Publications by authors named "Abdullah Khan"

167 Publications

Racial differences as predictors of outcomes in young patients with multiple myeloma.

Blood Cancer J 2022 07 27;12(7):114. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-022-00708-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329432PMC
July 2022

Evaluation of Work-Related Personal Exposure to Aerosol Particles.

Toxics 2022 Jul 21;10(7). Epub 2022 Jul 21.

SRI Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių Ave. 231, LT-02300 Vilnius, Lithuania.

The effects of air pollution on the general public received much attention recently. Personal exposure and deposition fraction of aerosol particles were studied in Vilnius, Lithuania, focusing on individuals working in an office and driving to work. Aerosol monitoring in the urban background was found to give an indication of the minimum concentrations of particulate matter (PM) expected at urban roads, as these correspond to the lowest PM concentrations measured there. In March 2021, PM concentrations at the urban background monitoring station reached values above the annual limit of 5 μg/m the World Health Organization in 50% of cases. Our study shows significant differences in exposure to air pollution in a car cabin and in a modern office. According to the multiple-path particle dosimetry model, the exposure of the person in the office is about 14 times lower than driving a car, where the minute deposition dose for PM is 0.072 µg/min for the period when the PM concentration in the urban background reaches 10 µg/m³. Compared to the PM mass concentration at the urban background station, the mean PM concentration in the vehicle reaches values that are 2-3 times higher. During the working day, when driving takes less than 10% of the time considered (commuting plus working), PM exposure during driving accounts for about 80% of the PM exposure caused by PM concentration in the office.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxics10070405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9321620PMC
July 2022

Clinical profile and demographic characteristics of moderate and severe hemophilia patients in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 07 8;17(1):254. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Pi Research Consultancy Center, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: Hemophilia is one of the commonest inherited bleeding disorders which may lead to chronic bleeding tendencies and life-long disabilities if not properly managed. Knowing the pattern of the disease aids in the prevention of disability and improvement of quality of life in hemophilia. However, there is a dearth of literature on the issue in Bangladesh. So, this study was designed to explore the frequency and site of spontaneous bleeding in moderate and severe hemophilia patients visiting in a tertiary level hospital.

Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the department of Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) Center in Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka between February 2020 and August 2020. A total of 44 diagnosed cases of moderate to severe hemophilia were included in the study according to inclusion criteria. A detailed inquiry of history, thorough physical examination and relevant investigations were done and were recorded in case-record form. Informed written consent was taken from patients or their guardians where appropriate. All procedures were done according to Declaration of Helsinki. After entry and checking, data was analysed using SPSS version 26.

Results: Out of 44 participants, 25 (56.8%) and 19 (43.2%) had moderate and severe hemophilia. Mean age of the study population was 21.31 (± 9.78) years with the majority aged between 11 and 20 years (45.5%). All sociodemographic features were similar across severity. Hemophilia A and B was found in 90.9% and 9.1%, respectively. However, all type B patients severe hemophilia making it statistically significantly different from type A (p = 0.029). The median age of first bleeding was 3.5 years and median age of first diagnosis was 5 years. Nevertheless, approximately 67.4% patients were diagnosed as a case of hemophilia at the time of their first diagnosis. The median spontaneous bleedings episodes among all patients was 32 (range: 0-97) which did not different significantly between severe and moderate patients. The most common affected (target) joint was knee joint (88.6%) followed by elbow joint (64%) among all patients. The knee joint was more commonly involved in severe than moderate disease.

Conclusion: This study observed the variations in pattern and frequency of spontaneous bleeding in patients with hemophilia. Severe disease was more frequent in hemophilia B than A and knee joint was the most frequent site of bleeding. However, further extensive studies are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-022-02413-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9264493PMC
July 2022

Partial Substation of Organic Fertilizer With Chemical Fertilizer Improves Soil Biochemical Attributes, Rice Yields, and Restores Bacterial Community Diversity in a Paddy Field.

Front Plant Sci 2022 2;13:895230. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

College of Life Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.

Conventional farming systems are highly reliant on chemical fertilizers (CFs), which adversely affect soil quality, crop production and the environment. One of the major current challenges of current agriculture is finding ways to increase soil health and crop yield sustainably. Manure application as a substitute for CF is an alternative fertilization strategy for maintaining soil health and biodiversity. However, little is known about the complex response of soil bacterial communities and soil nutrients to manure and CFs application. This study reports the response of soil nutrients, rice yield, and soil microbial community structure to 2 years of continuous manure and CFs application. The study consisted of six treatments: no N fertilizer control (Neg-Con); 100% CF (Pos-Con); 60% cattle manure (CM) + 40% CF (High-CM); 30% CM + 70% CF (Low-CM); 60% poultry manure (PM) + 40% CF (High-PM), and 30% PM + 70% CF (Low-PM). We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons to characterize the soil bacterial communities. Results revealed that the addition of manure significantly altered the soil bacterial community composition and structure; and enhanced the relative abundance of phyla Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Organic fertilizer treatments, particularly high CM and PM had the highest measured soil bacterial diversity of all treatments. Similarly, integrated application of manure and CFs increased the soil biochemical traits [i.e., pH, total N (TN), soil organic C (SOC), microbial biomass N (MBN), and microbial biomass C (MBC)] and rice grain yield. Average increases in SOC, TN, MBN, and MBC were 43.66, 31.57, 24.34, and 49.45%, respectively, over the years in the High-PM compared with Pos-Con. Redundancy analysis showed that the dominant bacteria phyla were correlated with soil pH, SOC, TN, and microbial biomass, but the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was strongly correlated with environmental factors such as soil pH, SOC, TN, and MBC. We employed a structural equation model to examine the relationship between microbial biomass, soil nutrients and grain yield among treatments. This analysis supported the hypothesis that soil nutrient content and availability directly affect rice grain yield while soil bacteria indirectly affect grain yield through microbial biomass production and nutrient levels. Overall, the findings of this research suggest that the integrated application of CF and manure is a better approach for improving soil health and rice yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.895230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9201382PMC
June 2022

Preferential uptake of SARS-CoV-2 by pericytes potentiates vascular damage and permeability in an organoid model of the microvasculature.

Cardiovasc Res 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Vincent Drive, B15 2TT, Birmingham, U.K.

Aims: Thrombotic complications and vasculopathy have been extensively associated with severe COVID-19 infection, however the mechanisms inducing endotheliitis and the disruption of endothelial integrity in the microcirculation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that within the vessel wall, pericytes preferentially take up viral particles and mediate the subsequent loss of vascular integrity.

Methods And Results: Immunofluorescence of post-mortem patient sections were used to assess pathophysiological aspects of COVID19 infection. The effects of COVID-19 on the microvasculature were assessed using a vascular organoid model exposed to live viral particles or recombinant viral antigens. We find increased expression of the viral entry receptor ACE2 on pericytes when compared to vascular endothelium, and a reduction in the expression of the junctional protein CD144, as well as increased cell death, upon treatment with both live virus and/or viral antigens. We observe a dysregulation of genes implicated in vascular permeability including NOTCH3, angiopoietin-2 and TEK. Activation of vascular organoids with IL-1β did not have an additive effect on vascular permeability. Spike antigen was detected in some patients' lung pericytes, which was associated with a decrease in CD144 expression and increased platelet recruitment and VWF deposition in the capillaries of these patients, with thrombi in large vessels rich in VWF and fibrin.

Conclusions: Together our data indicates that direct viral exposure to the microvasculature modelled by organoid infection and viral antigen treatment result in pericyte infection, detachment, damage and cell death, disrupting pericyte-endothelial cell crosstalk and increasing microvascular endothelial permeability, which can promote thrombotic and bleeding complications in the microcirculation.

Translational Perspective: Endotheliitis is a serious complication of severe COVID-19 patients which remains poorly understood. We identify a pericyte mediated mechanism by which the vasculature becomes compromised, contributing to thrombotic complications, highlighting important avenues for the development of therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvac097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9214165PMC
June 2022

Triplet Therapy, Transplantation, and Maintenance until Progression in Myeloma.

N Engl J Med 2022 07 5;387(2):132-147. Epub 2022 Jun 5.

From the Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center (P.G.R., M.F., M.K.S., K.M., M.E.M., A.A.Z., O.N., R.L.S., J.P.L., C.P.-P., I.M.G., K.C.A., N.C.M.), the Department of Data Science, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (S.J.J., K.H.), the Division of Hematology and Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital (E.A.W.), the Center for Multiple Myeloma, Massachusetts General Hospital (N.S.R., A.J.Y.), Harvard Medical School (P.G.R., S.J.J., E.A.W., N.S.R., A.J.Y.. M.F., K.H., M.K.S., K.M., M.E.M., A.A.Z., O.N., R.L.S., J.P.L., C.P.-P., I.M.G., K.C.A., N.C.M.), and the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System (N.C.M.), Boston, and the Department of Medical Oncology, Davenport-Mugar Cancer Center, Cape Cod Hospital, Hyannis (T.H.O.) - all in Massachusetts; Myeloma Service, the Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (H. Hassoun, S.A.G.), and the Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (S.J.), New York, the Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo (P.L.M., P.T.), and State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse (T.G.) - all in New York; the Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta (S.L., J.L.K.); Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (E.M., E.S.); the Division of Medical Oncology and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle (E.N.L.); the Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute, Atrium Health, Charlotte (P.M.V.), Duke University Medical Center, Durham (C.G.), and the Hematology and Oncology-Cancer Center, Atrium Health Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem (D.D.H.) - all in North Carolina; the Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (R.Z.O.), and Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine and Houston Methodist Hospital (R.T.K.), Houston, and Myeloma, Waldenstrom's, and Amyloidosis Program, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (L.D.A.) - all in Texas; the Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit (J.A.Z.), and the Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (E.L.C.) - both in Michigan; the Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (C.P.M.); University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh (M.E.A.), and the Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (A.D.C.) - both in Pennsylvania; the Division of Hematology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus (A.M.K.); the Department of Bone Marrow Transplant and Cellular Therapy, University of Arizona, Tucson (K.G.); Judy and Bernard Briskin Center for Multiple Myeloma Research, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte (N.N.), and the Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Stanford University, Stanford (M.L.) - both in California; the Department of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (M. Alsina); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (R.F.C.); the Division of Hematology Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (H. Hashmi); Northern Light Eastern Maine Medical Center Cancer Care, Brewer (A.C.A.), and the Cancer Care Center of Maine, Bangor (T.H.O.); O'Neal Comprehensive Cancer Center, the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (K.N.G.); the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (M.C.P.); the National Marrow Donor Program, CIBMTR, Minneapolis (A.F.); and the Department of Hematology (A.P., M. Attal) and Unit for Genomics in Myeloma (H.A.-L.), Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse-Oncopole, University Hospital, Toulouse, and the Department of Hematology, University Hospital Hôtel-Dieu, Nantes (P.M.) - both in France.

Background: In patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, the effect of adding autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) to triplet therapy (lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone [RVD]), followed by lenalidomide maintenance therapy until disease progression, is unknown.

Methods: In this phase 3 trial, adults (18 to 65 years of age) with symptomatic myeloma received one cycle of RVD. We randomly assigned these patients, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive two additional RVD cycles plus stem-cell mobilization, followed by either five additional RVD cycles (the RVD-alone group) or high-dose melphalan plus ASCT followed by two additional RVD cycles (the transplantation group). Both groups received lenalidomide until disease progression, unacceptable side effects, or both. The primary end point was progression-free survival.

Results: Among 357 patients in the RVD-alone group and 365 in the transplantation group, at a median follow-up of 76.0 months, 328 events of disease progression or death occurred; the risk was 53% higher in the RVD-alone group than in the transplantation group (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 1.91; P<0.001); median progression-free survival was 46.2 months and 67.5 months. The percentage of patients with a partial response or better was 95.0% in the RVD-alone group and 97.5% in the transplantation group (P = 0.55); 42.0% and 46.8%, respectively, had a complete response or better (P = 0.99). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 78.2% and 94.2%, respectively; 5-year survival was 79.2% and 80.7% (hazard ratio for death, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.65).

Conclusions: Among adults with multiple myeloma, RVD plus ASCT was associated with longer progression-free survival than RVD alone. No overall survival benefit was observed. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; DETERMINATION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01208662.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2204925DOI Listing
July 2022

The Use of Bruton Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia.

J Pers Med 2022 Apr 22;12(5). Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) remains an incurable malignancy. However, a number of treatment options exist for patients with WM, including alkylating agents, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and small molecule inhibitors such as proteasome inhibitors and Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKi). The focus of this review is to highlight the role of BTKi in the management of WM. The first BTKi to receive US Food and Drug Administration approval for WM was ibrutinib. Ibrutinib has been extensively studied in both treatment-naïve WM patients and in those with relapsed/refractory disease. The next BTKi approved for use was zanubrutinib, and prospective data for acalabrutinib and tirabrutinib have also recently been published. Efficacy data for BTKi will be discussed, as well as the differences in their adverse event profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm12050676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9146645PMC
April 2022

Incidence, Treatment, and Survival of Patients With T-Cell Lymphoma, T-Cell Large Granular Leukemia, and Concomitant Plasma Cell Dyscrasias.

Front Oncol 2022 29;12:858426. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

T-Cell malignancies are a group of heterogeneous disorders composed of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs), peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs), and T-cell leukemias, including T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGLL). Cases of patients with combined T-cell malignancies and plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) are reported in the literature, but these are mostly limited to case reports or small case series with <10 patients. Here, we described the clinical course of 26 patients and report baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and objective response rates (ORRs) in this unique population. There was no survival difference in patients with CTCL or T-LGLL and concomitant PCD when treated with standard therapy directed at the T-cell malignancy when compared to historical controls. However, patients with PTCL and concomitant PCD had significantly inferior outcomes with rapid progression and worse OS and PFS at 1.7 years (p=0.006) and 4.8 months (p=0.08), respectively, when compared to historical controls for patients with PTCL, although the limited number of patients included in this analysis precludes drawing definitive conclusions. Treatment directed at the T-cell malignancy resulted in the eradication of the PCD clone in multiple patients (15.4%) including one with multiple myeloma (MM) who experienced a complete response after starting therapy directed at the T-cell malignancy. For patients with T-cell malignancies and concomitant PCD, treatment with standard T-cell-directed therapies is recommended based on this analysis with continued follow-up and monitoring of the concomitant PCD. Further studies are needed to definitively elucidate the increased risk of relapse in patients with PTCL and concomitant PCD, and larger, multi-center cohorts are needed to validate these findings across T-cell malignancies and PCDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.858426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9106372PMC
April 2022

Improvement in Post-Autologous Stem Cell Transplant Survival of Multiple Myeloma Patients: A Long-Term Institutional Experience.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 May 3;14(9). Epub 2022 May 3.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

myeloma (MM) represents 1.8% of all new cancer cases in the U.S. While not curable, advances in treatment, including autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) and maintenance therapy, have dramatically improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). We performed a retrospective survival analysis on newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) patients receiving ASCT from 1992-2016 at the Ohio State University. A total of 1001 consecutive NDMM patients were eligible. Patients were split into five groups based on historic changes in novel agents for the treatment of MM. Across the years (1992-2016), there was a statistically significant improvement in both PFS ( < 0.01) and OS ( < 0.01). Significant improvements in both PFS and OS were seen in patients ≤65 years ( < 0.001 and = 0.002) and >65 years old ( < 0.001 and = 0.001), respectively. Improved PFS and OS were seen in both standard-risk ( < 0.001 and < 0.001) and high-risk patients ( < 0.001 and = 0.019). The post-transplant response showed statistically significant improvement across the years ( < 0.01). Survival rates for NDMM patients have significantly improved primarily due to the inclusion of novel therapies and post-ASCT maintenance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers14092277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9102875PMC
May 2022

Bottleneck analysis of maternal and newborn health services in hard-to-reach areas of Bangladesh using 'TANAHASHI' framework': An explanatory mixed-method study.

PLoS One 2022 12;17(5):e0268029. Epub 2022 May 12.

United Nations Population Fund, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) is of paramount importance in the realm of attaining sustainable development goals that also focuses on universal health coverage (UHC). The study aimed at identifying and exploring the bottlenecks in MNH services in Hard-to-reach (HtR) areas of Bangladesh using the Tanahashi framework exploring the possible remedial approaches. The study was conducted in four different types of HtR areas (hilly, coastal, lowlands, and river islands) by utilizing a sequential explanatory mixed-method design. Overall, we collected information from 20 health facilities and 2,989 households by interviewing 2,768 recently delivered women (RDW) with a structured questionnaire and qualitative interviews (n = 55) of facility managers, local stakeholders, RDWs, and health care providers (HCP). The quantitative data were analyzed principally for descriptive statistics and the qualitative data was analyzed by utilizing the thematic approach. Antenatal care, under-5 care, and family planning services were available in almost all the facilities. However, Normal vaginal deliveries were performed in 55.6% of the union-level facilities. Only 40% of sub-district level facilities had provision for C-sections. Blood transfusion services were available in only 20.1% of facilities, whereas laboratory services were obtainable in 51.7% of facilities. Overall, the bottlenecks were identified in cases of availability of drugs, human resources, transportation, lack of knowledge regarding different essential services and health components, out of pocket expenditure etc. There have been several remedial approaches suggested from both the demand and supply side that included incentives for care providers for staying in these areas, a coordinated transport/referral system, and health education campaigns. More research works are warranted in HtR areas, especially to test the proposed interventions. Meanwhile, the government should take the necessary steps to overcome the bottlenecks identified.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0268029PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9098042PMC
May 2022

Phenolic water toxins: redox mechanism and method of their detection in water and wastewater.

RSC Adv 2021 Nov 5;11(57):35783-35795. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Chemistry, King Abdulaziz University P.O. Box 80203 Jeddah 21589 Saudi Arabia.

Phenolic pollutants are highly toxic and persistent in the environment. Their efficient detection is a pressing social demand. In this regard we introduce a novel ultrasensitive electroanalytical platform for the individual and synchronized detection of three phenolic isomers commonly known as hydroquinone (HQ), resorcinol (RC), and catechol (CC). The sensing device consists of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with functionalized carbon nanotubes (fCNTs) and gold-silver (Au-Ag NPs) bimetallic nanoparticles. The sandwiched scaffold represented as fCNTs/Au-Ag NPs/fCNTs/GCE efficiently senses HQ, RC, and CC with detection limits of 28.6 fM, 36.5 fM and 42.8 fM respectively. The designed sensor is more promising than reported sensors for phenolic toxins in the context of high sensitivity, selectivity, and rapid responsiveness. The designed sensor also shows the qualities of stability, reproducibility, reliability, and selective recognition capacity for target analytes in multiple real water samples. Moreover, computational calculations explain the function of the electrode modifier in facilitating charge transfer between the transducer and analytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra05669gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9043152PMC
November 2021

Electrochemical sensing platform for the simultaneous femtomolar detection of amlodipine and atorvastatin drugs.

RSC Adv 2021 Aug 9;11(44):27135-27151. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakaryia University Multan 6100 Pakistan.

The development of a proficient and ultra-high sensitive functionalized electrode for accurate analysis of drugs is a long-standing challenge. Herein, we report an electrochemical nanocomposite scaffold, comprising of silver nanoparticles integrated with functionalized carbon nanotubes (COOH-CNTs/Ag/NH-CNTs) for the simultaneous quantification of two widely used amlodipine (AM) and atorvastatin (AT) drugs. The sandwiched nanocomposite materials were thoroughly characterized morphologically and structurally. The nanocomposite COOH-CNTs/Ag/NH-CNTs immobilized over glassy carbon electrode catalyzed electron transfer reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface and facilitated detection of targeted drugs, as revealed by the significant decrease in oxidation potentials at 879 mV and 1040 mV and improved current signals. Electrochemical characterization and testing show that the functionalized porous architecture with a large effective surface area is a promising scaffold for the sensing of a binary mixture of AM and AT with limits of detection in the femtomolar range (77.6 fM, and 83.2 fM, respectively). Besides, the specificity, stability, and reliability of the electrochemical sensing platform in simple and complex biological and pharmaceutical samples with high percentage recoveries highlight its scope for practical applications. Computational studies supported the experimental outcomes and offered insights about the role of modifier in facilitating electron transfer between transducer and analytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra04464hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9037620PMC
August 2021

Metal-organic framework based electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries: a review.

RSC Adv 2021 Sep 1;11(47):29247-29266. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Renewable Energy Advancement Laboratory (REAL), Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad 45320 Pakistan.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with efficient surface and structural properties have risen as a distinctive class of porous materials through the last few decades, which has enabled MOFs to gain attention in a wide range of applications like drug delivery, gas separation and storage, catalysis and sensors. Likewise, they have also emerged as efficient active materials in energy storage devices owing to their remarkable conducting properties. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have garnered great interest in high-energy-density rechargeable batteries and super-capacitors. Herein the study presents their expanding diversity, structures and chemical compositions which can be tuned at the molecular level. It also aims to evaluate their inherently porous framework and how it facilitates electronic and ionic transportation through the charging and discharging cycles of lithium-ion batteries. In this review we have summarized the various synthesis paths to achieve a particular metal-organic framework. This study focuses mainly on the implementation of metal-organic frameworks as efficient anode and cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with an evaluation of their influence on cyclic stability and discharge capacity. For this purpose, a brief assessment is made of recent developments in metal-organic frameworks as anode or cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries which would provide enlightenment in optimizing the reaction conditions for designing a MOF structure for the battery community and electrochemical energy storage applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra05073gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9040901PMC
September 2021

A systematic review on chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant.

J Med Life 2022 Mar;15(3):313-318

School of Pharmacy, KPJ Healthcare University College, Nilai, Malaysia.

The COVID-19 pandemic has tremendously increased the production and sales of disinfectants. This study aimed to systematically review and analyze the efficacy and safety of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant. The literature relating to the use of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant was systematically reviewed in January 2021 using databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were studies that investigated the use of chlorine dioxide to assess the efficacy, safety, and impact of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant. Out of the 33 included studies, 14 studies focused on the disinfectant efficacy of chlorine dioxide, 8 studies expounded on the safety and toxicity in humans and animals, and 15 studies discussed the impact, such as water treatment disinfection using chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide is a safe and effective disinfectant, even at concentrations as low as 20 to 30 mg/L. Moreover, the efficacy of chlorine dioxide is mostly independent of pH. Chlorine dioxide can be effectively used to disinfect drinking water without much alteration of palatability and can also be used to destroy pathogenic microbes, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi from vegetables and fruits. Our review confirms that chlorine dioxide is effective against the resistant , H1N1, and other influenza viruses. Studies generally support the use of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant. The concentration deemed safe for usage still needs to be determined on a case-by-case basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25122/jml-2021-0180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9015185PMC
March 2022

A review and revisit of nanoparticles for antimicrobial drug delivery.

J Med Life 2022 Mar;15(3):328-335

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Cyberjaya, Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

Antimicrobials are widely used to treat bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Therefore, research and development of newer types of antimicrobials are important. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major challenge to the healthcare system, although various alternative antimicrobials have been proposed. However, none of these show consistent and comparable efficacy to antimicrobials in clinical trials. More recently, nanoparticles have emerged as a potential solution to antimicrobial agents to overcome antimicrobial resistance. This article revisits and updates applications of various types of nanoparticles for the delivery of antimicrobial agents and their characterization. Though nanoparticle technology has some limitations, it provides an innovative approach to pharmaceutical technology. Furthermore, nanoparticles offer a variety of advantages, such as enhancement of solubility and permeation, leading to better efficacy. In this article, approaches commonly employed to improve antimicrobial therapy are discussed. These approaches have advantages and applications and provide a broader opportunity for pharmaceutical scientists to choose the proper method per the desired outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25122/jml-2021-0097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9015166PMC
March 2022

Biochar Amendment and Nitrogen Fertilizer Contribute to the Changes in Soil Properties and Microbial Communities in a Paddy Field.

Front Microbiol 2022 23;13:834751. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.

Biochar amendment can influence the abundance, activity, and community structure of soil microbes. However, scare information is present about the effect of the combined application of biochar with synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer under paddy field condition. We aimed to resolve this research gap in rice field conditions through different biochar in combination with N fertilizers on soil nutrients, soil microbial communities, and rice grain yield. The present study involves eight treatments in the form of biochar (0, 10, 20, and 30 t ha) and N (135 and 180 kg ha) fertilizer amendments. The soil microbial communities were characterized using high-throughput sequencing of 16S and Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal RNA gene amplicons. Experiential findings showed that the treatments had biochar amendments along with N fertilizer significantly advanced soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), soil microbial carbon (SMBC), soil microbial nitrogen (SMBN), and rice grain yield in comparison to sole N application. Furthermore, in comparison with control in the first year (2019), biochar amendment mixed with N fertilizer had more desirable relative abundance of microorganism, phyla Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia with better relative abundance ranging from 8.49, 4.60, 46.30, and 1.51% in T7, respectively. Similarly, during 2020, bacteria phyla Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were resulted in higher and ranging from 8.69, 5.18, 3.5, 1.9, 4.0, and 1.6%, in biochar applied treatments, respectively, as compared to control (T1). Among the treatments, and bacterial genus were in higher proportion in T7 and T3, respectively, as compared to other treatments and was higher in T6. Interestingly, biochar addition significantly decreased the soil fungi phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Rozellomycota, in 2020 as compared to 2019. Whereas biochar addition to soil decreased , , and fungal genus as compared to non-biochar treatments. The redundancy analysis showed that soil biochemical traits were positively correlated with soil bacteria. In addition, correlation analysis showed that soil bacteria including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria strongly correlated with rice grain yield. This study demonstrated that soil nutrients and bacteria contribute to an increase in rice yield in combined biochar amendment with lower N treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.834751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8984124PMC
March 2022

Untangling the Rhizosphere Bacterial Community Composition and Response of Soil Physiochemical Properties to Different Nitrogen Applications in Sugarcane Field.

Front Microbiol 2022 14;13:856078. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Biology, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.

Minimizing the use of chemical fertilizers and investigating an appropriate ecofriendly level of nitrogen fertilizer is the key to sustainable agriculture. Sugarcane is the main cash crop of China, especially in the Guangxi region. Information regarding the effect of different nitrogen levels on sugarcane rhizosphere microbiota is still limited. In this study, we evaluated the effect of four different levels of nitrogen fertilizers on rhizosphere bacterial composition using high throughput sequencing, along with soil physiochemical properties, sugarcane agronomic and yield performance. The four treatment combinations were CK (no fertilizers), L (Low, 100 kg ha), M (Medium, 150 kg ha), and H (High, 200 kg ha). The results showed that M nitrogen application significantly altered the rhizosphere bacterial community, soil properties, and sugarcane yield. The richness and evenness of the bacterial community were higher in M treatment than CK. In M treatment important bacterial phyla Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria increased by 47 and 71%, respectively; and at genus level, and increased by 77.2 and 30.3%, respectively, compared to CK. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis further confirmed the level of differences among the treatments. The PCA analysis explained 80% of the total variation among the treatments. Spearmen correlation heatmap showed that environmental factors such as pH, AP (available phosphorous), AK (available potassium), and SCAT (soil catalase) were the key factors impacting sugarcane rhizosphere microbiome composition. The H and L nitrogen application alter the bacterial community and sugarcane performance but the M nitrogen application appears to be ecofriendly, productive, and an appropriate nitrogen application rate that could be further used in the Guangxi region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.856078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8964298PMC
March 2022

Impact of Race and Geographic Area of Residence on Outcomes After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant.

Front Oncol 2022 25;12:801879. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HCT) is a potential curative therapy for a variety of hematologic disorders. However, it requires highly specialized care that is only available at select centers across the country. Thus, minority populations are at risk for healthcare disparities in access to and outcomes of allo-HCT. Our study aimed to assess the impact of race and location of residence on outcomes of allo-HCT.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent allo-HCT at the Ohio State University from 1984 to 2018. Patients were divided by race (Caucasian, African American, and other) and grouped by zip code into rural, suburban, and urban groups. Primary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: Of the 1,943 patients included in the study, 94.3% self-identified as Caucasian, 4.6% African American, and 1.1% other. In total, 63.4% lived in rural areas, 22.9% suburban, and 13.8% urban. There was no significant difference in OS or PFS by race ( = 0.15, 0.21) or place of residence ( = 0.39, 0.17). In addition, no difference in nonrelapse mortality, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and GVHD-free relapse-free survival (GRFS) was seen among the race or place of residence.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that when appropriate access to HCT is given, there is no difference in outcomes based on race, ethnicity or place of primary residence. Further research is needed to further evaluate barriers for these patients to undergo transplant and help mitigate these barriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.801879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8913574PMC
February 2022

iThermo: A Sequence-Based Model for Identifying Thermophilic Proteins Using a Multi-Feature Fusion Strategy.

Front Microbiol 2022 22;13:790063. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

School of Life Sciences and Technology, Center for Informational Biology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Thermophilic proteins have important application value in biotechnology and industrial processes. The correct identification of thermophilic proteins provides important information for the application of these proteins in engineering. The identification method of thermophilic proteins based on biochemistry is laborious, time-consuming, and high cost. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a fast and accurate method to identify thermophilic proteins. Considering this urgency, we constructed a reliable benchmark dataset containing 1,368 thermophilic and 1,443 non-thermophilic proteins. A multi-layer perceptron (MLP) model based on a multi-feature fusion strategy was proposed to discriminate thermophilic proteins from non-thermophilic proteins. On independent data set, the proposed model could achieve an accuracy of 96.26%, which demonstrates that the model has a good application prospect. In order to use the model conveniently, a user-friendly software package called iThermo was established and can be freely accessed at http://lin-group.cn/server/iThermo/index.html. The high accuracy of the model and the practicability of the developed software package indicate that this study can accelerate the discovery and engineering application of thermally stable proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.790063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8902591PMC
February 2022

The science of resveratrol, formulation, pharmacokinetic barriers and its chemotherapeutic potential.

Int J Pharm 2022 Apr 26;618:121605. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Chemopreventive properties of resveratrol has been studied for decades. Despite its potential for chemotherapeutic advancement, the compound has pharmaceutical limitations, such as, the drug has a poor pharmacokinetic profile and low bioavailability. Studies have comforting results that that the nano-formulations may aid the future resveratrol drug development. Resveratrol can also be encapsulated as co-drug with an anticipation of gaining improved targeting and pharmacokinetic parameters, as well as achieving desired therapeutic plasma levels. It has been envisaged that the nanoformulations can also address the issue of drug accumulation, which may lead to hepatotoxicity. Nanoformulations can bring a major improvement in the bioavailability of resveratrol but still the formulation still suffers with pharmacokinetics issues clinically. This review encompasses the pharmacokinetics barriers associated with resveratrol and a possible suggestion to overcome those barriers for improving absorbance, reducing toxicity andimproving the drug releaseand encapsulation efficiency. The article also suggest that co-administration of resveratrol with chemotherapeutic drugsmust be tested in vivo on a wide range of cancers to avoid accidental proliferation exacerbation. The review's focusses on the resveratrol formulation and make suggestions for improvements in order to overcome the pharmacokinetic and toxicity issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.121605DOI Listing
April 2022

Atmospheric propagation of space-fractional Gaussian-beam waves in a FSO communication system.

Opt Express 2022 Jan;30(2):1570-1583

We present a novel, self-consistent analytical model of Gaussian-beam propagation through the atmospheric turbulence by solving the paraxial wave equation in a fractional-dimension space of dimension D, in the range 2 < D ≤ 3, corresponding to the effective spatial dimension experienced by the beam under given turbulent conditions in a free space optical (FSO) communication system. The well-known refractive index structure parameter ( 2) has been mapped from D = 2.668 ( 2≈10, strong fluctuations) to D = 2.999 ( 2≈10, weak fluctuations) in our simple analytical model, whereas D = 3 corresponds to the ideal case of free-space propagation under zero turbulence. Finally, an optimization problem is developed to mitigate the effects of atmospheric turbulence, leading to efficient transceiver design for the FSO communication system to ensure the reliability of links under varying atmospheric turbulence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.446708DOI Listing
January 2022

An insight to rhizosphere bacterial community composition and structure of consecutive winter-initiated sugarcane ratoon crop in Southern China.

BMC Plant Biol 2022 Feb 19;22(1):74. Epub 2022 Feb 19.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Biology, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, China.

Background: Ratooning in sugarcane is a crucial strategy for ensuring the long-term sustainability of the sugarcane industry. Knowledge gap relating to the interaction between rhizosphere microbiome and ratooning crop, particularly the impact of different sugarcane cultivars on the rhizosphere microbiome in consecutive ratooning, requires additional research. The response of two different sugarcane cultivars, viz ZZ-1 and ZZ-13, were evaluated in consecutive ratooning towards the rhizosphere microbial community and cane morphological characters.

Results: Significant changes in the rhizosphere microbiome were observed in the second ratooning over the years. Several important genera were observed in high abundance during the second ratooning, including Burkholderia, Sphingomonas, Bradyzhizobium, and Acidothermus. Cultivar ZZ-13 caused more alterations in the rhizosphere microbiome than ZZ-1, resulting in a more favorable rhizosphere environment for sugarcane growth. The genotypes also varied in terms of nutrients and enzyme activity over the years. There were significant differences between the genotypes and year for number of stalks and yield was significant for genotypes, years and genotype × year.

Conclusion: This finding will help to understand thorough interactions between rhizosphere microorganisms and ratoon sugarcane and lay the foundation for promoting and maximizing yield as far as possible. In the future, this work can serve as guidance in sugarcane husbandry, mainly in Guangxi, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-022-03463-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8857817PMC
February 2022

A Case of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction With Right Bundle Branch Block, an Ominous Sign of Critical Coronary Occlusion.

Cureus 2022 Jan 13;14(1):e21216. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Cardiology, Brookdale University Hospital Medical Center, Brooklyn, USA.

Coronary artery disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is one of its most serious manifestations. While STEMI itself is an ominous sign, there are other sinister electrocardiogram (EKG) patterns that are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, one of which is STEMI with right bundle branch block (RBBB). Blood supply to the right bundle comes from the left coronary circulation. Intuitively, RBBB in the setting of anterior wall myocardial infarction would indicate more extensive myocardial involvement and thus portend a worse prognosis. This case presents the significance of the association of new RBBB with critical lesions of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), therefore a low threshold for emergent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A 63-year-old man with a known history of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia non-compliant with medications presented to the emergency department (ED) after a visit with his primary care physician, with a chief complaint of exertional substernal chest pain for a one-week duration. His EKG on arrival showed significant ST-segment elevation with an atypical EKG pattern showing RBBB in V1-V2 with ST depression in reciprocal leads. Cardiac biomarkers showed an initial troponin I value of 0.441 ng/mL. Due to his persistent, worsening chest pain and associated nausea with episodes of vomiting, he was taken for an emergent cardiac catheterization that revealed a 100% lesion in his proximal LAD. The procedure was complicated by the development of cardiogenic shock requiring intra-aortic balloon pumps and vasopressors. A successful primary PCI was performed with drug-eluting stent (DES) to the 100% lesion in the proximal LAD and DES to the 80% lesions in the mid LAD, with 0% residual stenosis after the intervention. There was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 0 flow pre-procedure and TIMI 3 flow post-intervention. Left ventriculography revealed anterolateral akinesis, apical akinesis, and diaphragmatic hypokinesis with an estimated ejection fraction (EF) of 20%. Transthoracic echocardiogram was repeated prior to discharge. Left ventricular (LV) systolic function was normal by visual assessment, and EF was noted to be ~55%. The patient continued on dual antiplatelet therapy and the rest of goal-directed medical therapy for coronary artery disease post-procedure. New-onset RBBB in the patient with typical STEMI in the context of ischemic symptoms should raise suspicion of critical proximal LAD coronary occlusion. It is increasingly being recognized as one of the significant EKG patterns for occlusive myocardial infarction associated with the worst outcome and mortality, highlighting the need to pay critical attention to these patients. Given the poor prognosis of these patients in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), it is essential to minimize the delay in initiating reperfusion therapy as they can potentially benefit from emergent intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.21216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8840869PMC
January 2022

An Uninformed Decision-Making Process for Cesarean Section: A Qualitative Exploratory Study among the Slum Residents of Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 01 27;19(3). Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Maternal and Child Health Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh.

The decision-making process and the information flow from physicians to patients regarding deliveries through cesarean section (C-section) has not been adequately explored in Bangladeshi context. Here, we aimed to explore the extent of information received by mothers and their family members and their involvement in the decision-making process. We conducted a qualitative exploratory study in four urban slums of Dhaka city among purposively selected mothers ( = 7), who had a cesarean birth within one-year preceding data collection, and their family members ( = 12). In most cases, physicians were the primary decision-makers for C-sections. At the household level, pregnant women were excluded from some crucial steps of the decision-making process and information asymmetry was prevalent. All interviewed pregnant women attended at least one antenatal care visit; however, they neither received detailed information regarding C-sections nor attended any counseling session regarding decisions around delivery type. In some cases, pregnant women and their family members did not ask health care providers for detailed information about C-sections. Most seemed to perceive C-sections as risk-free procedures. Future research could explore the best ways to provide C-section-related information to pregnant women during the antenatal period and develop interventions to promote shared decision-making for C-sections in urban Bangladeshi slums.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8835678PMC
January 2022

Effects of Various Polymeric Films on the Pericarp Microstructure and Storability of Longan (cv. Shixia) Fruit Treated with Propyl Disulfide Essential Oil from the Neem () Plant.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Jan 28;14(3). Epub 2022 Jan 28.

School of Light Industry and Food Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

Plant extracts represent a rich repository of metabolites with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Neem () is a medicinal plant considered the tree of the 21st century. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of propyl disulfide (PD), a major volatile compound in neem seed, against the pericarp browning (BI), microbial decay incidence (DI), and water loss of longan fruit. Fresh longan cv. Shixia samples were packaged in oriented polypropylene (OPP) and polyethene (PE) packages of different thicknesses (20, 40, and 60 µm). Sterile gauze was fixed inside the packages and 500 uL of PD was placed on them to avoid the direct contact of PD with fruit samples. Packages were sealed immediately to minimize vaporization and stored at 12 ± 1 °C for 18 days. Fruit samples packaged in open net packages served as controls. The results showed that fruit treated with PD in OPP and PE packages significantly prevented losses of water, DI, and BI compared to control treatment. PD also maintained the color, TSS values, TA values, pH values, high peel firmness, high TPC content, and high TFC content, and reduced the activity levels of PPO and POD. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis indicated that the exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp of longan peel were smooth, uniform, and compact with no free space compared to control, where crakes, a damaged and loose structure, and a lot of fungal mycelia were found. The shortest shelf life of 9 days was observed in control as compared to 18 days in OPP-20 and OPP-40; 15 days in OPP-60, PE-20, and PE-40; and 12 days in PE-60 packaging films. Therefore, PD as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent, in combination with OPP-20 and OPP-40 polymeric films, could successfully be applied commercially to extend the postharvest shelf life of longan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14030536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8839377PMC
January 2022

A unique technique to size pediatric endotracheal tubes.

Authors:
Abdullah Khan

Resusc Plus 2022 Mar 2;9:100207. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Sidra Medicine, Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Ar-Rayyan, Doha, Qatar.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resplu.2022.100207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8814378PMC
March 2022

Platelets and Antiplatelet Medication in COVID-19-Related Thrombotic Complications.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 24;8:802566. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Department of Vascular Biology and Thrombosis Research, Centre of Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induces a hypercoagulatory state that frequently leads to thromboembolic complications. Whereas anticoagulation is associated with reduced mortality, the role of antiplatelet therapy in COVID-19 is less clear. We retrospectively analyzed the effect of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy in 578 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and prospectively monitored 110 patients for circulating microthrombi and plasma markers of coagulation in the first week of admission. Moreover, we determined platelet shape change and also thrombi in postmortem lung biopsies in a subset of patients with COVID-19. We observed no association of antiplatelet therapy with COVID-19 survival. Adverse outcome in COVID-19 was associated with increased activation of the coagulation cascade, whereas circulating microthrombi did not increase in aggravated disease. This was in line with analysis of postmortem lung biopsies of patients with COVID-19, which revealed generally fibrin(ogen)-rich and platelet-low thrombi. Platelet spreading was normal in severe COVID-19 cases; however, plasma from patients with COVID-19 mediated an outcome-dependent inhibitory effect on naïve platelets. Antiplatelet medication disproportionally exacerbated this platelet impairment in plasma of patients with fatal outcome. Taken together, this study shows that unfavorable outcome in COVID-19 is associated with a profound dysregulation of the coagulation system, whereas the contribution of platelets to thrombotic complications is less clear. Adverse outcome may be associated with impaired platelet function or platelet exhaustion. In line, antiplatelet therapy was not associated with beneficial outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.802566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8818754PMC
January 2022

An Improved Strategy for Task Scheduling in the Parallel Computational Alignment of Multiple Sequences.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 28;2022:8691646. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Department of Computer Science and IT, Agriculture University Peshawar, Pakistan.

Task scheduling in parallel multiple sequence alignment (MSA) through improved dynamic programming optimization speeds up alignment processing. The increased importance of multiple matching sequences also needs the utilization of parallel processor systems. This dynamic algorithm proposes improved task scheduling in case of parallel MSA. Specifically, the alignment of several tertiary structured proteins is computationally complex than simple word-based MSA. Parallel task processing is computationally more efficient for protein-structured based superposition. The basic condition for the application of dynamic programming is also fulfilled, because the task scheduling problem has multiple possible solutions or options. Search space reduction for speedy processing of this algorithm is carried out through greedy strategy. Performance in terms of better results is ensured through computationally expensive recursive and iterative greedy approaches. Any optimal scheduling schemes show better performance in heterogeneous resources using CPU or GPU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/8691646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8816563PMC
March 2022

Manifestation of Panuveitis after Intraocular Surgery in a Child with Blau Syndrome.

Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul-Sep;28(3):196-198. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Division of Vitreoretinal, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Blau syndrome (BS) is a rare granulomatous disease with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by a triad of dermatitis, arthritis, and recurrent uveitis. This case presents the onset of panuveitis in BS after intraocular surgery. A 10-year-old boy presented to the outpatient clinic with retinal detachment in the left eye after 6 years following early-onset cataract surgery. Bilateral panuveitis occurred 3 weeks after surgical repair and resulted in a total visual loss in the left eye and was persistent to conventional treatment in the right eye. Genetic testing revealed a mutation in gene. The addition of adalimumab to the treatment regimen resulted in long-term uveitis control and maintenance of 20/70 vision in the right eye. We propose that NOD2-mediated inflammatory cascade can be activated by intraocular surgery and results in the manifestation of BS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/meajo.meajo_15_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8763097PMC
February 2022

A higher proportion of patients may reach the MCID with capsular closure in patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2022 Jul 4;30(7):2425-2456. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McMaster University Medical Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main St West, Hamilton, ON, 4E15L8N 3Z5, Canada.

Purpose: The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the techniques and outcomes of various capsular management strategies in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The information this review provides on capsular management strategies will provide surgeons with operative guidance and decision-making when managing patients with FAI lesions arthroscopically.

Methods: Three databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched from database inception to November 2nd 2021, for literature addressing capsular management of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAI. All level I-IV data on capsular management strategy as well as postoperative functional outcomes were recorded. A meta-analysis was used to combine the mean postoperative functional outcomes using a random-effects model.

Results: Overall, there were a total of 36 studies and 4744 patients included in this review. The mean MINORS score was 10.7 (range 8-13) for non-comparative studies and 17.6 (range 15-20) for comparative studies. Three comparative studies in 1302 patients examining the proportion of patients reaching the MCID for the mHHS score in patients undergoing interportal capsulotomy with either capsular repair or no repair found that the capsular repair group had a higher odds ratio of reaching the MCID at 1.46 (95% CI 0.61-3.45, I = 67%, Fig. 2, Table 3); however, this difference was not significant with a p value of 0.39. When looking at only level 1 and 2 studies, four studies in 1308 patients reporting on the mHHS score in patients undergoing capsular closure regardless of capsulotomy type, found a pooled standardized mean difference in the mHHS score of 2.1 (95% CI 1.7-2.55, I = 70%, Fig. 3), while four studies in 402 patients reporting on the mHHS score in patients not undergoing capsular closure regardless of capsulotomy type found a pooled standardized mean difference in the mHHS score of 1.46 (95% CI 1.2-1.7, I = 30%, Fig. 4).

Conclusion: This review may demonstrate improved postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing complete capsular closure regardless of capsulotomy type based on postoperative mHHS score. Furthermore, this review may suggest improved postoperative outcomes after closure of an interportal capsulotomy. There are limited published outcome data regarding T-type capsulotomy without closure. This review provides surgeons with operative guidance on capsular management strategies when treating patients with FAI lesions arthroscopically.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-022-06877-9DOI Listing
July 2022
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