Publications by authors named "Abdur Rahim"

37 Publications

Convalescent plasma transfusion therapy in severe COVID-19 patients- a safety, efficacy and dose response study: A structured summary of a study protocol of a phase II randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Oct 26;21(1):883. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objectives: General: To assess the safety, efficacy and dose response of convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion in severe COVID-19 patients Specific: a. To identify the appropriate effective dose of CP therapy in severe patients b. To identify the efficacy of the therapy with their end point based on clinical improvement within seven days of treatment or until discharge whichever is later and in-hospital mortality c. To assess the clinical improvement after CP transfusion in severe COVID-19 patients d. To assess the laboratory improvement after CP transfusion in severe COVID-19 patients TRIAL DESIGN: This is a multicentre, multi-arm phase II Randomised Controlled Trial.

Participants: Age and sex matched COVID-19 positive (by RT-PCR) severe cases will be enrolled in this trial. Severe case is defined by the World Health Organization (W.H.O) clinical case definition. The inclusion criteria are 1. Respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min; PLUS 2. Severe respiratory distress; or SpO2 ≤ 88% on room air or PaO2/FiO2≤ 300 mm of Hg, PLUS 3. Radiological (X-ray or CT scan) evidence of bilateral lung infiltrate, AND OR 4. Systolic BP < 90 mm of Hg or diastolic BP <60 mm of Hg. AND/OR 5. Criteria 1 to 4 AND or patient in ventilator support Patients' below18 years, pregnant and lactating women, previous history of allergic reaction to plasma, patients who have already received plasma from a different source will be excluded. Patients will be enrolled at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) hospital, Dhaka medical college hospital (DMCH) and Mugda medical college hospital (MuMCH). Apheretic plasma will be collected at the transfusion medicine department of SHNIBPS hospital, ELISA antibody titre will be done at BSMMU and CMBT and neutralizing antibody titre will be checked in collaboration with the University of Oxford. Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 will be recruited as donors of CP. The recovery criteria are normality of body temperature for more than 3 days, resolution of respiratory symptoms, two consecutively negative results of sputum SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR assay (at least 24 hours apart) 22 to 35 days of post onset period, and neutralizing antibody titre ≥ 1:160.

Intervention And Comparator: This RCT consists of three arms, a. standard care, b. standard care and 200 ml CP and c. standard care and 400 ml CP. Patients will receive plasma as a single transfusion. Intervention arms will be compared to the standard care arm.

Main Outcomes: The primary outcome will be time to clinical improvement within seven days of treatment or until discharge whichever is later and in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcome would be improvement of laboratory parameters after therapy (neutrophil, lymphocyte ratio, CRP, serum ferritin, SGPT, SGOT, serum creatinine and radiology), length of hospital stay, length of ICU stay, reduction in proportion of deaths, requirement of ventilator and duration of oxygen and ventilator support.

Randomisation: Randomization will be done by someone not associated with the care or assessment of the patients by means of a computer generated random number table using an allocation ratio of 1:1:1.

Blinding (masking): This is an open level study; neither the physician nor the patients will be blinded. However, the primary and secondary outcome (oxygen saturations, PaO2/FiO2, BP, day specific laboratory tests) will be recorded using an objective automated method; the study staff will not be able to influence the recording of these data.

Number To Be Randomised (sample Size): No similar study has been performed previously. Therefore no data are available that could be used to generate a sample size calculation. This phase II study is required to provide some initial data on efficacy and safety that will allow design of a larger study. The trial will recruit 60 participants (20 in each arm).

Trial Status: Protocol version 1.4 dated May 5, 2020 and amended version 1.5, dated June 16, 2020. First case was recruited on May 27, 2020. By August 10, 2020, the trial had recruited one-third (21 out of 60) of the participants. The recruitment is expected to finish by October 31, 2020.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT04403477 . Registered 26 May, 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trial's website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04734-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586693PMC
October 2020

Unusual cause of large intrathoracic mass in a young male of Bangladesh: A case report of giant intrathoracic lipoma & literature review.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 28;76:73-76. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Institute of Diseases of the Chest & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Introduction: Lipoma in the thoracic cavity is very rare, unlike any subcutaneous lipoma, and can often grow very large without showing any symptoms.

Case: We report a 42-year-old man having giant intrathoracic lipoma which was found incidentally during routine checkup and the first documented case of the such type in Bangladesh. This benign tumor occupied almost the entire left hemithorax, and it was resected successfully by thoracotomy. The postoperative period was uneventful except for prolonged chest drain. Histological analysis confirmed intrathoracic lipoma.

Discussion: Usually, patients with intrathoracic lipoma are asymptomatic. But since lipomas can grow to a large size, they may cause symptoms due to the compression effect. Lipoma should be considered a differential diagnosis of asymptomatic large intrathoracic mass, and imaging is the best method for initial identification.

Conclusion: As intrathoracic lipoma typically grows very slowly over years without any symptoms and signs, late diagnosis is common. Complete surgical extirpation is needed to prevent further recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.09.164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530211PMC
September 2020

Synthesis and characterization of cellulose/hydroxyapatite based dental restorative composites.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2020 10 12;31(14):1806-1819. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.

The aim of this study was an synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) on cellulose fibers to be used as a new reinforcing agent for dental restorations. The microwave irradiation method was used for synthesis and the materials were characterized with analytical techniques. The prepared dental resin composites were mechanically tested by a universal testing machine and electrodynamic fatigue testing system. FTIR, XRD, SEM/EDS analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of HA on cellulose fibers. The Alamar blue biocompatibility assay showed more than 90% cell viability for the prepared cellulose/HA. The mechanical properties of resin composites improved with cellulose content from 30 wt.% to 50 wt.% in the polymer matrix. Substantially, increasing the cellulose/HA content from 40% to 50% improved the mechanical properties. The results suggested that HA could be successfully synthesized on cellulose fibers using microwave irradiation and contributed to improving the mechanical properties of dental resin composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2020.1777827DOI Listing
October 2020

Solid-Phase Synthesis of Hybrid 2,5-Diketopiperazines Using Acylhydrazide, Carbazate, Semicarbazide, Amino Acid, and Primary Amine Submonomers.

J Org Chem 2020 03 11;85(5):2927-2937. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Jakkur, Bangalore 560064, India.

We report the solid-phase synthesis of ,'-di(acylamino)-2,5-diketopiperazine, an acylhydrazide-based conformationally rigid 2,5-DKP scaffold having exocyclic N-N bonds. We also show that different combinations of acylhydrazides, carbazates, semicarbazides, amino acids, and primary amines can be used to synthesize a highly diverse collection of hybrid DKP molecules via the solid-phase submonomer synthesis route. Finally, we show incorporation of a methyl substituent in one of the carbon atoms of the DKP ring to generate chiral daa- and hybrid-DKPs without compromising the synthetic efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.9b02083DOI Listing
March 2020

Microwave-assisted synthesis of carbon dots as reductant and stabilizer for silver nanoparticles with enhanced-peroxidase like activity for colorimetric determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose.

Mikrochim Acta 2020 01 16;187(2):135. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.

A carbon silver nano-assembly was prepared from silver nanoparticles and carbon dots (AgNP@CD). It was used to quantify hydrogen peroxide and glucose by UV-visible spectroscopy. Banana peels were used to prepare the CDs by a microwave-assisted method. The CDs can be prepared within 5 min at 700 W. They act as (a) substrate, (b) stabilizer, and (c) reductant to convert silver ions to AgNPs. The nano-assembly was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The CDs have a particle size of 1.4 nm. Photoexcitation of the CDs with a UV lamp of 365 nm results in blue fluorescence. The absorption spectra of the CDs show a peak at 205 nm along the wide shoulder absorption band. On incorporation of the Ag nanoparticles into the CDs matrix, the color of the CDs turns into yellow and an additional absorbance peak at 408 nm appears. FTIR spectroscopy shows that different functional groups are present on the CDs. They are responsible for the stabilization of the AgNPs. On exposure to HO, the color of the nano-assembly disappears gradually. Hence, the assembly can be used as a colorimetric indicator probe for HO with a linear response in the 0.1-100 μM concentration range. It can also be applied to the determination of glucose by using glucose oxidase which causes the formation of HO from glucose. The linear response ranges from 1- 600 μM. The detection limits for HO and glucose are 9 nM and 10 nM, respectively. In our perception, this is the lowest detection limit reported so far. The AgNP@CD nano-assembly does not respond to saccharides, maltose, fructose, and lactose. It can be used to quantify glucose in diluted blood plasma. Graphical abstractSchematic representation of microwave-assisted synthesis of AgNP@CDs with enhanced-peroxidase like activity for colorimetric determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-4098-xDOI Listing
January 2020

Prosthodontics dental materials: From conventional to unconventional.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Jan 7;106:110167. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore 54600, Pakistan.

New inventions and innovations in the field of dentistry have potential applications to satisfy the patient's demand. In prosthodontics, a dental prosthesis plays a major role in improving the quality of oral health care. Currently, the trends have shifted towards the implants and implant-supported prosthesis for the replacement of missing teeth. Conventional dentures are patient's preference mainly due to financial constraints. In an attempt to find solutions to current problems, we have come across new materials zirconium, titanium and new inventions like flexible dentures, fenestrated dentures, and CAD/CAM fabricated dentures. Using the progress of past five years in the field of prosthodontics, this comprehensive review focuses on denture base materials, denture liners, removable partial dentures, fixed prosthesis such as crown and bridge materials, implant-supported a fixed denture, artificial teeth materials, impression materials, and ingenious alternatives to conventional dentures. This article also sheds some light on the current promising researches and gives insight into the problems that can be the focus of future researches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.110167DOI Listing
January 2020

Phytochemical and antimicrobial study of Alstonia scholaris leaf extracts against multidrug resistant bacterial and fungal strains.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Jul;32(4):1655-1662

Department of Pharmacy, Abasyn University, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

In the present study, Alstonia scholaris leaves were explored for phytochemical constituents, antibacterial and antifungal potentials. Phytochemical screening of the extracts established the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, reducing sugars and steroids which later on confirmed through fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. The extract was applied against eight multidrug resistant bacterial and five fungal strains using standard protocols. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves showed highest diameter of inhibition zone (DIZ) of 28mm and 26mm respectively against Enterobacter. Ethanolic extract exhibited prominent DIZ of 26.33mm and 23.67mm against Enterobacter and Pseudomonas respectively. The n-Hexane extract showed DIZ of 23.67mm against Enterobacter. Aqueous extract showed 19.33mm DIZ against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly, the n-hexane extract showed highest DIZ of 20.33mm against Aspergillus fumigatus and this activity was highly effective than the control. Ethyl acetate extract showed 18.67mm DIZ against Aspergillus niger whereas methanolic extract showed marked inhibition against Rhizopus and Acremonium with a DIZ of 20mm and 17.03mm respectively. The current study on A. scholaris unveils about the presence of valuable phytochemicals in it having significant antimicrobial properties and further suggests to investigate for the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the extracts in prospective research.
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July 2019

Voltammetric determination of nitrite by using a multiwalled carbon nanotube paste electrode modified with chitosan-functionalized silver nanoparticles.

Mikrochim Acta 2019 08 2;186(9):595. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan.

A cyclic voltammetric method is described for the determination of nitrite by using a multiwalled carbon nanotube paste electrode (MWCNT) that was modified with chitosan-functionalized silver nanoparticles (Chit-AgNPs). The AgNPs were prepared by one step procedure using chitosan as stabilizing agent. The resulting modified AgNPs were drop-coated onto the electrode. By combining the advantages of chitosan, AgNPs (in the form of Chit-AgNPs) and MWCNT, the assay exhibits a remarkable improvement in the cyclic voltammetric response towards the oxidation of nitrite at a typical peak potential of 0.81 V (vs. SCE) in buffer of pH 4.0. The accumulation of nitrite on the electrode also was achieved, and this further enhances the analytical sensitivity. Under optimized conditions, the oxidation peak current increases linearly in the 100 nM to 50 μM nitrite concentration range, and the detection limit is 30 nM. The method has high selectivity for nitrite even in the presence of other potentially interfering ions. Graphical abstract Schematic illustration of the prepared chitosan functionalized silver nanoparticles (transmission electron microscope image) and modification of multi-walled carbon nanotube paste electrode with chitosan functionalized silver nanoparticles for the electrochemical oxidation of nitrite to nitrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3699-8DOI Listing
August 2019

Nonenzymatic amperometric dopamine sensor based on a carbon ceramic electrode of type SiO/C modified with CoO nanoparticles.

Mikrochim Acta 2019 06 25;186(7):471. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Defence Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.

An amperometric nonenzymatic dopamine sensor has been developed. Cobalt oxide (CoO) nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed inside mesoporous SiO/C. A sol-gel process was used for the preparation of this mesoporous composite material (SiO/C). This mesoporous composite has a pore size of around 13-14 nm, a large surface area (S 421 m·g) and large pore volume (0.98 cm·g) as determined by the BET technique. The material compactness was confirmed by SEM images which showing that there is no phase segregation at the magnification applied. The chemical homogeneity of the materials was confirmed by EDX mapping. The SiO/C/CoO nanomaterial was pressed in desk format to fabricate a working electrode for nonenzymatic amperometric sensing of dopamine at a pH value of 7.0 and at a typical working potential of 0.25 V vs SCE. The detection limit, linear response range and sensitivity are 0.018 μmol L, 10-240 μmol L, and 80 μA·μmol L cm, respectively. The response timé of the electrode is less than 1 s in the presence of 60 μmol L of dopamine. The sensor showed chemically stability, high sensitivity and is not interfered by other electroactive molecules present in blood. The repeatability of this sensor was evaluated as 1.9% (RSD; for n = 10 at a 40 μmol Ldopamine level. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of the preparation of a nanostructured composite of type SiO/C/CoO for electrooxidative sensing of dopamine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3605-4DOI Listing
June 2019

Hepaotoprotective and nephroprotective activities of Pistacia integerrima fruit extract in paracetamol intoxicated male rabbits with effect on blood cells count.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Mar;32(2 (Supplementary)):817-823

Department of Zoology, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

The beneficial effects of Pistacia integerrima (PI) fruit methanol extract on some liver and kidney related parameters and blood cells count of paracetamol (PCM) intoxicated male rabbits were studied. Paracetamol intoxication caused remarkable increase in the serum ALT, AST and ALP levels. The PCM intoxicated rabbits that received PI extract orally at doses of 200 mg and 400 mg/kg b.w. /oral/day for 16 days showed significant reduction in serum ALT, AST and ALP levels (P<0.05). Liver microsections from PCM intoxicated rabbits treated with PI fruit methanol extract showed improvement in the liver histoarchitecture. The urine output of PCM intoxicated control rabbits group was significantly lower (P<0.05). The PCM intoxicated rabbits that received PI extract showed significant increase in urine output (P<0.05). The PCM intoxicated rabbits treated with PI extract also showed significant reduction in the levels of serum urea and creatinine (P<0.05). The renal creatinine clearance of PCM rabbits treated with PI extract improved significantly (P<0.05). Microsections of kidneys from PCM intoxicated rabbits treated with PI fruit methanol extract showed improvement in renal histoarchitecture. During this study, PI extract caused no improvement in the RBC count of PCM intoxicated rabbits. However, the extract caused significant increase in WBC and platelets count (P < 0.05) of PCM intoxicated rabbits. From the findings of the present research, it was concluded that oral administration of P. integerrima fruit methanol extract is beneficial for the liver and kidney related biochemical parameters and blood cells count of paracetamol intoxicated male rabbits.
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March 2019

Preparation of cellulosic Ag-nanocomposites using an ionic liquid.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2019 May - Jun;30(9):785-796. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

a Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM) , COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus , Lahore , Pakistan.

Cellulose-based nanocomposites have gained much attention due to their remarkable biological properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity. In this research work, 1-h-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ionic liquid was employed as an efficient solvent for preparation of cellulosic Ag-nanocomposites (CRC/AgNPs composite) from Neem plant. Ionic liquid plays a dual role in obtaining cellulose-rich compound (CRC; removing lignin and hemicellulose components) and plant's extract (phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, etc.) that reduces the AgNO into AgNPs for preparation of CRC/AgNPs composite. The prepared CRC/AgNPs composite was characterized using XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques. The XRD and FTIR spectral analysis showed the characteristic peaks assigned to cellulosic constituent and AgNPs. SEM analysis revealed the particles in the range from 26 to 56 nm. The CRC/AgNPs composite was evaluated for its antibacterial and mechanical properties. The antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli for CRC/AgNPs composite was observed in comparison to CRC. Cell viability and morphology were performed on MC3T3-E1 cells which showed no as such toxicity for the prepared CRC/AgNPs composite. Moreover, the addition of CRC/AgNPs composite as a filler increased the compression strength of polymeric materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2019.1605869DOI Listing
May 2020

N, N'-Di(acylamino)-2,5-diketopiperazines: Strategic Incorporation of Reciprocal n → π* Interactions in a Druglike Scaffold.

Org Lett 2018 09 29;20(18):5743-5746. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Sciences , Shiv Nadar University , Dadri , Uttar Pradesh 201314 , India.

The incorporation of the recently discovered reciprocal n → π* interactions in 2,5-diketopiperazines (DKPs) is reported to design a novel N, N'-di(acylamino)-2,5-diketopiperazine (daa-DKP) scaffold. The design, synthesis, and structural features of daa-DKPs and the effect of reciprocal n → π* interactions in their structural rigidity is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.8b02449DOI Listing
September 2018

Ionic liquid coated iron nanoparticles are promising peroxidase mimics for optical determination of HO.

Mikrochim Acta 2018 05 16;185(6):302. Epub 2018 May 16.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM) COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.

Ionic liquid coated nanoparticles (IL-NPs) consisting of zero-valent iron are shown to display intrinsic peroxidase-like activity with enhanced potential to catalyze the oxidation of the chromogenic substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. This results in the formation of a blue green colored product that can be detected with bare eyes and quantified by photometry at 652 nm. The IL-NPs were further doped with bismuth to enhance its catalytic properties. The Bi-doped IL-NPs were characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. A colorimetric assay was worked out for hydrogen peroxide that is simple, sensitive and selective. Response is linear in the 30-300 μM HO concentration range, and the detection limit is 0.15 μM. Graphical abstract Schematic of ionic liquid coated iron nanoparticles that display intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. They are capable of oxidizing the chromogenic substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. This catalytic oxidation generated blue-green color can be measured by colorimetry. Response is linear in the range of 30-300 μM HO concentration, and the detection limit is 0.15 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-018-2841-3DOI Listing
May 2018

Ionic liquid as a potential solvent for preparation of collagen-alginate-hydroxyapatite beads as bone filler.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2018 07 6;29(10):1168-1184. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

a Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM) , COMSATS Institute of Information Technology , Lahore , Pakistan.

In this study, collagen/alginate/hydroxyapatite beads having different proportions were prepared as bone fillers for the restoration of osteological defects. Ionic liquid was used to dissolve the collagen and subsequently the solution was mixed with sodium alginate solution. Hydroxyapatite was added in different proportions, with the rationale to enhance mechanical as well as biological properties. The prepared solutions were given characteristic bead shapes by dropwise addition into calcium chloride solution. The prepared beads were characterized using FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM analysis. Microhardness testing was used to evaluate the mechanical properties. The prepared beads were investigated for water adsorption behavior to ascertain its ability for body fluid uptake and adjusted accordingly to the bone cavity. Drug loading and subsequently the antibacterial activity was investigated for the prepared beads. The biocompatibility was assessed using the hemolysis testing and cell proliferation assay. The prepared collagen-alginate-HA beads, having biocompatibility and good mechanical properties, have showed an option of promising biologically active bone fillers for bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2018.1443604DOI Listing
July 2018

Nanosilver: new ageless and versatile biomedical therapeutic scaffold.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 2;13:733-762. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

College of Plant Sciences and Technology.

Silver nanotechnology has received tremendous attention in recent years, owing to its wide range of applications in various fields and its intrinsic therapeutic properties. In this review, an attempt is made to critically evaluate the chemical, physical, and biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as well as their efficacy in the field of theranostics including microbiology and parasitology. Moreover, an outlook is also provided regarding the performance of AgNPs against different biological systems such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites (leishmanial and malarial parasites) in curing certain fatal human diseases, with a special focus on cancer. The mechanism of action of AgNPs in different biological systems still remains enigmatic. Here, due to limited available literature, we only focused on AgNPs mechanism in biological systems including human (wound healing and apoptosis), bacteria, and viruses which may open new windows for future research to ensure the versatile application of AgNPs in cosmetics, electronics, and medical fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S153167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5799856PMC
April 2018

Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening in Pakistan.

Cureus 2017 Jul 16;9(7):e1477. Epub 2017 Jul 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, Pakistan.

Background The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is growing in Pakistan; however, there are no national screening programs or guidelines in place to curb its development. This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining public awareness and attitudes regarding CRC and current screening practices. Furthermore, the study assessed perceived barriers which could impact future screening processes. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among urban dwellers of Karachi, Pakistan. We excluded any individuals belonging to the medical profession, those diagnosed previously with CRC or having any significant co-morbidity. The validated and pre-tested questionnaire was administered among the study participants to record demographic information, awareness of CRC risk factors, symptoms and screening tests. Attitudes towards screening and perceived barriers to screening were also assessed. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0) (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). A knowledge score, out of a total of 14 points was calculated to reflect a participant's overall knowledge regarding CRC risk factors and signs/symptoms. Results The prevalence of CRC screening in eligible individuals (50 years or older) was 2.6% in our study population. Positive attitudes towards CRC management and screening were observed, with 75.1% (n = 296) acknowledging the preventive role of screening tests. Despite this only 14.9% (n = 58) of study participants expressed a future desire to undergo screening. Major barriers to screening were reported to be "a lack of knowledge regarding the screening procedure", a "lack of screening facilities" and that the "screening procedure is too expensive". A majority (n = 285, 72.3%) of the participants expressed a greater willingness to undergo screening if their doctor recommended it. Conclusion A national CRC screening and awareness program should be launched to promote awareness and facilitate screening in risk groups. General practitioners are needed to play a key role in counseling patients and endorsing healthy screening practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.1477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5602228PMC
July 2017

An Overview on Recent Progress in Electrochemical Biosensors for Antimicrobial Drug Residues in Animal-Derived Food.

Sensors (Basel) 2017 Aug 24;17(9). Epub 2017 Aug 24.

BAE: Biocapteurs-Analyses-Environnement, Universite de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, Perpignan CEDEX 66860, France.

Anti-microbial drugs are widely employed for the treatment and cure of diseases in animals, promotion of animal growth, and feed efficiency. However, the scientific literature has indicated the possible presence of antimicrobial drug residues in animal-derived food, making it one of the key public concerns for food safety. Therefore, it is highly desirable to design fast and accurate methodologies to monitor antimicrobial drug residues in animal-derived food. Legislation is in place in many countries to ensure antimicrobial drug residue quantities are less than the maximum residue limits (MRL) defined on the basis of food safety. In this context, the recent years have witnessed a special interest in the field of electrochemical biosensors for food safety, based on their unique analytical features. This review article is focused on the recent progress in the domain of electrochemical biosensors to monitor antimicrobial drug residues in animal-derived food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s17091947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5621119PMC
August 2017

Reciprocal carbonyl-carbonyl interactions in small molecules and proteins.

Nat Commun 2017 07 19;8(1):78. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Dadri, Uttar Pradesh, 201314, India.

Carbonyl-carbonyl n→π* interactions where a lone pair (n) of the oxygen atom of a carbonyl group is delocalized over the π* orbital of a nearby carbonyl group have attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to their ability to affect the 3D structure of small molecules, polyesters, peptides, and proteins. In this paper, we report the discovery of a "reciprocal" carbonyl-carbonyl interaction with substantial back and forth n→π* and π→π* electron delocalization between neighboring carbonyl groups. We have carried out experimental studies, analyses of crystallographic databases and theoretical calculations to show the presence of this interaction in both small molecules and proteins. In proteins, these interactions are primarily found in polyproline II (PPII) helices. As PPII are the most abundant secondary structures in unfolded proteins, we propose that these local interactions may have implications in protein folding.Carbonyl-carbonyl π* non covalent interactions affect the structure and stability of small molecules and proteins. Here, the authors carry out experimental studies, analyses of crystallographic databases and theoretical calculations to describe an additional type of carbonyl-carbonyl interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00081-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5517579PMC
July 2017

Thalassemias in South Asia: clinical lessons learnt from Bangladesh.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2017 05 18;12(1):93. Epub 2017 May 18.

Thalassemia Foundation Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Thalassemias are emerging as a global public health concern. Due to remarkable success in the reduction of childhood mortality by controlling infectious diseases in developing countries, thalassemias are likely to be a major public health concern in the coming decades in South Asia. Despite the fact that Bangladesh lies in the world's thalassemia belt, the information on different aspects (epidemiology, clinical course, mortality, complications and treatment outcomes) of thalassemias is lacking. In this comprehensive review, the aim is to to depict the epidemiological aspects of thalassemias, mutation profile and current treatment and management practices in the country by sharing the experience of dealing with 1178 cases over 2009-2014 time periods in a specialized thalassemia treatment centre. We have also discussed the preventative strategies of thalassemias from the context of Bangladesh which could be effective for other developing countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-017-0643-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5437604PMC
May 2017

Simultaneous Enrichment and On-line Detection of Low-Concentration Copper, Cobalt, and Nickel Ions in Water by Near-Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometrics.

J AOAC Int 2017 Mar 30;100(2):560-565. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.

Sensitive detection of heavy metal ions in water is of great importance considering the effects that heavy metals have on public health. A developed fluidized bed enrichment technique was used to concentrate and detect low concentrations of Cu2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ in water samples by near-IR diffuse reflectance (NIDR) spectroscopy (NIDRS) directly without using any chemicals or reagents. The NIDR spectra of adsorbent were measured on-line, and quantitative detection was achieved by applying a built partial least-squares chemometric model. Sensitivity and accuracy was improved significantly because large-volume mixture solutions were used in the enrichment process. Root mean square error of cross-validation values for Cu2+, Co2+, and Ni2+ were 0.29, 0.41, and 0.35 μg/mL, respectively, with mean relative error values in the acceptable range of 6.56-10.27%. This study confirms the potential application of fluidized bed enrichment combined with NIDRS and chemometrics for the simultaneous detection of trace heavy metal ions in water, with low relative error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.16-0224DOI Listing
March 2017

Amine bridges grafted mesoporous silica, as a prolonged/controlled drug release system for the enhanced therapeutic effect of short life drugs.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2017 Mar 12;72:34-41. Epub 2016 Nov 12.

Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Hybrid mesoporous silica SBA-15, with surface incorporated cross-linked long hydrophobic organic bridges was synthesized using stepwise synthesis. The synthesized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-rays diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The functionalized material showed highly ordered mesoporous network with a surface area of 629.0mg. The incorporation of long hydrophobic amine chains on silica surface resulted in high drug loading capacity (21% Mass/Mass) and prolonged release of ibuprofen up till 75.5h. The preliminary investigations suggests that the synthesized materials could be proposed as controlled release devices to prolong the therapeutic effect of short life drugs such as ibuprofen to increase its efficacy and to reduce frequent dosage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.11.040DOI Listing
March 2017

Multi-Sensor Based State Prediction for Personal Mobility Vehicles.

PLoS One 2016 12;11(10):e0162593. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Department of Dynamic Brain Imaging, Cognitive Mechanisms Laboratories, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International, Soraku-gun, Kyoto, Japan.

This paper presents a study on multi-modal human emotional state detection while riding a powered wheelchair (PMV; Personal Mobility Vehicle) in an indoor labyrinth-like environment. The study reports findings on the habituation of human stress response during self-driving. In addition, the effects of "loss of controllability", change in the role of the driver to a passenger, are investigated via an autonomous driving modality. The multi-modal emotional state detector sensing framework consists of four sensing devices: electroencephalograph (EEG), heart inter-beat interval (IBI), galvanic skin response (GSR) and stressor level lever (in the case of autonomous riding). Physiological emotional state measurement characteristics are organized by time-scale, in terms of capturing slower changes (long-term) and quicker changes from moment-to-moment. Experimental results with fifteen participants regarding subjective emotional state reports and commercial software measurements validated the proposed emotional state detector. Short-term GSR and heart signal characterizations captured moment-to-moment emotional state during autonomous riding (Spearman correlation; ρ = 0.6, p < 0.001). Short-term GSR and EEG characterizations reliably captured moment-to-moment emotional state during self-driving (Classification accuracy; 69.7). Finally, long-term GSR and heart characterizations were confirmed to reliably capture slow changes during autonomous riding and also of emotional state during participant resting state. The purpose of this study and the exploration of various algorithms and sensors in a structured framework is to provide a comprehensive background for multi-modal emotional state prediction experiments and/or applications. Additional discussion regarding the feasibility and utility of the possibilities of these concepts are given.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0162593PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5061423PMC
May 2017

Preparation and characterization of glycidyl methacrylate organo bridges grafted mesoporous silica SBA-15 as ibuprofen and mesalamine carrier for controlled release.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016 Feb 4;59:970-979. Epub 2015 Nov 4.

Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Mesoporous silica SBA-15 was synthesized and functionalized with bridged polysilsesquioxane monomers obtained by the reaction of 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane with glycidyl methacrylate in 2:1 ratio. The synthesized mesoporous silica materials were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state is in agreement with the sequence of carbon distributed in the attached organic chains, as expected for organically functionalized mesoporous silica. After functionalization with organic bridges the BET surface area was reduced from 1311.80 to 494.2m(2)g(-1) and pore volume was reduced from 1.98 to 0.89cm(3)g(-1), when compared to original precursor silica. Modification of the silica surface with organic bridges resulted in high loading capacity and controlled release of ibuprofen and mesalamine in biological fluids. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model better fits the release data indicating Fickian diffusion and zero order kinetics for synthesized mesoporous silica. The drug release rate from the modified silica was slow in simulated gastric fluid, (pH1.2) where less than 10% of mesalamine and ibuprofen were released in initial 8h, while comparatively high release rates were observed in simulated intestinal (pH6.8) and simulated body fluids (pH7.2). The preferential release of mesalamine at intestinal pH suggests that the modified silica could be a simple, efficient, inexpensive and convenient carrier for colon targeted drugs, such a mesalamine and also as a controlled drug release system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2015.11.005DOI Listing
February 2016

New transcription factors involved with postnatal ventral prostate gland development in male Wistar rats during the first week.

Life Sci 2015 Dec 5;143:168-73. Epub 2015 Nov 5.

Department of Structural and Functional Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Aims: The high incidence in men of prostatic diseases, including benign and malignant tumors, makes the understanding of prostate development and biology very important. Understanding the organogenesis of the prostate gland has been a substantial challenge as "prostatic code" is not well defined at the present time. The novelty of this work lies in unveiling new transcription factors (TFs) during neonatal ventral prostate (VP) gland development in male Wistar rats.

Main Methods: The techniques of qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry have been employed to perform this work while the VP gland was obtained from neonatal rats at day zero (the day of birth) day 3 and 6.

Key Findings: 16 TFs were studied and we found an increased expression of Eya2, Lhrh and Znf142, invariable levels of Znf703 and Dbp, and decreased expression of 11 others at postnatal development day 3 and 6 as compared to day zero. ZNF703 was found by immunohistochemistry in epithelial cells at days 0, 3 and 6. qRT-PCR for Eya2 and Dmrt2 showed the highest and lowest fold change for them respectively, and immunohistochemistry showed that the former is being expressed at the three selected time points while the latter appears to be diminishing with very few cells expressing it until day 6.

Significance: Results from this work is reporting the role of these TFs for the first time and will significantly contribute to the current understanding of the development and branching morphogenesis of the neonatal VP gland during the first week of postnatal development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2015.10.036DOI Listing
December 2015

In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from lower Himalayas.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2015 Mar;28(2):581-7

Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

The present studies cover antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of 11 medicinal plants viz. Adhatoda vasica, Bauhenia variegate, Bombax ceiba, Carrisa opaca, Caryopteris grata, Debregeasia salicifolia, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii and Olea ferruginea collected from lower Himalayas against two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa) bacterial strains. The extracts were applied at four different concentrations (120 mg/mL, 90mg/mL, 60mg/mL and 30mg/mL) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by using agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were observed formethanolic extracts of all the above mentioned plants. Greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only exhibited by Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii, Debregeasia salicifolia and Lantana camara. Escherichia coli was highly resistant to all the plant extracts at all concentrations. It is inferred that methanolic crude extracts of the above mentioned plantsexhibitantibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria, which proved the ethnobotanical importance of the selected plants that indigenous people use for cure against various diseases.
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March 2015

A Case Report of Decompensated Cirrhosis of Liver with Sideroblastic Anemia.

Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol 2015 Jan-Jun;5(1):55-56. Epub 2015 Jan 6.

Department of Hepatology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Shahbag, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

A 35-year-old man was admitted to hospital with severe anemia. Two years back, he had presented with bleeding esophageal varices and subsequently diagnosed as a case of chronic liver disease with portal hypertension. He was then treated with esophageal band ligation. He tested positive for hepatitis B surface antigen with HBV DNA levels of 4 × 10 copies/ml by PCR. His repeat endoscopy showed grade 1 esophageal varices with no evidence of recent or active bleeding. On further investigation, his bone marrow showed dimorphic erythroid hyperplasia with ring sideroblasts and diagnosis of sideroblastic anemia was made. Although rarely, it was suggested that as cirrhosis is a chronic process, it may cause nutritional deficiency, which in turn may lead to the development of anemia.

How To Cite This Article: Al-Mahtab M, Rahim A, Noor-e-Alam SM, Khandokar FA, LutfulMubin A, Rahman S. A Case Report of Decompensated Cirrhosis of Liver with Sideroblastic Anemia. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):55-56.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5578523PMC
January 2015

Chikungunya - an emerging infection in Bangladesh: a case series.

J Med Case Rep 2014 Feb 23;8:67. Epub 2014 Feb 23.

Department of Medicine, Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Introduction: Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne virus endemic to Africa, Southeast Asia and India that causes acute febrile polyarthralgia and arthritis. In this short case series, we discuss six Bangladeshi patients with chikungunya fever. Though Bangladesh is in endemic zone, it is not common here, hence it demands attention for proper diagnosis and management.

Case Presentation: The six cases of chikungunya we report occurred in native Bangladeshi women with ages ranging from 20 to 50 years and all having a middle class family background. Three women had severe incapacitating arthralgia as well as a maculo-papular rash and a high fever. The other three had a high grade fever and arthralgia only, but no rash. They were tested for chikungunya immunoglobulin M antibody and found to be positive in all cases. They were treated symptomatically with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and found responsive in most cases.

Conclusion: From this case series, it is evident that chikungunya is not that uncommon in Bangladesh. But the concomitant presence of other arthropod-borne infections with similar courses of illness makes most physicians less aware of this infection. An awareness and clinical knowledge are necessary to diagnose chikungunya infection properly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-8-67DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3938320PMC
February 2014

Distribution of Liver Disease in Bangladesh: A Cross-country Study.

Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol 2014 Jan-Jun;4(1):25-30. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Department of Medical Sciences, Toshiba General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: 'Hepatology', as an independent discipline of medical science, has recently been established in Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to formulate the distribution of pattern of liver diseases in this country.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, data regarding patients of liver diseases from the seven different administrative divisions of Bangladesh between January 2012 and 2013 were compiled.

Results: The study included 59,227 patients (age ranged 15-95 years). Majority of the patients were males (67.9%). Although all patients appeared at the department of hepatology, 13.2% were diagnosed with liver diseases, but a vast majority of patients (77.35%) were suffering from nonulcer dyspepsia or irritable bowel syndrome. Patients with liver diseases were mostly suffering from chronic liver diseases (CLDs) (37 -69%). Complication of CLD, like hepatic encephalopathy, was less frequent in regions with better healthcare system. Nonviral infections, like liver abscess and biliary ascarisis, were not uncommon. Acute hepatitis was another very common entity and contributed to approximately 20% cases.

Conclusion: This study provides insight about heterogeneous distribution pattern of liver diseases in different regions of Bangladesh. Rahman S, Ahmed MF, Alam MJ, Debnath CR, Hoque MI, Hussain MM, Shamsul Kabir AKM, Karim MF, Khondokar FA, Mahtab MA, Masud MG, Mollick MKU, Moben AL, Noor-E-Alam SM, Podder PK, Raha AK, Rahim MA, Rashid MHO, Zaki KMJ, Akbar SMF. Distribution of Liver Disease in Bangladesh: A Cross-country Study. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):25-30.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5736952PMC
January 2014

Severe haemolytic anaemia due to ingestion of naphthalene (mothball) containing coconut oil.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2012 Nov;22(11):740-1

Department of Medicine, Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Naphthalene, a widely used industrial and household chemical, has rarely been an agent of poisoning worldwide. Severe haemolysis from naphthalene poisoning is rare and can be a challenge to clinicians. We report a 22-year-old female, who accidentally ingested naphthalene mixed coconut oil and got admitted with recurrent vomiting, headache and passage of dark urine. Severe intravascular haemolysis with hypotension and neutrophilic leukocytosis was detected. She was treated with red blood cell transfusions, intravenous saline infusion and ascorbic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/11.2012/JCPSP.740741DOI Listing
November 2012

A novel method for patterning of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films using UV exposure-activated self-assembled monolayers.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2012 Feb;12(2):1457-60

Center for Materials and Processes of Self-Assembly, School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702, Republic of Korea.

We have investigated a novel method for patterning of (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) PEDOT, which has involved a selective polymerization of PEDOT on an UV-activated Self-Assembled-Monolayer surface. OTS coated surface has been activated by UV exposure, and the UV-exposed area served as adsorption sites for FeCl3 oxidants, providing a selective deposition of PEDOT films on FeCl3 adsorbed area, and thus leading to the selective patterning of PEDOT films. UV irradiation time and mask pattern dimension are main contributors to patternability: UV irradiation through Cr-mask (3 microm design) lead to approximately 3-5 microm patterns of PEDOT films, depending on the UV exposure time. In addition, a scotch tape peel test revealed excellent adhesion property of PEDOT to SiO2. Consequently, this simple method can be applied to define deep submicron dimensions due to its ability of providing a direct transfer of mask patterns to the substrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2012.4686DOI Listing
February 2012