Publications by authors named "Abdullah S AlGhamdi"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Osteochondral fracture of the patella without soft tissue injury and with no dislocation: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jan 2;78:48-53. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Osteochondral fracture of the patella is a fairly common pathology, but almost always associated with a spectrum of soft tissue injuries including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. We present a rare case of an osteochondral fracture of the patella in the absence of ligament or soft tissue injuries and with no dislocation of the patella in a pediatric patient.

Presentation Of Case: An 11-year-old male presented to the orthopedic clinic on crutches following a football injury. The patient had pain in his left knee with flexion deformity. Plain film radiography of the left knee was taken, and an osteochondral fracture of the patella was suspected. Further imaging studies were conducted including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which revealed an isolated osteochondral fracture of the patella with no other associated injuries. Open reduction and internal fixation of the displaced fragment was successfully preformed with favorable outcomes. During follow-up, almost full range of motion was regained, and plain film radiography revealed healed fracture with a normal appearance of the patella.

Discussion: Traumatic osteochondral fracture of the patella is a common injury and most of these injuries are commonly accompanied by an acute dislocation of the patella or soft tissue injuries such as rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and almost half of all patellar dislocations incidence are associated with osteochondral fractures of the patella. This case had an isolated osteochondral fracture of patella.

Conclusion: As demonstrated in this case, osteochondral fractures are common among younger population and patients need to be thoroughly evaluated. Advanced Imaging such as MRI and CT are essential to exclude soft tissue injuries. Although management is highly variable, the importance of open reduction and early fixation should be emphasized for optimal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.11.151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736762PMC
January 2021

Clinical Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Patients After Switching to Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate: A Retrospective Observational Study.

Cureus 2020 Sep 11;12(9):e10380. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Gastroenterology Unit, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah, SAU.

Background Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) continues to be a significant global health problem despite vaccination programs and effective antiviral drugs. Aim Assess tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) as a new treatment modality in light of the clinical characteristics of HBV patients. Settings and design A real-world observational study Methods and material We collected data of 71 HBV patients and recorded the hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV-DNA) plasma levels and biochemistry test results for the alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and serum creatinine levels at three time points, including baseline, time of switching to TAF, and six months after switching. Results From the time of switching to TAF till six months later, HBV-DNA plasma levels significantly decreased from 838.61 IU/mL to 16.7 IU/mL (p-value of <0.05). ALT and AST levels dropped from 29.05 U/L to 27 U/L and from 21.34 U/L to 20.7 U/L (p-values 0.328 and 0.410, respectively). Although TAF did not show a statistically significant reduction in the serum levels of AST, ALT, and creatinine, it showed a detectable maintenance level. Conclusions In the evaluated cohort, all clinical characteristics of HBV were maintained six months after switching patients to TAF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.10380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550005PMC
September 2020

Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stenting for Carotid Stenosis: A Single-Center Experience from Saudi Arabia.

Neurointervention 2020 Nov 8;15(3):133-139. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: Atherosclerotic stenosis of the extracranial carotid artery accounts for approximately 20% of all strokes. Both carotid artery endarterectomy and carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAAS) are recommended for symptomatic patients with 50% or more stenosis or asymptomatic patients with 70% or more stenosis. CAAS is under-reported in Saudi Arabia, as evidenced by a thorough literature search. In this article, we aim to share our experience of CAAS to call for the necessity of conducting more research on stroke and emphasize the local need of utilizing more endovascular treatments like CAAS.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective single-center observational study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The inclusion criteria consisted of all adult patients (18 years and above) with carotid stenosis who were treated with CAAS.

Results: A total of 16 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the participants was 66.9±13.5 years (range 30-87 years). All patients were symptomatic (had a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack). The procedure was successful in 14 patients (87.5%), while it failed in 2 patients (12.5%) due to technical reasons. All patients had no stroke or myocardial infarction within 30 days of the procedure.

Conclusion: Despite the advancement in medicine with free healthcare services in Saudi Arabia, the interventional procedures for secondary prevention of strokes are underutilized. Collaboration between different hospitals will be extremely helpful since few centers in each city are providing such treatments by an expert neurointerventionist and/or strokologist. The good selection of candidates, optimal management of comorbid conditions, and multidisciplinary care may improve outcomes and reduce mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5469/neuroint.2020.00052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608497PMC
November 2020

The Influence of Gender and Menopausal Status on Hba1c Variation in a Big Data Study of a Saudi Population.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2020 Jul 29. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK. 2General Directorate of Medical Services of the Interior Ministry, Riyadh. Saudi Arabia.

Background: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is the gold standard measurement in the screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus. Saudi Arabia has a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus that is expected to rise, and the HbA1c test is commonly used in the screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes.

Objective: This study aims to assess the impact of age and gender on HbA1c levels, and the influence of menopausal status on HbA1c variation in a large group of Saudis.

Method: Age, gender, and HbA1c results of 168,614 Saudi adult individuals were obtained from their medical records. Patients' records were extracted irrespective of their status regarding presence of diabetes and status of glycaemic control. Linear regression models were used for predicting HbA1c from age and gender, and their interaction term. HbA1c levels were compared between genders in different age groups and different HbA1c categories.

Results And Discussion: There was a statistically significant positive correlation between age and HbA1c levels, where for each ten years increase in age HbA1c increased by 0.35%. Although the overall mean HbA1c in women was significantly lower than in men (P < 0.001), women show a significant increase in HbA1c with increased age compared to men (B = 0.014, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the mean HbA1c levels in age group > 50 years was significantly higher than before that age (P < 0.001). Thus, HbA1c increased by 1.118% in age > 50 years group compared to age ≤ 50 years, and this increase in HbA1c was significantly higher in women compared to men (B = 0.495, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: HbA1c levels are lower in women before the estimated menopausal age, which should be taken into consideration when using HbA1c for screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of diabetes in Saudi adult women. The short lifespan of red blood cells, due to loss of blood through menstruation, in women before menopause age, is a possible reason for these variations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573399816999200729143238DOI Listing
July 2020

Impact of Ramadan on Physical Activity and Sleeping Patterns in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: The First Study Using Fitbit Device.

Diabetes Ther 2020 Jun 4;11(6):1331-1346. Epub 2020 May 4.

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.

Introduction: The impact of Ramadan fasting, a type of intermittent fasting, on the management of diabetes has not been well investigated. Physical activity, sleep duration, and time of sleep are susceptible to alterations during Ramadan due to the changes in the times and numbers of meals. This study compared physical activity and sleep patterns of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) during and after Ramadan using the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) and a Fitbit Flex 2 accelerometer.

Methods: Saudi individuals (n = 36) with T2DM completed a self-reported questionnaire and wore a Fitbit device for seven consecutive days during and after Ramadan. Fitbit generated weekly step counts, activity intensities, sedentary time, and sleep durations and times. IPAQ was used to estimate the physical activity and sitting time of participants in each period. Sleep patterns were assessed in each period by a self-reported questionnaire.

Results: Both Fitbit and IPAQ indicated a high prevalence of low physical activity among the participants with non-significant variances between the during and after Ramadan periods. Also, a significant short daily total sleeping hours and daily night-time sleeping hours was seen during the Ramadan period. The duration of night-time sleep was observed to be low in each period.

Conclusions: This is the first study to use a Fitbit device to monitor individuals with T2DM who chose to fast during Ramadan. The study shows a high prevalence of low physical activity among Saudi individuals with T2DM in each period, and short sleep durations in the during Ramadan period compared to after Ramadan period. A high prevalence of short night-time sleep duration and excessive daytime sleeping was observed in both periods and significantly in the during Ramadan period. A larger study is needed in the future covering before, during, and after Ramadan to evaluate the impact of lifestyle changes related to Ramadan fasting on type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-020-00825-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261298PMC
June 2020

Greater prevalence of comorbidities with increasing age: Cross-sectional analysis of chronic hepatitis B patients in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2019 May-Jun;25(3):194-200

Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background/aims: Middle Eastern countries, including Saudi Arabia to some extent, are endemic for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection which could be associated with high mortality and comorbidities risk. However, limited data characterizing this CHB population exists. Our aim was to characterize and compare CHB patients in 2015 with those in 2010 and 2012 in Saudi Arabia.

Patients And Methods: We conducted and compared three cross-sectional analyses of adult patients with CHB defined as either positive hepatitis B surface antigen or documented CHB history in 2010, 2012, and 2015. Data were accessed from the multicenter Systematic Observatory Liver Disease Registry (SOLID).

Results: A total of 765 CHB patients were identified in 2010 (n = 274), 2012 (n = 256), and 2015 (n = 235). Median age was significantly higher in 2015 (47 years) compared to 2010 and 2012 (42 years;P < 0.05). The proportions of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (range 1-12%) and cirrhosis (range 5-23%) were significantly higher in 2015 compared to 2010 and 2012 (P < 0.05). Compared to 2010, patients in 2015 had significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence of coronary artery disease (10% vs. 4%) and hyperbilirubinemia (18% vs. 9%). Although not significant, there was a numerical increase in 2015 in chronic kidney disease (9% vs. 7% in 2010;P= 0.559) and hepatic steatosis (32% vs. 25% in 2010;P= 0.074). Significantly more patients in 2015 (P < 0.05) were treatment experienced (23% vs. 5% in 2010/2012) and switched treatment (17% vs. 1-2% in 2010/2012).

Conclusions: Between 2010 and 2015, the CHB population in Saudi Arabia had significantly aged and was more likely to develop liver disease sequelae and other comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sjg.SJG_447_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526730PMC
April 2020

Treatment efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for 8 weeks in non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 patients.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2019 Jan-Feb;25(1):55-60

Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah; Liver Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background/aims: Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) combination is administered for 12 to 24 weeks to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV); guidelines recommend 8 weeks treatment duration for HCV genotype (GT) 1 infection based on the patient's baseline characteristics. Data on treating HCV GT4 with LDV/SOF are limited. In this prospective cohort study, the efficacy and safety of 8 weeks treatment duration with LDV/SOF was evaluated in HCV GT4 patients in Saudi Arabia.

Patients And Methods: Treatment-naïve, non-cirrhotic HCV GT4 patients received LDV/SOF for 8 weeks. HCV RNA levels and laboratory evaluations were recorded at baseline and at Weeks 4, 8, and 20. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of the treatment (SVR12). Safety data were also recorded.

Results: Forty-five patients with a mean age of 43.9 ± 17.2 years participated, of whom 57.8% were male. Mean logHCV RNA was 6.26 ± 6.32 IU/mL and most (91.1%) had baseline HCV RNA levels <6 million IU/mL. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension and diabetes mellitus (20.0% each). Concomitant medication was taken by 18 patients (40.0%), of whom two took proton pump inhibitors. Overall, SVR12 was 97.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.2%-99.9%); one patient (2.2%) relapsed post treatment. No serious adverse events or discontinuations were reported. Eighteen patients (44.4%) had 38 adverse events related to LDV/SOF; the most frequent was headache.

Conclusions: An 8-week regimen of LDV/SOF was well tolerated and efficacious in this treatment-naïve, non-cirrhotic HCV GT4-infected population. This study provides valuable information on a short treatment regimen for HCV GT4 infection in a real-world setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sjg.SJG_189_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373216PMC
April 2019

Real life efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in hepatitis C genotype 4-infected patients with advanced liver fibrosis and decompensated cirrhosis.

J Infect 2018 06 6;76(6):536-542. Epub 2018 May 6.

Hepatobiliary Sciences & Liver Transplantation, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Limited clinical trial data has shown high efficacy of co-formulated ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)-4 infected cirrhotic patients. We assessed real-world safety and efficacy of LDV/SOF with or without ribavirin (RBV) in GT4-infected patients with compensated and decompensated cirrhosis.

Patients & Methods: This observational cohort (n = 213) included GT4 treatment-naïve (59.6%) and -experienced (40.4%) patients with advanced fibrosis (F3, Metavir; n = 30), compensated (F4, n = 135) and decompensated cirrhosis (n = 48) treated for 12 (n = 202) or 24 weeks (n = 11) with LDV/SOF. RBV was dosed by physician discretion between 600-1200 mg daily. Patients with prior DAA failure were excluded from the analysis. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12) on an intention-to-treat analysis, and occurrence of serious adverse events (SAEs).

Results: The mean age of the overall cohort was 59.6 ± 12.1 years and 125 (58.7) were female. Overall, 197 (92.5%) of the patients achieved SVR12, including 93.3% of F3 fibrosis, 93.3% of compensated cirrhotics and 89.6% of the decompensated cirrhotics (P = 0.686). Addition of RBV (68.5%) did not enhance efficacy (91.8% vs. 94.0% without RBV, P = 0.563), including in F3 fibrosis, compensated and decompensated cirrhosis (P > 0.05, for all). There was no difference in SVR12 rates with 24 and 12 weeks therapy (90.9% and 92.6%, respectively; P = 0.586). Treatment failure (n = 16) was mostly related to relapse (n = 11), while on-treatment death (n = 3) and breakthrough (n = 2) comprised a minority. SAEs occurred in 9 (4.2%) patients requiring early treatment discontinuation in 4 (3 on-treatment deaths and 1 pregnancy).

Conclusion: LDV/SOF therapy yielded high SVR12 rates in both compensated and decompensated cirrhotic GT4 patients. The addition of RBV to this regimen did not improve efficacy. The safety profile of this regimen was comparable with that reported for other HCV genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2018.04.001DOI Listing
June 2018

High Efficacy of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir plus dasabuvir in hepatitis C genotypes 4 and 1-infected patients with severe chronic kidney disease.

Liver Int 2018 08 31;38(8):1395-1401. Epub 2018 Mar 31.

Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, King Fahad Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background & Aims: Limited data have shown high efficacy of co-formulated ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)-4, and combined with dasabuvir (DSV) in GT1 patients, with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 4-5 (<30 mL/min/1.73 m ). We assessed real-world safety and efficacy of OBV/PTV/r ± DSV in GT1- and 4-infected patients.

Methods: In this observational cohort (n = 67), we enrolled stages 4-5 CKD treatment-naïve or Peginterferon/RBV-experienced GT4-infected patients (n = 32) treated for 12-24 weeks with OBV/PTV/r ± RBV, and plus DSV in GT1 patients (n = 35, including 3 with GT1/4 co-infection). RBV was dosed by physician discretion between 200 mg weekly and 200 mg daily. Primary endpoints were SVR12, calculated on intention-to-treat (ITT) basis, and occurrence of serious adverse events.

Results: The mean age of the cohort was 45.7 ± 12.7 years, 50.7% were females, 20.9% had cirrhosis, 35.8% were treatment-experienced and 97% were on haemodialysis. Three patients (F4) received 24-week treatment, 2 with GT4, and 1 with GT1a; and 19.4% were treated without RBV, including 9 GT1, and 4 GT4. Overall, 65 (97.1%) patients achieved SVR12, including 100% of those with a post-treatment follow-up (modified ITT analysis). Of the two patients without SVR12, one died from sepsis-related complications and the other from a myocardial infarction 2 weeks after completing therapy. Grades 3-4 anaemia occurred in 8.9%.

Conclusion: A 12-week regimen of OBV/PTV/r ± DSV with or without RBV is highly effective with a favourable safety profile amongst GT4 and GT1 patients with CKD stages 4-5. SVR12 rates were high regardless of patient characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.13674DOI Listing
August 2018

Efficacy and Safety of Simeprevir or Daclatasvir in Combination With Sofosbuvir for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Genotype 4 Infection.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2018 May/Jun;52(5):452-457

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Endoscopy, Prince Sultan Military Medical City.

Introduction: The combination of sofosbuvir (SOF) with simeprevir (SMV) or daclatasvir (DCV) is very effective in treating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, particularly genotype (GT) 1. However, the data on GT4 are very limited. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of SOF in combination with either SMV or DCV in GT4-infected patients.

Patients And Methods: In this real life, prospective, observational study, HCV (GT4) patients (n=96) were evaluated in 2 groups on the basis of the 12-week treatment regimen they received. Group 1 (n=56) patients were treated with SOF and SMV±ribavirin (RBV), whereas group 2 patients were treated with SOF and DCV±RBV (n=40). The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virologic response 12, whereas the primary safety endpoint was drug discontinuation or occurrence of grade 3/4 adverse events.

Results: The mean age was 49±14.6 years (59.4% men). Cirrhosis was present in 53.6% and 35.0% of groups 1 and 2, respectively, whereas 27 patients (48.2%) in group 1 and 21 patients (52.5%) in group 2 had failed prior interferon-based treatment. The median pretreatment HCV-RNA log10 was 6.1 (3.6 to 7.0) and 6.0 (3.6 to 7.2) IU/mL in groups 1 and 2, respectively. RBV was given to 17 patients (30.4%) in group 1 and 2 patients (5%) in group 2. All patients achieved sustained virologic response 12 (100%). Adverse events occurred in 32% of patients (grade 1 and 2), but none discontinued treatment. One patient died in the SMV group (not related to treatment).

Conclusions: SMV/SOF or DCV/SOF combinations are safe and highly effective in HCV-GT4 treatment. Cirrhosis and failure of prior interferon-based treatment did not influence treatment response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000000896DOI Listing
July 2019

Prevalence and molecular characterization of hepatitis D virus in Saudi Arabia: A single-center study.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2017 May-Jun;23(3):176-182

Special Infectious Agent Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Centre, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background/aims: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that is dependent on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for transmission and replication. HDV significance arises from the possibility of poor prognosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In Saudi Arabia, HDV prevalence varied from 8 to 32% before the HBV vaccination program and ranged from 0 to 14.7% after the vaccination program was started. The last study, performed in 2004, showed a prevalence of 8.6% in hospital-based HBV cases and 3.3% in healthy donors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and molecular characterization of HDV in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients at the King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by molecular and serological techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to detect HDV at the molecular level in Saudi Arabia.

Patients And Methods: The study included samples from 182 CHB patients from Jeddah; 13 samples with HBsAg negative were excluded. Samples were tested for HDV-Ab, viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the HDV L-Ag region and sequence analysis.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 44.36 years; 75.1% of the participants were Saudi nationals, 58% were males. Nine samples were positive for HDV-Ab and four were borderline; all were subjected to RT-PCR amplification. Three of the positive HDV-Ab cases and 1 borderline case were positive by RT-PCR. All the positive cases had HBV genotype D, and the positive RT-PCR cases were positive for HBV DNA. One of the HDV viremic samples was of genotype 1 by sequencing. The prevalence of HDV in the study was 7.7%, which was lower in Saudis (6.3%) than in non-Saudis (11.9%).

Conclusion: HDV coinfection does not seem to have an effect on the clinical status of the recruited CHB cases in this study. More studies are needed to investigate the genetic diversity in other areas such as the southern parts of the Kingdom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sjg.SJG_515_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5470377PMC
April 2018

Prevalence of overweight and obesity among police officers in Riyadh City and risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Lipids Health Dis 2017 Apr 14;16(1):79. Epub 2017 Apr 14.

Metabolic Disorders Lab, Food Science and Nutrition Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Despite the prevalence of overweight and obesity and increases in associated diseases such as diabetes and heart disease in the Saudi population, no studies have addressed the spread of obesity among Saudi police officers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associations with biochemical parameters among the police in Riyadh.

Method: The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 160 police officers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar levels were measured for all individuals.

Results: According to the results, the average body mass index (BMI) was 27.5 ± 5.1, indicating an increase in overweight in this population and 66.9% were overweight or obese. Moreover, the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were 119.5 and 79.4 mmHg, respectively, within normal limits. The mean total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels were 187.5, 43.9, 119.5 and 124.5 mg/100 ml, respectively.

Discussion: These BMI and biochemical findings suggest a high proportion of overweight and obese individuals in the sample population, as well as an increase in the proportion of individuals with high levels of biochemical indicators who are therefore susceptible to heart disease and diabetes.

Conclusion: The study recommends using preventive programs to combat obesity and overweight and related diseases and conducting further studies using measures other than BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-017-0467-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5391546PMC
April 2017

SASLT guidelines: Update in treatment of Hepatitis C virus infection.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2016 Aug;22 Suppl:S25-57

Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology unit, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-3767.188067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004485PMC
August 2016

Hepatitis C position statement: Taking a stand and standing by it.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2015 Jul-Aug;21(4):262-3

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah; Liver Disease Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-3767.161637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4542428PMC
January 2016

SASLT position statement on the direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2015 Mar-Apr;21(2):60-3

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah; Liver Disease Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-3767.153810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4392576PMC
January 2016

Smart environment as a service: three factor cloud based user authentication for telecare medical information system.

J Med Syst 2014 Jan 7;38(1):9997. Epub 2013 Dec 7.

Department of Software Engineering, College of Computer & Information Sciences (CCIS), King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,

The Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS) provides a set of different medical services to the patient and medical practitioner. The patients and medical practitioners can easily connect to the services remotely from their own premises. There are several studies carried out to enhance and authenticate smartcard-based remote user authentication protocols for TMIS system. In this article, we propose a set of enhanced and authentic Three Factor (3FA) remote user authentication protocols utilizing a smartphone capability over a dynamic Cloud Computing (CC) environment. A user can access the TMIS services presented in the form of CC services using his smart device e.g. smartphone. Our framework transforms a smartphone to act as a unique and only identity required to access the TMIS system remotely. Methods, Protocols and Authentication techniques are proposed followed by security analysis and a performance analysis with the two recent authentication protocols proposed for the healthcare TMIS system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10916-013-9997-5DOI Listing
January 2014

SASLT practice guidelines: management of hepatitis C virus infection.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2012 Sep;18 Suppl:S1-32

Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Unit, King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-3767.101155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3713589PMC
September 2012