Publications by authors named "Abhijit M Pawde"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular and pathological screening of canine distemper virus in Asiatic lions, tigers, leopards, snow leopards, clouded leopards, leopard cats, jungle cats, civet cats, fishing cat, and jaguar of different states, India.

Infect Genet Evol 2022 03 18;98:105211. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly-243122, Uttar Pradesh, India.. Electronic address:

The present investigation was conducted to rule out canine distemper (CD) diseases in Indian wild felids (Asiatic lions, tigers, leopards, snow leopards, clouded leopards, leopard cats, jungle cats, civet cats, fishing cat, and jaguar). The collected samples were screened for CD virus (CDV) by histopathology (HP), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting H gene and N gene. The HP and IHC of suspected samples portrayed that 22 [11 leopards, 6 lions, 3 tigers, 1 snow leopard and 1 civet cat] out of 129 (17.05%) wild felids were positive for CD. The major pathological consequences were observed in spleen, lung, kidney and brain. The syncytia and intranuclear as well as intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies were seen in CDV infected cells. Although the histopathological lesions in spleen were more specific and consistent, however, the severe demyelinated leukoencephalitis (usually expected in CD infected dog) was not observed in the brain of any Indian wild felids. Conversely, the CDV antigen has been portrayed via IHC in pancreatic islets of Langerhans of tiger species for the first time in this study. Moreover, the concurrent CD and babesiosis has also been observed in a lioness without a usual coffee-coloured urine. The N gene and H gene of CDV isolates were amplified, sequenced and subsequently constructed the phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic analysis of H gene revealed that the CDV isolates from Indian lion formed separate clade with CDV isolates from Indian dog and Indian palm civet cat. Furthermore, two CDV isolates from Indian tigers formed clade with Onderstepoort vaccine strain and CDV isolates from dogs of Uttar Pradesh, USA and UK. Evidently, CDV is circulating in Indian wild felids and causing diseases in them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2022.105211DOI Listing
March 2022

Autologous platelet-rich plasma for non-ischemic diabetic foot ulcers.

Ann Vasc Surg 2022 04 14;81:e7-e8. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, UP, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2022.01.003DOI Listing
April 2022

Cell-free Therapy for Inflammatory Diseases: Opportunities and Challenges.

Recent Adv Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2022;15(1):5-8

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2772270816666211220152218DOI Listing
March 2022

Development of a novel atrophic non-union model in rabbits: A preliminary study.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Aug 14;68:102558. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background And Aim: The currently available atrophic non-union models rely on wide segmental excision of bone diaphysis to impede the process of healing but lack resemblance to the clinical scenario. The present study focused on developing an model of atrophic non-union fracture in rabbit radius that can replicate the clinical scenario.

Materials And Methods: The atrophic non-union fracture model was developed by creating a 10 mm segmental bone defect in the radial diaphysis of five adult New Zealand White rabbits. The periosteum (2 mm) of the cut bone ends was cauterized using electrocautery to induce atrophy. Atrophic non-union was confirmed using radiographic and histologic evaluations on 30th postoperative day.

Results: The radiographic signs of healing were completely absent in all the rabbits on 30th postoperative day, indicating inert bone ends. Histological findings further confirmed the presence of inert bone ends, indicating the development of atrophic non-union.

Conclusion: The combination of the segmental bone defect, electrocautery induced thermal damage of bone end periosteum, and delayed treatment can induce the development of atrophic non-union fracture model in rabbits that can replicate the clinical scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313836PMC
August 2021

Classification and coding of platelet-rich plasma derived from New Zealand white rabbits for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2021 11 27;21(11):1473-1482. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Livestock Economics, Statistics and Information Technology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background And Objective: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a category of platelet concentrate that has been widely used as a therapeutic modality in musculoskeletal medicine. The present study was conducted to classify and code the non-activated platelet-rich plasma (nPRP) derived from New Zealand white rabbits for tissue engineering and other regenerative medicine applications.

Methods: PRP was prepared from the whole blood by double centrifugation protocol using a laboratory centrifuge. The prepared nPRP was characterized using the parameters such as platelet dose, the relative composition of platelets, WBC, and RBC. The production protocol was described using the parameters such as platelet enrichment factor, factor increase in WBC concentration, platelet capture efficiency, WBC-reducing efficiency, and RBC-reducing efficiency. The nPRP was also classified and coded using the most recent and universally accepted classification and coding systems.

Results: The non-activated leukocyte-poor red cell-rich PRP had an average platelet count of 1875.75 × 10/L, which is higher than the basal platelet concentration in the whole blood. Furthermore, the protocol used in this study has a mean platelet capture efficiency of 47.43 ± 6.42%.

Conclusion: The protocol described in this study can be used to prepare non-activated leukocyte-poor red cell-rich PRP (Red-PRP IC1) from rabbits that can be coded as 318-00-00.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2021.1955099DOI Listing
November 2021

Isolation and genetic characterization of canine adenovirus type 2 from a domestic dog showing neurological symptoms.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Dec 14;52(4):2521-2528. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, 243122, India.

Canine adenoviruses (CAVs) are of two types: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which is mainly associated with the respiratory type of disease in dogs. Due to the widespread use of modified live vaccines to control canine adenoviral infections and subsequently reduced disease incidence, CAVs are often neglected by clinicians. Although a number of studies are available about CAV-1 prevalence in India, only meagre information is available about CAV-2. This study reports the CAV-2 infection in a vaccinated dog with neurological and respiratory symptoms which was found negative for other canine pathogens like canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus. The virus was successfully isolated from rectal swab in MDCK cells and characterized by immunofluorescence assay and virus neutralization test. On phylogenetic analysis of partial E3 region, the Indian CAV-2 grouped in a separate clade different from established subgroups. An insertion of "G" nucleotide was reported at nucleotide (nt.) position 1077 in the E3 gene of Indian CAV-2 isolates which led to a frameshift in the coding region of E3 gene thereby imparting additional eleven amino acids to its C-terminal end in comparison to isolates from other parts of the world. This may have an implication on the functional role of E3 protein inside the cell. This study reinforces the unique signature insertion in the E3 gene of Indian CAV-2 and is the second study in the world to report the association of CAV-2 with neurological disease in dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-021-00540-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203211PMC
December 2021

SARS-CoV-2 in animals: potential for unknown reservoir hosts and public health implications.

Vet Q 2021 Dec;41(1):181-201

Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously 2019-nCoV) is suspected of having originated in 2019 in China from a coronavirus infected bat of the genus . Following the initial emergence, possibly facilitated by a mammalian bridge host, SARS-CoV-2 is currently transmitted across the globe via efficient human-to-human transmission. Results obtained from experimental studies indicate that animal species such as cats, ferrets, raccoon dogs, cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques, white-tailed deer, rabbits, Egyptian fruit bats, and Syrian hamsters are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and that cat-to-cat and ferret-to-ferret transmission can take place via contact and air. However, natural infections of SARS-CoV-2 have been reported only in pet dogs and cats, tigers, lions, snow leopards, pumas, and gorillas at zoos, and farmed mink and ferrets. Even though human-to-animal spillover has been reported at several instances, SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animals-to-humans has only been reported from mink-to-humans in mink farms. Following the rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within the mink population, a new mink-associated SARS-CoV-2 variant emerged that was identified in both humans and mink. The increasing reports of SARS-CoV-2 in carnivores indicate the higher susceptibility of animal species belonging to this order. The sporadic reports of SARS-CoV-2 infection in domestic and wild animal species require further investigation to determine if SARS-CoV-2 or related Betacoronaviruses can get established in kept, feral or wild animal populations, which may eventually act as viral reservoirs. This review analyzes the current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 natural infection in domestic and wild animal species and their possible implications on public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2021.1921311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128218PMC
December 2021

Standardization and characterization of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction from New Zealand white rabbits for bone tissue engineering.

Vet World 2021 Feb 25;14(2):508-514. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background And Aim: Adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) contains a heterogeneous cell population comprising multipotent adipose-derived stem cells. Regenerative therapy using adipose-derived SVF has broad applications in bone tissue engineering due to the superior osteogenic potential of SVF. This study was designed to standardize and characterize adipose-derived SVF obtained from New Zealand white rabbits for bone tissue engineering and other potential applications.

Materials And Methods: Ten skeletally mature and clinically healthy adult New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. The SVF was prepared using surgically resected interscapular adipose tissue following enzymatic digestion with 0.1% collagenase type I solution. The SVF pellet obtained after the final centrifugation step was suspended in a 0.5 mL control solution to obtain ready-to-use adipose-derived SVF. The freshly prepared SVF was characterized based on the total SVF cell count and cell yield per gram of adipose tissue. The SVF cells were enumerated using a hemocytometer.

Results: Interscapular adipose tissue depots are ideal for preparing autologous adipose-derived SVF due to the ease of access. The interscapular adipose-derived SVF prepared by enzymatic digestion had an average cell yield of 3.15±0.09×10 cells/g adipose tissue. Freshly prepared SVF had a total cell count of 3.15±0.09×10 cells/μL.

Conclusion: The enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue using 0.1% collagenase resulted in better cell yield per gram than methods previously reported in rabbits. The use of adipose-derived SVF can preclude the requirement for an additional culture period. In addition, it may also reduce the risk of extensive cell contamination, which makes it a safe and cost-effective strategy for bone tissue engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2021.508-514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994125PMC
February 2021

Classification and coding systems for platelet-rich plasma (PRP): a peek into the history.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2021 02 11;21(2):121-123. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute , Bareilly, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2021.1846715DOI Listing
February 2021

Letter Regarding: The Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma to Decrease the Risk of Seroma Formation after Mastectomy and Axillary DissectionDissection.

J Surg Res 2021 02 8;258:467-468. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2020.08.030DOI Listing
February 2021

In vitro studies using platelet-rich plasma: Minimum reporting requirements.

Cell Biol Int 2020 12 15;44(12):2380-2382. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11462DOI Listing
December 2020

Minimum requirements for reporting clinical trials evaluating the therapeutic potential of platelet-rich plasma.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 01 26;84(1):e43-e44. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.08.082DOI Listing
January 2021

Variables affecting the potential efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in dermatology.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 01 25;84(1):e47-e48. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.08.080DOI Listing
January 2021

Universal classification system for platelet-rich plasma (PRP): A method to define the variables in PRP production.

Burns 2021 03 2;47(2):488-489. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.burns.2020.07.015DOI Listing
March 2021

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for skin graft enrichment: The need for a universal PRP classification system.

Int Wound J 2020 Dec 21;17(6):2038-2039. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iwj.13472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7949253PMC
December 2020

Platelet-Rich Plasma for Burn Wound: Minimum Reporting Requirements.

J Burn Care Res 2020 11;41(6):1309

Division of Surgery, ICAR - Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/iraa136DOI Listing
November 2020

Platelet-rich plasma for hip osteoarthritis: comparing the variables in production protocol and composition.

Clin Rheumatol 2020 12 11;39(12):3899-3901. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-020-05337-4DOI Listing
December 2020

Letter to the Editor: Histopathological Evaluation of the Effects of Intraurethral Platelet Rich Plasma in Urethral Trauma Experimentally Induced in Rat Model.

Urology 2020 10 4;144:267. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.07.036DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on the expression of genes involved in progesterone biosynthesis in the corpus luteum of goat (Capra hircus).

Reprod Domest Anim 2020 Sep 28;55(9):1263-1266. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute Hebbal Campus, Bengaluru, India.

Emerging evidence indicates that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) alter the fatty acid composition of corpus luteum (CL) and directly affect the luteal function in the cow, which is independent of the inhibitory effect on the endometrial PGF production. The present study, thus, investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on the transcriptional modulation of genes involved in the biosynthesis of progesterone (P ) in the CL collected during the luteolytic phase of oestrous cycle in the goat. On the day of synchronized oestrus, goats (n = 6/group) were fed an isocaloric diet supplemented with either FO or palm oil (PO). The dose of oil supplementation was 0.6 mlkg body weight, and the duration was 55-57 days. The FO provided 156 mgkg body weight of n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The CL was collected by laparotomy on day 16 post-oestrus, and the relative abundance of P450 side-chain cleaving enzyme, steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) genes was quantitated by real-time PCR. The results indicated that the dietary FO significantly upregulated the expression of 3β-HSD by 1.13-fold and downregulated StAR by ~2-fold as compared to PO group (p < .05). It is concluded that dietary FO differently affected the expression of genes involved in P synthesis in the CL during the luteolytic window of the oestrous cycle in the goat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rda.13757DOI Listing
September 2020

Epoxy-Pin External Skeletal Fixation for Management of Open Bone Fractures in Calves and Foals: A Review of 32 Cases.

Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2019 May 28;32(3):257-268. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Division of Surgery, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izzatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Objective:  The aim of this study was to evaluate epoxy-pin external skeletal fixation technique for the treatment of open fractures in calves and foals.

Study Design:  Twenty-eight calves and four foals (weighing 45-105 kg) with fractures distal to the stifle or elbow made the subject for the retrospective study. The pins (2.0-3.0-mm Kirschner wires, crossed at 60-90°) were fixed at least at two locations in both proximal and distal bone fragments as per the case situation. The pins in the same plane were bent (∼2 cm from the skin) towards the fracture site or joint and were joined using an adhesive tape (additional pins used when required) to make a temporary scaffold of connecting bars or rings. Thoroughly mixed epoxy putty was applied along the pin scaffold (the epoxy columns were 20-25 mm diameter) and allowed to set for 45 to 60 minutes. All animals were evaluated based on various clinical and radiographic observations made at regular intervals.

Results:  The epoxy-pin fixation was easy to apply and provided stable fixation of bone as indicated by early weight bearing, and fracture healing within 45 to 60 days (17/32 cases). The functional recovery was good to very good in 14 animals and satisfactory in nine cases by 12 months after removal of the fixator.

Conclusions:  The multiplanar epoxy-pin external skeletal fixation provides stable fixation of unstable open fractures distal to the stifle or elbow joint; hence, it can be used to treat a variety of fractures in calves and foals weighing up to approximately 100 kg, especially open infected fractures of lower limb, which are difficult to treat by conventional techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1678736DOI Listing
May 2019

Antimicrobial Activity of Agarwood Oil Against Multiple-Drug-Resistant (MDR) Microbes of Clinical, Food and Environmental Origin.

Curr Drug Discov Technol 2020 ;17(3):348-356

Division of Medicine, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India.

Background And Objectives: Multiple-Drug-Resistance (MDR) among bacteria is an imminent problem and alternative therapies are seen as a future abode. Agarwood Oil (AO) is described to possess antimicrobial activity besides many other medicinal utilities. This paper discusses the antimicrobial activity of AO on MDR and non-MDR strains of microbes of 69 genera isolated from clinical and non-clinical samples.

Methods And Results: In this study sensitivity of microbes was determined for conventional antimicrobials and AO using disc diffusion assay followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using agar well dilution assay. A total of 18.5% (522) strains were found sensitive to AO. Carbapenem resistant bacterial strains were more often (p, ≤0.01) resistant to antibiotics with 4.2 times more odds (99% CI, 2.99-5.90) of being MDR than carbapenem sensitive strains but no difference in their AO sensitivity was observed. However, MDR strains were more often (p, <0.001) resistant to AO than non-MDR strains. Bacteria isolated from dogs were more often sensitive to AO than those from buffaloes, human, horse, and cattle. On the other hand, bacteria from pigs were more often (p, ≤0.05) resistant to AO than bacteria from human, cattle, buffaloes, dogs, wild carnivores and birds. Oxidase positive Gram positive bacteria had 4.29 (95% CI, 2.94-6.27) times more odds to be AO sensitive than oxidase negative Gram negative bacteria. Bacillus species strains were the most sensitive bacteria to AO followed by strains of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. The MIC of AO for different bacteria ranged from 0.01 mg/mL to > 2.56 mg/mL.

Conclusion: The study concluded that MDR and AO resistance had a similar trend and AO may not be seen as a good antimicrobial agent against MDR strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570163816666190125163536DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich fish oil on the endometrial prostaglandin production in the doe (Capra hircus).

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2018 03 8;135:27-35. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Division of Animal Reproduction, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Recently, we showed that dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil (FO) decreased the metabolites of serum prostaglandin (PG) F and E during the window of pregnancy recognition in the doe. In this study, we investigated its effect on the changes on endometrial PG production in vitro. Cycling does (n = 12) of Rohilkhand region were divided into two equal groups and fed a concentrate diet supplemented with either FO containing 26% n-3 PUFA (TRT; n = 6) or palm oil (CON; n = 6) @ 0.6 mL/kg body weight for 57 days. Estrus was synchronized by two injections of PGF analogue viz, on day 25 and 36 of supplementation and laparo-hysterotomy was performed to obtain endometrial tissue on day 16 of the synchronized estrus. Endometrial explant culture was done using a defined medium.The basal PG production was assayed at 6 and 12 h. Endometrial explant was stimulated with oxytocin (OXT) and/or recombinant ovine interferon tau (roIFN-τ) and PGs were assayed at 3 and 12 h post-treatment. The relative expression of genes related to PG metabolism in the endometrium was done by Quantitative Real Time PCR technique (qRT-PCR). There was a significant (P < 0.05) decline in the basal production of PGF and PGE in the TRT as compared to the CON group. The cultured endometrial tissue produced PGF in a time- dependent fashion in both the groups (P < 0.05). Neither OXT nor roIFN-τ had a significant (P > 0.05) effect on the PGF and PGE production in the TRT group. Similarly, the PG production in the OXT and roIFN-τ was comparable with the control in TRT. Expression of mRNA for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytosolic phospholipase A (cPLA) and PGF synthase (PGFS) was lower (P < 0.05) whereas, PGE synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors such as PPAR-γ and δ was increased (P < 0.05) in n-3 PUFA fed doe. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of FO decreased the endometrial production of PGF and PGE by downregulating the COX-2, cPLA and PGFS transcripts in the doe. The findings suggest that n-3 PUFA influence embryo survival by modulating the endometrial PG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2018.02.001DOI Listing
March 2018

Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs.

Vet Parasitol 2015 Apr 19;209(1-2):50-5. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

Division of Parasitology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, India.

Diagnosis of canine babesiosis, caused by Babesia gibsoni is difficult, especially in chronically infected dogs. A loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and standardized by using four oligonucleotide primers targeting the hypervariable region of 18S rRNA gene (GenBank Acc. no. KC461261). The primers specifically amplified B. gibsoni DNA, while no amplification was detected with DNA from non-infected dogs as well as from dogs infected with Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia canis and Trypanosoma evansi. The assay could detect 1.35 × 10(-7) parasitaemia and 10(-4) dilution of recombinant plasmid, equivalent to 12 pg of target DNA. All the samples were tested by nested PCR as well as LAMP assay. LAMP was found to be 10 times more sensitive than nested PCR targeting the same gene. Out of 75 suspected field samples, collected from different parts of the country, LAMP could detect B. gibsoni in 43 samples, while nested PCR and microscopy could detect 37 and 23 samples, respectively. High sensitivity, specificity and rapidity of LAMP assay may be exploited for screening large number of samples in a field setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.02.008DOI Listing
April 2015

Effect of IGF-1 and Uncultured Autologous Bone-Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cells on Repair of Osteochondral Defect in Rabbits.

Cartilage 2014 Jan;5(1):43-54

Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Objective: To investigate the utility of bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNCs) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in articular cartilage repair.

Design: An osteochondral defect of 3 mm diameter and 5 mm depth was created in patellar groove of the left knee joint in each of 36 New Zealand White rabbits. The defect was filled with RPMI-1640 medium in group A (control), autologous BMNCs in group B, and autologous BMNCs plus IGF-1 in group C (n = 12). Healing of the defect was assessed by gross, scanning electron microscopic, radiographic, and histological examinations up to 90 days.

Results: Gross and scanning electron microscopic examination of the healing site revealed superior gross morphology and surface architecture of the healing tissue in the animals of group C as compared to other groups. Radiographically on day 90, the defect area was not distinguishable from the surrounding area in group C, but a small circular defect area was still evident in groups A and B. The regenerated tissue was mostly hyaline in group C and fibrocartilage in groups A and B. The cells were well organized and showed better deposition of proteoglycans in groups C and B than in group A.

Conclusions: It was concluded that implantation of bone-marrow-derived nucleated cells may facilitate the healing of osteochondral defects; however, the combination of BMNCs and IGF-1 induces faster and histologically better healing than the BMNCs alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1947603513499366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297094PMC
January 2014
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