in LCGIC group showed dye penetration up to one-third of the cavity depth, while 5% in SIL group, 5% in SOLP group and 35% in LCGIC group showed dye penetration up to two-thirds of the cavity depth, and 30% in SIL group, 65% in SOLP group and 60% in LCGIC group showed dye penetration up to the axial wall.

Conclusions: Silorane-based composite exhibited least microleakage in restoring class V cavities compared to dimethacrylate-based composite resin and light-cured glass ionomer cement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2014

Comparative radiopacity of six current adhesive systems.

J Conserv Dent 2014 Jan;17(1):65-9

Faculty of Dentistry, School of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: The radiopacity of contemporary adhesive systems has been mentioned as the indication for replacement of restorations due to misinterpretation of radiographic images.

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the radiopacity of contemporary bonding agents and to compare their radiodensities with those of enamel and dentin.

Methods And Materials: To measure the radiopacity, eight specimens were fabricated from Clearfil SE Bond (CF), Xeno V (XE), Adper SE Bond (ASE), Magic Bond (MB), Single Bond 2 (SB), Scotchbond Multipurpose (SM), and gutta-percha (positive control). The optical densities of enamel, dentin, the bonding agents, gutta-percha, and an aluminium (Al) step wedge were obtained from radiographic images using image analysis software.

Statistical Analysis: The radiographic density data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α =0.05).

Results: Significant differences were found between ASE and all other groups tested and between XE and CF. No statistical difference was observed between the radiodensity of 1 mm of Al and 1 mm of dentin, between 2 mm of Al and enamel, and between 5 mm of Al and gutta-percha. Five of the six adhesive resins had radiopacity values that fell below the value for dentin, whereas the radiopacity of ASE adhesive was greater than that of dentin but below that of enamel.

Conclusion: This investigation demonstrates that only ASE presented a radiopacity within the values of dentin and enamel. CF, XE, MB, SB, and SM adhesives are all radiolucent and require alterations to their composition to facilitate their detection by means of radiographic images.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.124151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3915390PMC
January 2014

Intracanal placement of calcium hydroxide: a comparison of specially designed paste carrier technique with other techniques.

BMC Oral Health 2013 Oct 7;13:52. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Faculty of Dentistry, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, 57000, Malaysia.

Background: This study compared the effectiveness of a Specially Designed Paste Carrier technique with the Syringe-Spreader technique and the Syringe-Lentulo spiral technique in the intracanal placement of calcium hydroxide.

Methods: Three groups, each containing 15 single-rooted human anterior teeth were prepared using standardized Mtwo rotary instruments to a master apical file size 40 with 0.04 taper. Each group was filled with calcium hydroxide paste using: Syringe and #25 finger spreader (Group 1); Syringe and #4 rotary Lentulo spiral (Group 2), Specially Designed Paste Carrier (Group 3). Using pre-filling and post-filling radiographs in buccolingual and mesiodistal planes, the radiodensities at 1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm, and 7 mm from the apical foramen were analyzed by ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests.

Results: Overall, The Specially Designed Paste Carrier technique showed a statistically significantly higher mean radiodensity than the two other compared techniques. No significant difference was detected between the Syringe-Lentulo spiral and the Syringe-Spreader techniques.

Conclusion: The Specially Designed Paste Carrier technique was more effective than the Syringe-Spreader technique and the Syringe-Lentulo spiral technique in the intracanal placement of calcium hydroxide.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6831-13-52DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3851299PMC
October 2013

Effect of cross infection control barriers used on the light-curing device tips on the cure depth of a resin composite.

J Conserv Dent 2013 May;16(3):224-8

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil ; Department of Restorative Dentistry, Cesmac University Center, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil.

Background: Among the advice on prevent cross-infection was included usage of mechanical barriers on tips of photoactivation units. However, questions about the use of protective barriers placed on the light-curing unit's tips and the possibility of interference with the ability of guaranteeing an effective polymerization of composite resins need to be clarified.

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cross infection control barriers used on the light-curing device tips on the cure depth of composite resin.

Materials And Methods: Power density measurements from the light-cure unit were recorded with a radiometer on ten separate occasions with different types and placement modes of each barrier (low-density polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film - smooth and folds) and no-barrier (control). Cure depth of TPH™ Spectrum™ resin, A2-A4, was evaluated by the scraping test.

Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using Student's t-test or ANOVA one-way with Tukey's test (α =0.05).

Results: Same type of barrier and different shades (A2, A4) of composite exhibited significant difference in the cure depth among all groups (P < 0.05). Both low-density polyethylene and PVC film folded barriers produced a significant reduction in the light intensity (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Regarding the resin shade, there was a significant reduction in the cure depth of A4 composite resin (dark shade) but this reduction is not enough to cause any adverse effect on the material's clinical performance. Therefore, disposable barriers can be recommended for use over the end of the light guide.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.111319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3698585PMC
May 2013

Endodontic management of hypo-, meso- and hypertaurodontism: case reports.

Aust Endod J 2012 Apr 20;38(1):36-41. Epub 2011 Feb 20.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India.

Taurodontism is a morpho-anatomical developmental anomaly rarely seen in teeth. It is characterised by lack of constriction at the level of cementoenamel junction with elongated pulp chambers and apical displacement of bifurcation or trifurcation of roots. This gives the tooth a rectangular or cylindrical appearance. This paper reports successful endodontic therapy of cases with hypo-, meso- and hypertaurodontism in healthy individuals with no associated syndrome or anomaly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-4477.2011.00293.xDOI Listing
April 2012

Indian dental students' preferences regarding lecture courses.

J Dent Educ 2012 Mar;76(3):366-71

Faculty of Dentistry, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Teaching and learning activities in the dental clinic or hospital are a challenging area for students as well as teachers. With various teaching methodologies being used in dental schools around the world, gaining greater understanding of students' attitudes toward these methodologies would be useful for dental educators. The objective of this study was to explore the preferences of dental students in India about various aspects of lecture courses. A structured survey consisting of ten closed-ended questions was developed, and 2,680 undergraduate students from forty-three dental schools in India were approached via e-mail with a follow-up postal mailing. Of these, 1,980 students responded, for a response rate of 73.8 percent. Most of the students reported preferring lectures with the aid of PowerPoint and chalkboard. They preferred morning lectures from 8 am to 10 am for a maximum of thirty to forty minutes for each lecture, and they preferred to receive information about the lecture topic in advance. The students said that delivery of clinical demonstrations was beneficial after the lectures, and they preferred learning-based rather than exam-oriented education. The respondents also said that attendance should be made compulsory and that numerical marking of examinations should not be replaced by a grading system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2012

Management of supernumerary teeth.

J Conserv Dent 2011 Jul;14(3):221-4

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India.

Supernumerary paramolars are the rare anomalies of the maxillofacial complex. These are more common in the maxilla than in the mandible. This article reviews the etiology, frequency, classification, complications, diagnosis and management of supernumerary teeth (bilateral maxillary paramolars).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.85791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3198547PMC
July 2011

Microleakage of bonded amalgam restorations using different adhesive agents with dye under vacuum: an in vitro study.

Indian J Dent Res 2011 Mar-Apr;22(2):252-5

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore Manipal University, Karnataka, India.

Aim: In an effort to minimize tooth preparation, yet provide additional retention to compromised tooth structure, bonded amalgam restorations were introduced. Various resin-based adhesives have been tried earlier under bonded amalgam restorations. Still there are controversies regarding the outcome of bonded amalgam restorations regarding their adaptability to the tooth structure and microleakage. Therefore, this study was undertaken to compare the microleakage of bonded amalgam restorations using different adhesive materials.

Materials And Methods: Standard Class I cavities were prepared on occlusal surfaces of 60 human molars. Teeth (n=60) were divided into three groups according to the material employed, as follows: group I: amalgam with glass ionomer cement (GIC) (type I); group II: amalgam with resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) and group III: amalgam with Copalex varnish as a control. Following restoration, the teeth were submitted to thermal cycling. The teeth were subsequently immersed in 2% rhodamine B dye under vacuum for 48 hours and sectioned to allow the assessment of microleakage under stereomicroscope.

Results: The values were tabulated and the results were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's post hoc test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Amalgam with type I GIC showed the least leakage with no statistically significant difference (P value 0.226) when compared to amalgam with Panavia F 2.0 and amalgam with varnish (P value 0.107).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that bonded amalgam with type I GIC is a good alternative to amalgam with resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) and amalgam with varnish for large restorations, with the added advantages of GICs.

Clinical Significance: Bonded amalgam restorations prevent over-preparation and reduce the tooth flexure. GIC type I under amalgam provides chemical bonding in between amalgam and tooth structure and thus reduces the microleakage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.84298DOI Listing
January 2012

Nonsurgical gingival displacement in restorative dentistry.

Compend Contin Educ Dent 2011 Jun;32(5):26-34; quiz 36, 38

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Mangalore, India.

Gingival displacement is critical for obtaining accurate impressions for the fabrication of fixed restorations, especially when the finish line is at or just within the gingival sulcus. Displacement of the gingival tissue is also important when dealing with the restoration of cervical lesions due to their proximity to the periodontal tissue. The methods of gingival tissue displacement can be broadly classified as nonsurgical and surgical techniques, with nonsurgical being the more commonly practiced method. Dentists must alter their armamentarium and gingival displacement techniques to meet specific demands and obtain predictable results. Hence, the purpose of this article is to describe the different means by which nonsurgical gingival displacement can be achieved effectively under a variety of clinical situations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2011

Management of dentinal hypersensitivity: a review.

J Calif Dent Assoc 2011 Mar;39(3):167-79

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal University, India.

Dentinal hypersensitivity is a very common clinical finding that can cause considerable concern for the patient. Clinicians must understand the various etiological factors, their complexities, and numerous treatment options available. This article reviews the etiology, management, and prevention of dentinal hypersensitivity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2011

Comparative evaluation of the curve of Spee in two age groups and its relation to posterior teeth disclusion.

Indian J Dent Res 2011 Jan-Feb;22(1):179

Department of Prosthodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Objectives: This study aims to compare the curve of Spee in human permanent healthy dentitions in two age groups to the disclusion in the premolar and molar region during protrusion.

Materials And Methods: Sixty subjects were chosen and equally divided into two age groups of 18-25 years and 35-44 years. The left side of the mandibular dental casts was photographed using a digital camera to measure the curve of Spee. The canine cusp, mesiobuccal cusp of the first molar and the distal cusp of the second molar were marked and joined to form an arc. Using AUTOCAD software, the radius for this arc was obtained. A protrusive interocclusal record was made using rigid bite registration material to measure the amount of posterior disclusion during edge to edge protrusion. A dial gauge with an accuracy of 1/100 of a millimeter was used to measure the distance between the cusp tip indentations at the region of the buccal cusp of the mandibular 2nd premolar and distobuccal cusp of mandibular 1st molar. The results obtained were statistically analyzed.

Results: The radius of curve of Spee increased nonsignificantly with age. The mean disclusion values measured in premolar and molar region showed a nonsignificant decrease with age.

Conclusion: As age advances, there is a flattening of the curve of Spee and a concurrent reduction in the disclusion values during protrusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.79985DOI Listing
October 2011

Comparison of the shear bond strength of RMGIC to a resin composite using different adhesive systems: An in vitro study.

J Conserv Dent 2010 Apr;13(2):80-3

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Aim: This study evaluated and compared the role of newer dental adhesives to bond composite resin to the resin modified glass ionomer (RMGIC) liner.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-six specimens were prepared on acrylic blocks, with wells prepared in it by drilling holes, to retain the RMGIC. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups of 12 specimens each. In group I, a thin layer of an adhesive, which was a Total-etch type (Adper Single bond-2), was applied between RMGIC and the composite resin. Ingroup II, a Self-Etch adhesive (Adper prompt-L pop) was applied, and in group III there was no application of any adhesive between RMGIC and the composite resin. After curing all the specimens, the shear bond strength was measured using an Instron universal testing machine.

Results: The results were drawn and tabulated using ANOVA-fishers and Tukey's statistical tests. The maximum shear bond strength values were recorded in group II specimens with the self-etch adhesive (Adper prompt-L pop), showing a mean value of 5.826 when compared to the group I adhesive-Total-etch type with a mean shear bond strength of 4.6380, while group III specimens, where no adhesive was used, showed a minimum mean shear bond strength of 2.8385. There was a great and significant difference between group I and group II (P value 0.003), whereas, both group I and group II showed a vast and significant difference from group III (P value 0 - 001).

Conclusion: Hence, this present study concludes that application of Self-Etch adhesive (Adper prompt-L pop) in between RMGIC and composite resin increases the shear bond strength between RMGIC and the resin composites, as compared to the Total-etch type adhesives (Adper Single Bond 2), as well as, without application of the adhesive agent.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.66716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936095PMC
April 2010

Effects of saliva contamination and decontamination procedures on shear bond strength of self-etch dentine bonding systems: An in vitro study.

J Conserv Dent 2010 Apr;13(2):71-5

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, India.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effect of saliva contamination on the shear bond strength of two self-etch dentine bonding systems and also investigate the effect of decontamination procedure on the recovery of bond strength.

Materials And Methods: Sixty premolars extracted for orthodontic reason were obtained and the buccal surfaces of teeth were reduced to create a flat dentine surface. The samples were randomly divided into three sub-groups for AdheSE (ASE) (Ivoclar - Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and three sub-groups for Adper Prompt Self-Etch Adhesive (ADP) (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) of 10 each. For AdheSE (ASE); ASE-I was the control group (primer applied to fresh dentine surface), ASE-II was the contamination group (primer applied, followed by saliva contamination and then air dried) and ASE-III was the decontamination group (primer applied, followed by saliva contamination, air dried and then primer reapplied). For Adper Prompt (ADP); ADP-I was the control group (self-etch adhesive applied to fresh dentine surface), ADP-II was the contamination group (self-etch adhesive applied, followed by saliva contamination and then air dried) and ADP-III was the decontamination group (self-etch adhesive applied, followed by saliva contamination, air dried and then self-etch adhesive reapplied). Followed by the bonding procedure, a 5 mm composite resin block with Filtek P-60 (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) was built on the substrate. Shear bond strength (SBS) was tested with Instron Universal testing machine (Instron Corporation, Canton, MA, USA) with a cross head speed of 1 mm per minute. Data obtained was subjected to one way ANOVA test, while the inter group comparison was made using Tukey's multiple comparison and Unpaired t-test.

Results: In AdhSE group (ASE), the sub-group ASE-II (contamination group) [5.4 ± 2.2 MPa] showed lower SBS than ASE-I [11.8 ± 2.6 MPa] and ASE-III [8.9 ± 3.3 MPa], which was statistically significant. There was no significant difference in the bond strength between the ASE-I (control group) and ASE-III (decontamination group). In Adper Prompt group (ADP), there was a severe decrease of bond strength in ADP-II (contamination group) [4.6 ± 1.1 MPa] when compared to ADP-I (control group) [7.4 ± 1.4 MPa] and ADP-III (decontamination subgroup) [14.1 ± 2.2 MPa] which was statistically significant. The bond strength of ADP-III wherein Adper Prompt bonding agent was reapplied after salivary contamination was found to be statistically significant than ADP-I and ADP-II.

Conclusion: Saliva contamination reduces the dentine bond strength of both the self-etch systems; AdheSE and Adper Prompt. Re-application of the primer for the AdheSE and re-application of the adhesive for the Adper Prompt after air drying the saliva off can recover the dentine bond strength. In the Adper Prompt group, the added application of adhesives to decontaminate saliva not only recovered the bond strength but also improved it significantly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.66714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936093PMC
April 2010

Use of a natural tooth crown as a pontic following cervical root fracture: a case report.

Aust Endod J 2010 Apr;36(1):35-8

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

The loss of anterior teeth can be psychologically and socially damaging to the patient. Despite a wide range of treatment options available, traumatised teeth may be inevitably lost on certain occasions. This paper describes the immediate replacement of a right central incisor using a fibre-composite resin with the natural tooth crown as a pontic. The abutment teeth can be conserved with minimal or no preparation, thus keeping the technique reversible, and can be completed at chair side thereby avoiding laboratory costs. It can be used as an interim measure or a definitive prosthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-4477.2009.00174.xDOI Listing
April 2010
-->