Publications by authors named "Abdullah Alzahrani"

118 Publications

Beneficial role of naringin against methotrexate-induced injury to rat testes: biochemical and ultrastructural analyses.

Redox Rep 2022 Dec;27(1):158-166

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Background: Methotrexate (MTX) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug that has adverse toxic effects on germ cells. Naringin (NG) is a natural flavanone glycoside, with different phytotherapeutic applications, and its possible protective effects against MTX-induced testicular tissue damage were investigated in this study.

Methods: Low and high doses of NG (40 and 80 mg/kg/day) were given for 10 days by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and MTX (20 mg/kg i.p.) was given at the 4th day of the experiment, with or without NG in rats.

Results: The obtained results showed that exposure to MTX increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and nitric oxide (NO) production compared with the control. In the meantime, MTX depleted catalse (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the testicular tissue. Further, serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in the MTX group. NG significantly counteracted the aforementioned effects of MTX; however, NG80 was more effective in restoring SOD, GR, MDA and NO. Interestingly, NG80 achieved a better improvement in the ultrastructural pattern of the testicular cells in MTX-exposed rats.

Conclusion: These results indicated, for the first time, that NG could be a potential candidate therapy against MTX-reprotoxic impacts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13510002.2022.2101832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9310850PMC
December 2022

Fabrication of a shell-core fixed-dose combination tablet using fused deposition modeling 3D printing.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2022 Aug 11;177:211-223. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA; Pii Center for Pharmaceutical Technology, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA. Electronic address:

Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) achieve optimal goals for treatment with minimal side effects, decreased administration of large number of tablets, thus, greater convenience, and improved patient compliance. However, conventional FDCs do not have a guaranteed place in the future of patient-centered drug development because of the difficulty in achieving dose titration of each drug for individualized specific health needs and desired therapeutic outcomes. In the current study, FDCs of two antihypertensive drugs were fabricated with two distinct compartments using fused deposition modeling three-dimensional printing (FDM-3DP). Atorvastatin calcium and Amlodipine besylate loaded filaments were prepared by hot-melt extrusion. Shell-core FDC tablets were designed to have different infills for individualized dosing. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that both drugs were transformed into amorphous forms within the polymeric carriers. The fabricated tablets met the United States Pharmacopeia acceptance criteria for friability, content uniformity, and dissolution testing. The fabricated tablets were stable at room temperature with respect to drug content and thermal behavior over six months. This dynamic dosage form provides flexibility in dose titration and maintains the advantages of FDCs, thus achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes in different healthcare facilities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.07.003DOI Listing
August 2022

CM-CPPA: Chaotic Map-Based Conditional Privacy-Preserving Authentication Scheme in 5G-Enabled Vehicular Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Jul 3;22(13). Epub 2022 Jul 3.

CBA-Yanbu, Taibah University, Al Madinah 42353, Saudi Arabia.

The security and privacy concerns in vehicular communication are often faced with schemes depending on either elliptic curve (EC) or bilinear pair (BP) cryptographies. However, the operations used by BP and EC are time-consuming and more complicated. None of the previous studies fittingly tackled the efficient performance of signing messages and verifying signatures. Therefore, a chaotic map-based conditional privacy-preserving authentication (CM-CPPA) scheme is proposed to provide communication security in 5G-enabled vehicular networks in this paper. The proposed CM-CPPA scheme employs a Chebyshev polynomial mapping operation and a hash function based on a chaotic map to sign and verify messages. Furthermore, by using the AVISPA simulator for security analysis, the results of the proposed CM-CPPA scheme are good and safe against general attacks. Since EC and BP operations do not employ the proposed CM-CPPA scheme, their performance evaluation in terms of overhead such as computation and communication outperforms other most recent related schemes. Ultimately, the proposed CM-CPPA scheme decreases the overhead of computation of verifying the signatures and signing the messages by 24.2% and 62.52%, respectively. Whilst, the proposed CM-CPPA scheme decreases the overhead of communication of the format tuple by 57.69%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22135026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9269849PMC
July 2022

A Rare Cause of Ascites in Preterm Baby: A Case Report.

Cureus 2022 Jun 1;14(6):e25577. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Neonatology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Western Region, Jeddah, SAU.

Bladder rupture leading to urinary ascites in neonates is a very rare occurrence. It can present as a clinical emergency, requiring resuscitation, ventilator support, and acute derangement in renal function. There are only a few reported cases so far in the literature. The commonest etiology is posterior urethral valves which can occasionally lead to urinary ascites even in fetal life. But other proposed etiologies are umbilical arterial catheterization in extreme preterm babies and iatrogenic due to urethral catheterization injuries. Early detection is crucial so that appropriate management, including surgical drainage of the urine if performed early, can lead to the normalization of renal function. Large perforations may need surgical repair after stabilization. These cases can be a challenge for both neonatologists and surgeons. We report a case of bladder perforation in an extreme preterm baby at our hospital.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9249389PMC
June 2022

A systematic and robust assessment of hot-melt extrusion-based amorphous solid dispersions: Theoretical prediction to practical implementation.

Int J Pharm 2022 Jun 23;624:121951. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA; Pii Center for Pharmaceutical Technology, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA. Electronic address:

Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) have gained attention as a formulation strategy in recent years, with the potential to improve the apparent solubility and, hence, the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. The process of formulating ASDs is commonly faced with challenges owing to the intrinsic physical and chemical instability of the initial amorphous form and the long-term physical stability of drug formulations. Numerous research publications on hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology have demonstrated that it is the most efficient approach for manufacturing reasonably stable ASDs. The HME technique has been established as a faster scale-up production strategy for formulation evaluation and has the potential to minimize the time to market. Thermodynamic evaluation and theoretical predictions of drug-polymer solubility and miscibility may assist to reduce the product development cost by HME. This review article highlights robust and established prediction theories and experimental approaches for the selection of polymeric carriers for the development of hot melt extrusion based stable amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). In addition, this review makes a significant contribution to the literature as a pilot guide for ASD assessment, as well as to confirm the drug-polymer compatibility and physical stability of HME-based formulations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.121951DOI Listing
June 2022

Viscoelastic and Properties of Amphiphilic Chitin in Plasticised Polylactic Acid/Starch Biocomposite.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Jun 2;14(11). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

The enhancement of the PLA thermomechanical properties is significant due to its suitability as a replacement for primary synthetic polymer use in diverse industrial production. The amphiphilic chitin was used as a compatibilizer in PLA/starch biocomposite. The properties of plasticised polylactic acid blended with starch, and amphiphilic chitin was studied for enhanced thermomechanical and viscoelastic properties. Chitin was modified using acetylated substitution reaction and blended with plasticised PLA/starch biocomposite. The biocomposite was prepared with combined compression and melt extrusion techniques. The biocomposite's thermomechanical, thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis, TGA-DSC, tensile test, and scanning electron microscopy. The storage and loss modulus were significantly enhanced with increased amphiphilic chitin content. Similarly, the single peak of tan delta showed good miscibility of the polymeric blend. Additionally, the modulus increases with frequency change from 1 Hz to 10 Hz. The thermal stability of the biocomposite was observed to be lower than the neat PLA. The tensile properties of the biocomposite increased significantly more than the neat PLA, with P4S4C having the highest tensile strength and modulus of 87 MPa and 7600 MPa. The SEM images show good miscibility with no significant void in the fractured surface. The viscoelastic properties of PLA were enhanced considerably with plasticizer and amphiphilic chitin with improved biodegradability. The properties of the biocomposite can be adapted for various industrial applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14112268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9182625PMC
June 2022

The Therapeutic and Prophylactic Potential of Quercetin against COVID-19: An Outlook on the Clinical Studies, Inventive Compositions, and Patent Literature.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Quercetin is a phenolic flavonol compound with established antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immuno-stimulant properties. Recent studies demonstrate the potential of quercetin against COVID-19. This article highlighted the prophylactic/therapeutic potential of quercetin against COVID-19 in view of its clinical studies, inventions, and patents. The literature for the subject matter was collected utilizing different databases, including PubMed, Sci-Finder, Espacenet, Patentscope, and USPTO. Clinical studies expose the potential of quercetin monotherapy, and also its combination therapy with other compounds, including zinc, vitamin C, curcumin, vitamin D3, masitinib, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and ivermectin. The patent literature also examines claims that quercetin containing nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and dietary supplements, alone or in combination with other drugs/compounds, including favipiravir, remdesivir, molnupiravir, navitoclax, dasatinib, disulfiram, rucaparib, tamarixin, iota-carrageenan, and various herbal extracts (aloe, poria, rosemary, and sphagnum) has potential for use against COVID-19. The literature reveals that quercetin exhibits anti-COVID-19 activity because of its inhibitory effect on the expression of the human ACE2 receptors and the enzymes of SARS-CoV-2 (MPro, PLPro, and RdRp). The USFDA designated quercetin as a "Generally Recognized as Safe" substance for use in the food and beverage industries. It is also an inexpensive and readily available compound. These facts increase the possibility and foreseeability of making novel and economical drug combinations containing quercetin to prevent/treat COVID-19. Quercetin is an acidic compound and shows metabolic interaction with some antivirals, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents. Therefore, the physicochemical and metabolic drug interactions between quercetin and the combined drugs/compounds must be better understood before developing new compositions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9137692PMC
April 2022

Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence Methods to Estimate the Compressive Strength of Geopolymers.

Gels 2022 Apr 26;8(5). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, College of Engineering, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia.

The depletion of natural resources and greenhouse gas emissions related to the manufacture and use of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pose serious concerns to the environment and human life. The present research focuses on using alternative binders to replace OPC. Geopolymer might be the best option because it requires waste materials enriched in aluminosilicate for its production. The research on geopolymer concrete (GPC) is growing rapidly. However, substantial effort and expenses are required to cast specimens, cures, and tests. Applying novel techniques for the said purpose is the key requirement for rapid and cost-effective research. In this research, supervised machine learning (SML) techniques, including two individual (decision tree (DT) and gene expression programming (GEP)) and two ensembled (bagging regressor (BR) and random forest (RF)) algorithms were employed to estimate the compressive strength (CS) of GPC. The validity and comparison of all the models were made using the coefficient of determination (R), k-fold, and statistical assessments. It was noticed that the ensembled SML techniques performed better than the individual SML techniques in forecasting the CS of GPC. However, individual SML model results were also in the reasonable range. The R value for BR, RF, GEP, and DT models was 0.96, 0.95, 0.93, and 0.88, respectively. The models' lower error values such as mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square errors (RMSE) also verified the higher precision of ensemble SML methods. The RF (MAE = 2.585 MPa, RMSE = 3.702 MPa) and BR (MAE = 2.044 MPa, RMSE = 3.180) results are better than the DT (MAE = 4.136 MPa, RMSE = 6.256 MPa) and GEP (MAE = 3.102 MPa, RMSE = 4.049 MPa). The application of SML techniques will benefit the construction sector with fast and cost-effective methods for estimating the properties of materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/gels8050271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9140756PMC
April 2022

Pharmacological Testing of Herbal Drugs for Anti-Allergic and Anti-Asthmatic Properties.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2021 Oct-Dec;13(4):380-386. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Modern University for Technology and Information, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling. Asthma prevalence has increased significantly globally over the last decade, and it remains incurable to this date.

Aims And Objectives: The present study evaluated some of the antiasthmatic medicinal plants to assess their mode of action.

Materials And Method: Animal models for milk-induced leukocytosis, milk-induced eosinophilia, mast cell degranulation, clonidine-induced catalepsy, and active paw anaphylaxis were used to assess the pharmacological effects of Ammi visnaga, Medicago sativa, and Urtica dioica.

Results: Mice pretreated with diazepam, methanolic extract of , and exhibited significant ( < 0.05) inhibition in milk-induced leukocytosis. However, only showed statistically significant ( < 0.05) results. All plants showed a statistically significant ( < 0.05) tendency to decrease milk-induced eosinophilia. Methanolic extracts of all plants significantly ( < 0.05) protected mast cells against degranulation by clonidine. and significantly ( < 0.05) protected mice against clonidine-induced catalepsy. An acute treatment by potentiated the catalepsy, while it significantly inhibited the catalepsy ( < 0.05) upon chronic treatment. In the allergic inflammation model, methanolic extracts of all plants under study decreased paw thickness in a statistically significant manner ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: All the three plants in this study demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic effects, as well as decreased paw thickness, validate anti-allergic properties. showed a mast cell-stabilizing effect. and inhibited the histamine-mediated clonidine-induced catalepsy from mast cells which proves the antihistaminic activity of these plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpbs.jpbs_454_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8985834PMC
March 2022

Rhabdomyolysis Induced by Rhinovirus: A Case Report.

Cureus 2022 Mar 2;14(3):e22784. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, SAU.

The occurrence of rhabdomyolysis in pediatric patients is considered a rare complication that can follow certain viral infections in a syndrome better defined as virus-associated rhabdomyolysis. In this research, we will present the case of a ten-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency department with chief complaints of severe bilateral leg pain and inability to walk. Furthermore, the patient complained of dysphagia for both solid and liquid along with dark-colored urine. Initial investigations showed an increase in creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), and liver enzymes. Additionally, urine analysis was obtained with positive traces of blood, protein, and white blood cell. X-ray was ordered with no significant finding. Finally, the diagnosis was reached in accordance to the results of the respiratory panel multiplex (PCR) as the third case of rhinovirus-induced rhabdomyolysis. He was treated with isotonic intravenous fluids, and he was discharged on hospital day 20 with a CK of 2062 IU/L. The patient was discharged fully recovered, was able to stand and walk alone, and with no complications. In this third to be reported case of rhinovirus-induced rhabdomyolysis, we aim to increase the knowledge among the general pediatric field regarding the possible presentation and treatment of any similar case.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.22784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8971096PMC
March 2022

Relationship of Mineralogical Composition to Thermal Expansion, Spectral Reflectance, and Physico-Mechanical Aspects of Commercial Ornamental Granitic Rocks.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Mar 10;15(6). Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Geological Sciences Department, National Research Centre, 33 El BohoothSt. (Former El TahrirSt.), Dokki, Giza P.O. Box 12622, Egypt.

The aim of the present study is to link the thermal expansion, spectral reflectance, and physico-mechanical aspects of different types of commercial granitic rocks with their mineralogical and chemical composition. The granitic rock types were characterized using several analyses, including petrography, chemical, mineralogical, and thermo-gravimetrical analysis using XRF, XRD, and TG/DTG/DSC techniques. The rock types were subjected to several performance tests, such as tests of their thermal expansion, spectral reflectance, and physico-mechanical properties. The results revealed that quartz, albite, and potash feldspar with minor amounts of mica (biotite/muscovite/annite) are the main mineralogical constitutes, in addition to some alteration minerals, such as kaolinite, saussorite, and prehnite. The studied granitic rocks were classified as monzogranite/syenogranite of high K-calc-alkaline and peraluminous characters and are related to late- to post-collisional settings. The thermogravimetrical analysis revealed that the overall mass loss over the whole temperature range up to 978 °C did not exceed 3% of the initial weight for all studied rocks. The results of thermal expansion revealed that the maximum change in linear thermal expansion for all rock types did not exceed 0.015% of their initial lengths at an unusual air temperature of 50 °C. The spectral analysis revealed that iron and hydroxyl ions are the main spectral absorption features that appeared in the VIS-NIR and SWIR regions, in addition to the appearance of the common and distinctive absorption peaks of the main mineral composition. Furthermore, the spectral reflectance demonstrated that the granitic rock types of low iron oxide content achieved a high reflectivity percent in the VIS-NIR and SWIR spectral regions compared with those of high iron content. As a general trend, the granitic rock types of high iron content and/or lower quartz content exhibited a high performance regarding their physical and mechanical properties, such as water absorption, apparent porosity, bulk density, compressive strength, and abrasion resistance. The results of water absorption, density, strength, and abrasion resistance of the studied granitic rocks are in the range of 0.14-0.31%, 2582-2644 kg/m, 77.85-222.75 MPa, and 26.27-55.91 Ha, respectively, conforming to the requirements of ornamental stones according to the ASTM standard.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15062041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8950072PMC
March 2022

Effects of polyphenols on ncRNAs in cancer-An update.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2022 Jun 2;49(6):613-623. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

College of Science, Department of Biological Sciences, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

In recent years, oncotherapy has received considerable attention concerning plant polyphenols. Increasing evidence suggests that because of the efficiency of polyphenols, they may have anti-tumour effects in various cancers. However, their regulatory structures remain elusive. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in the regulation of various forms of tumorigenesis and tumour development. Long non-coding RNAs have recently emerged as regulatory eukaryotic transcripts and therapeutic targets with important and diverse functions in health and diseases. LncRNAs may be associated with the initiation, development, and progression of cancer. This review summarizes the research on the modulatory effects of IncRNAs and their roles in mediating cellular processes. The mechanisms of action of polyphenols underlying their therapeutic effects on cancers are also discussed. Based on our review, polyphenols might facilitate a significant epigenetic modification as part of their tissue- and/or cell-related biological effects. This finding may be attributed to their interaction with cellular signalling pathways involved in chronic diseases. Certain lncRNAs might be the target of specific polyphenols, and some critical signalling processes involved in the intervention of cancers might mediate the therapeutic roles of polyphenols.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.13641DOI Listing
June 2022

Ag NPs supported chitosan-agarose modified FeO nanocomposite catalyzed synthesis of indazolo[2,1-b]phthalazines and anticancer studies against liver and lung cancer cells.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 May 5;208:20-28. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt.

In this article we report a novel Ag NPs fabricated chitosan-agarose composite functionalized core-shell type FeO nanoparticle (Ag/[email protected]). The biogenic material was analyzed over a number of physicochemical methods like, FT-IR, FE-SEM, TEM, EDX, XRD, VSM and ICP-OES. In catalytic exploration we aimed the synthesis of diverse 2H-indazolo0-b]phthalazine-trione derivatives via one-pot three component coupling of phathalalhydrazide, dimedone and different aldehydes. It afforded good to excellent yields under solvent-less conditions. Robustness of the catalyst was justified by catalyst recyclability for consecutive 10 times, hot filtration and leaching tests. Again, biological activity of the material was evaluated by studying the antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties over lung and liver cancer cell lines. Antioxidant potential of Ag/[email protected] was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging studies and the corresponding IC50 was found to be 96.57 μg/mL. Liver and lung cancer studies over Ag/[email protected] was carried out by MTT assay against HepG2 and A549 cell lines. The corresponding IC50 values were found as 192.35 and 365.28 μg/mL respectively. % Cell viability of the nanomaterial decreased dose dependently over both the cell lines without any cytotoxicity on normal cell line. The results demonstrates Ag/[email protected] nanocomposite to be an efficient chemotherapeutic drug against the lung and hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.02.172DOI Listing
May 2022

Limited Impact of the Protein Corona on the Cellular Uptake of PEGylated Zein Micelles by Melanoma Cancer Cells.

Pharmaceutics 2022 Feb 18;14(2). Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, UK.

The formation of a protein layer "corona" on the nanoparticle surface upon entry into a biological environment was shown to strongly influence the interactions with cells, especially affecting the uptake of nanomedicines. In this work, we present the impact of the protein corona on the uptake of PEGylated zein micelles by cancer cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Zein was successfully conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) of varying chain lengths (5K and 10K) and assembled into micelles. Our results demonstrate that PEGylation conferred stealth effects to the zein micelles. The presence of human plasma did not impact the uptake levels of the micelles by melanoma cancer cells, regardless of the PEG chain length used. In contrast, it decreased the uptake by macrophages and dendritic cells. These results therefore make PEGylated zein micelles promising as potential drug delivery systems for cancer therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14020439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8877401PMC
February 2022

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Bee Venom Acupuncture Therapy on Rheumatoid Arthritis Among Patients in Saudi Arabia.

Int J Gen Med 2022 5;15:1171-1183. Epub 2022 Feb 5.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Bee venom acupuncture therapy (BVT) is an alternative therapy used worldwide by patients with different chronic diseases due to its therapeutic effects on conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previous studies have illustrated the clinical effects of BVT on RA, but such a study has yet to be performed in Saudi Arabia (SA). It is important to evaluate BVT awareness among citizens of SA to measure the feasibility of conducting clinical trials of BVT in patients with RA in SA. This study aims to measure the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of BVT on RA and other chronic diseases in SA. This will help determine whether patients with RA have sufficient knowledge to be enrolled in clinical trials.

Patients And Methods: A cross-sectional study of 180 patients with RA in SA was conducted using a KAP questionnaire on BVT. Individuals completed an online questionnaire using the Survey Monkey website. Data were obtained by self-completion of the online KAP questionnaire regarding BVT.

Results: A total of 180 patients with RA and other chronic diseases, with a mean age of 45 years (18-70 years), participated in the study. The results of the questionnaire showed that 55% of the participants demonstrated a good knowledge of BVT treatment; however, they also reported a poor attitude (55%) and practice (55%). Participants with RA demonstrated higher severity of disease (80%) than those with other chronic diseases. Participants with RA showed better KAP responses towards BVT than those with other chronic diseases. Participants with school education only and those who were beekeepers demonstrated significantly better KAP responses (P < 0.05) compared to participants who had received university education and those who were not beekeepers, respectively.

Conclusion: Participants with strong RA knowledge may prove that patients from SA can be enrolled in BVT clinical trials. The participants' poor attitudes and practices may be due to BVT being expensive and unavailable in many cities in SA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S351315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8827632PMC
February 2022

Creation of Hydrochlorothiazide Pharmaceutical Cocrystals Via Hot-Melt Extrusion for Enhanced Solubility and Permeability.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2022 Jan 18;23(1):56. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, Oxford, Mississippi, 38677, USA.

Crystal engineering is an emerging tool for altering the physicochemical properties of drug candidates. The objective of the current investigation was to develop cocrystals of hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) with coformers such as nicotinamide (NIC), resorcinol (RSL), and catechol (CAT) using hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology. The liquid-assisted grinding (LAG) method was used to prepare cocrystals by grinding the drug and coformer in a definite molar ratio as a reference and to check the feasibility of cocrystal formation. Cocrystals were prepared using HME and evaluated with differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy and compared with LAG cocrystals. Barrel temperature was the critical process parameter for producing high-quality cocrystals in HME. All cocrystals exhibited improved solubility compared to the native drug, and HCT-NIC cocrystals showed a two-fold increase in solubility. Similarly, HCT-RSL and HCT-CAT showed higher solubility profiles and improved diffusion/permeability characteristics compared to that of the pure HCT due to the drug-coformer interactions in the cocrystals. In this study, the solubility of the coformer was the key factor determining cocrystal solubilization. However, hot-melt extrusion is an alternative technology for creating pharmaceutical cocrystals and has potential for industrial scale-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-021-02202-8DOI Listing
January 2022

HPLC/MS Profiling and Healing Activity of a Muco-Adhesive Formula of against Acetic Acid-Induced Oral Ulcer in Rats.

Nutrients 2021 Dec 22;14(1). Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El Sherouk City 11837, Egypt.

L. (, Siwak) is an ethnic plant that is widely used for improving oral hygiene. This study aimed to provide a phytochemical profiling of ethyl acetate fraction (SPEAF) and to evaluate the healing activity of a muco-adhesive formula of the fraction against acetic acid-induced oral ulcers in rats. HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS-MS analysis of SPEAF resulted in the tentative identification of 56 metabolites containing fatty acids (23%), urea derivatives (10.5%) and sulphur compounds (10%), in addition to several amides, polyphenols and organic acids (6.5%, 5% and 2%, respectively). For the first time, 19 compounds were identified from In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that the extract is non-toxic. SPEAF exhibited superior healing activities compared to both the negative and positive control groups on days 7 and 14 of tongue ulcer induction. This was confirmed by histopathological examinations of haematoxylin and eosin-stained (H&E) and Masson's trichrome-stained tongue sections. Moreover, SPEAF showed potent anti-inflammatory activities, as evidenced by the inhibited expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, SPEAF exhibited potent antioxidant activity, as it prevented malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion and superoxide dismutase (SOD) exhaustion. SPEAF significantly enhanced hydroxyproline tongue content and upregulated collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1A1) mRNA expression. SPEAF also improved angiogenesis, as shown by the increased mRNA expression of the angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1). In conclusion, has a wide range of secondary metabolites and ameliorates acetic acid-induced tongue ulcers in rats. This can be attributed, at least partly, to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, procollagen and angiogenic activities. These findings provide support and validity for the use of as a traditional and conventional treatment for oral disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14010028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8746813PMC
December 2021

Hepatoprotective effects of methanolic extract of green tea against Thioacetamide-Induced liver injury in Sprague Dawley rats.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2022 Jan 16;29(1):564-573. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Science, Cihan University-Erbil, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Since ancient times, herbal medicines have been applied in the treatment of cancer. Tea, derivative from the dried leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze plant is the most popular beverage globally after water and is available in various forms. Green tea has been expansively investigated for its beneficial properties of cancer prevention and therapy. The goal of the research: The current study was conducted to evaluate the hepaprotective character of methanolic green tea extract and its mechanism of action contrary to thioacetamide (TAA)-produced liver fibrosis of Sprague Dawley rats.

Materials And Methods: Thirty rodents were equally placed in 5 clusters including normal control, TAA group as a positive control, silymarin as standard drug control, and treatment groups consisting of high dose and a low dose Camellia sinensis. Rats in experimental clusters by mouth fed with C. sinensis at 250 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg daily for 2 months. After 60 days, all rats were sacrificed. Blood specimens were gathered for liver biochemical examination. Livers of all groups were dissected out and subjected to histopathological examination through the Hematoxylin and Eosin stain, Masson trichrome, and immunohistochemistry stains (PCNA). Liver tissue homogenate was also analyzed for antioxidant activity parameters.

Results: Gross morphological examination showed a regular liver architecture in C. sinensis fed collections compared to the TAA sets. Histology of rat's liver fed with C. sinensis showed an important decrease in the liver index with hepatic cells propagation, mild cellular injury, and immunostaining showed significant down-expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). TAA produced liver fibrosis through a significant increase in serum alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin. Total protein and albumin also decreased in the TAA group. Moreover, the reduction of antioxidant enzyme activity including superoxide dismutase and catalase as well as the increase in malondialdehyde was detected in the TAA control group. Meanwhile, an abnormal level of liver biochemical parameters was restored closer to the normal levels in serum of the C. sinensis-fed clusters. In addition, C. sinensis fed assemblies showed elevated antioxidative enzymes activity with a reduction in malondialdehyde level comparable to the levels in silymarin-treated rats.

Conclusions: Green tea potentially inhibited the progression of liver cirrhosis, down -regulation of PCNA proliferation, prevented oxidation of hepatocytes, recovered SOD and CAT enzymes, condensed MDA and reduced cellular inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.09.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8716963PMC
January 2022

Electronic Cigarettes as a Cause of Stuttering Priapism: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Dec 30;22:e935716. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

BACKGROUND Having painful intermittent penile erections that last less than 4 h is known as stuttering priapism. Sickle cell disease is a well-known risk for stuttering priapism; although, other causes could be related to this disorder. To date, no study has examined the relationship between stuttering priapism and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). CASE REPORT We present a case of a 31-year-old man who came to our clinic with recurrent stuttering priapism. He had no chronic medical illnesses. He had smoked half a pack of cigarettes per day for the past 6 years but had shifted to vaping e-cigarettes for which he used several e-fluids and brands. His stuttering priapism started approximately 1 week after he began vaping. A detailed history and physical examination were unremarkable. Laboratory results showed a normal complete blood count and metabolic panel along with a normal testosterone level and negative sickle cell screening test. The chest X-ray and abdominal and pelvic ultrasound were normal. Initially, we reassured the patient; however, his condition persisted with no significant changes in his general health or lifestyle. We asked him to stop using e-cigarettes, and after he stopped, his stuttering priapism surprisingly completely resolved. He has not experienced a single episode of stuttering priapism in the 3 months since the cessation of e-cigarettes use. CONCLUSIONS The relationship between stuttering priapism and e-cigarettes remains largely unexplored in the literature. Whether e-cigarettes and e-fluids represent a risk factor for priapism in novice e-cigarette smokers warrants further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.935716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8728695PMC
December 2021

Development of novel indolin-2-one derivative incorporating thiazole moiety as DHFR and quorum sensing inhibitors: Synthesis, antimicrobial, and antibiofilm activities with molecular modelling study.

Bioorg Chem 2022 02 21;119:105571. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, 11884 Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Nowadays, it's imperative to develop novel antimicrobial agents active against both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant bacterial infections with favorable profiles as high efficacy, low toxicity, and short therapy duration. Accordingly, a series of new thiazolo-indolin-2-one derivatives were synthesized based on acid and base catalyzed condensation or reaction of thiosemicarbazone 8 with different electrophilic reagents. The structure of the new compounds was confirmed based on elemental analysis and spectral data. Based on the MIC results, the most active thiazolo-indoline derivatives 2, 4, 7a, and 12 exhibited promising antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with weak to moderate antifungal activities. Surprisingly, the N-(thiazol-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivative 4 was found to be most active on antibiofilm activity against both S. aureus (ATCC 29213) with BIC (1.95 ± 0.01 µg/mL), while 5-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)-thiazol-4(5H)-one derivative 7a exhibited the strongest antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa pathogens with BIC (3.9 ± 0.16 µg/mL). Further, the thiazole derivatives 2, 4 and 12 exhibited a significant inhibition activity against the fsr system in a dose-dependent manner without affecting bacterial growth. The target derivatives behaved synergistic and additively effect against MDR p. aeruginosa, and thiazole derivative 12 exhibited a high synergistic effect with most tested antibiotics except Cefepime with FIC value ranging between 0.249 and 1.0, reducing their MICs. Interestingly, the 3-(2-(4-thiazol-2-yl)hydrazono)indolin-2-one derivative 12 displayed the highest selectivity to DHFR inhibitory with IC value 40.71 ± 1.86 nM superior to those of the reference Methotrexate. Finally, in silico molecular modeling simulation, some physicochemical properties and toxicity predictions were performed for the most active derivatives.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105571DOI Listing
February 2022

The impact of Ramadan on visits related to diabetes emergencies at a tertiary care center.

BMC Emerg Med 2021 12 23;21(1):162. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar were Muslims fast from dawn until sunset. This prolonged fasting period might have an impact on patients with diabetes and their disease control. This study aimed to determine the variation in visits at the Emergency Room department (ER) during Ramadan in comparison with other lunar months at a tertiary care hospital in Jeddah city in relation to the diabetes emergencies.

Methodology: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using electronic medical record review of patients with diabetes emergencies who visited ER of a Military hospital, from 9th to 11th lunar months during 2017-2018. Diabetes patients who visited ER and aged more than 18 years old were included. Frequency of ER visits, sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features were determined. Chi-square test, Student 's t-test and one-way ANOVA at p < 0.05 were used in assessing associations between variables.

Results: Within the selected study period, a total of 24,498 admissions were recorded in ER. The prevalence of diabetes emergencies visits was only 0.84%. Based on inclusion criteria, a total of 133 subjects were included in the study (54.1% men, 45.9% women). Majority of whom (73.7%) were on insulin therapy, and more than half of whom (51.9%) were type 2 diabetes. There was a significant difference (p = 0.001) in the prevalence of diabetes emergencies visits between the three lunar months Shaban, Ramadan and Shawal, 7, 5 and 4%, respectively. However, the highest prevalence was not in Ramadan. Despite some correlations were identified, the study found no significant differences between frequency of ER visits and various demographic, clinical factors and diabetes profile between Ramadan and other both preceding and succeeding lunar month.

Conclusion: In contrary with previous studies, a downward trend of prevalence, from Shaban to Ramadan, to Shawal was found. This indicated that fasting during month of Ramadan does not impact negatively on the diabetes emergencies in comparison with other months. Hyperglycemia among type 2 diabetes and insulin treated patients were recorded the highest feature of diabetes emergences visits during the three months studied with no significant differences between the months. These findings highlight the need of type 2 and insulin treated patients to be thoroughly assess by the Primary Care physicians and in-depth health education and guidance should be given to them.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12873-021-00555-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8705188PMC
December 2021

Neurocognitive dysfunction among type 2 diabetes patients attending primary health care in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Oct 5;10(10):3803-3814. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Department of Family Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health and Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Abdullah Inteernational Medical Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Context: Identification of modifiable risk factors of neurocognitive dysfunction (NCDs) that would help in preventing neurocognitive dysfunction by means of appropriate measures.

Objectives: The study aims to provide an insight into the extent and cofactors ofNCDs among Saudi type II diabetes (T2DM) patients at the primary care level.

Settings And Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted at five randomly selected primary health care centers (PHCCs) of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Subject And Methods: T2DM patients above 40 years, who were followed for T2DM diagnosed ≥ 1 year ago were recruited. The Arabic version of the Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) was used for screening NCDs, using education-adjusted cut-offs.

Statistical Analysis Used: Sociodemographic, diabetes-related, and other clinical and lifestyle factors were analyzed as cofactors of NCDs.

Results: The study included 236 T2DM patients, who had mean ± SD age of 60.29 ± 9.45 years. The majority (61.0%) were female, and mean ± SD duration of T2DM was 14.1 ± 8.4 years (range = 1-45 years). The prevalence of NCDs was 35.2% (95% CI = 29.1%, 41.6%), and 5.1% of the participants had MMSE scores ≤ 10 indicating severe neurocognitive impairment. The congruence of significant sociodemographic factors delineated a high-risk profile, and multivariate regression analysis showed female gender, low educational level, longer duration of diabetes, geriatric age at T2DM diagnosis, inadequate glycemic control, and sedentary lifestyle as the independent risk factors for NCDs.

Conclusions: The population of middle-aged and older T2DM patients is highly exposed to NCDs, with the great contribution of other comorbidities and higher risk incurred by older, lowly educated females with long diabetes duration. Further improvements should be achieved to enhance the care offered to diabetic patients by improving glycemic control, screening for comorbidities, and early detection of neurocognitive decline.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_423_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8653469PMC
October 2021

A-769662 stimulates the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts via AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism.

J Appl Biomed 2021 09 1;19(3):159-169. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

King Faisal University, College of Science, Biological Sciences Department, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling shows an important role in energy metabolism and has recently been involved in osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of AMPK activator, A-769662, in regulating the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow (BMSCs) into osteoblastic and adipocytic cell lineage. The effect of A-769662 on osteogenesis was assessed by quantitative alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, matrix mineralization stained with Alizarin red, and gene expression analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Adipogenesis was determined by Oil Red O staining for fat droplets and qPCR analysis of adipogenic markers. A-769662 activated the phosphorylation of AMPKα1 during the osteogenesis of mBMSCs as revealed by western blot analysis. A-769662 promoted the early stage of the commitment of mouse (m) BMSCs differentiation into osteoblasts, while inhibiting their differentiation into adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of A-769662 on stimulating osteogenesis and inhibiting adipogenesis of mBMSCs were significantly eliminated in the presence of either AMPKα1 siRNA or Compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK pathway. In conclusion, we identified A-769662 as a new compound that promotes the commitment of BMSCs into osteoblasts versus adipocytes via AMPK-dependent mechanism. Thus our data show A-769662 as a potential osteo-anabolic drug for treatment of osteoporosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.32725/jab.2021.016DOI Listing
September 2021

Anti-Apoptotic Effect of Flavokawain A on Ochratoxin-A-Induced Endothelial Cell Injury by Attenuation of Oxidative Stress via PI3K/AKT-Mediated Nrf2 Signaling Cascade.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 10 21;13(11). Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia.

This study investigates the endothelial protective activity of flavokawain A (FKA) against oxidative stress induced by ochratoxin A (OTA), which acts as a mycotoxin, and its primary mechanisms in in vitro models. Reactive oxygen species, in general, regulate oxidative stress that significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunctions. OTA exerts toxicity through inflammation and the accumulation of ROS. This research is aimed at exploring the defensive function of FKA against the endothelial injury triggered by OTA through the Nrf2 pathway regulated by PI3K/AKT. OTA exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of NFκB, whereas we found a reduction in inflammation via NFκB inhibition with FKA treatment. FKA increased the PI3K and AKT phosphorylation, which may lead to the stimulation of antioxidative and antiapoptotic signaling in HUVECs. It also upregulated the phosphorylation of Nrf2 and a concomitant expression of antioxidant genes, such as HO-1, NQO-1, and γGCLC, depending on the dose under the oxidative stress triggered by OTA. Knockdown of Nrf2 through small interfering RNA (siRNA) impedes the protective role of FKA against the endothelial toxicity induced by OTA. In addition, FKA enhanced Bcl2 activation while suppressing apoptosis marker proteins. Therefore, FKA is regarded as a potential agent against endothelial oxidative stress caused by the deterioration of the endothelium. The research findings showed that FKA plays a key role in activating the p-PI3K/p-AKT and Nrf2 signaling pathways, while suppressing caspase-dependent apoptosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8621493PMC
October 2021

Simultaneous Central Slip and Volar Plate Injuries at PIP Joint: A Novel Therapeutic Approach.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Nov 22;9(11):e3923. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Section, Department of Surgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Central slip and volar plate injuries rarely occur in the same finger, with only two cases previously reported in published literature. In these two patients, both teenagers, two highly distinct protocols were used. Here, we report a third case involving a 51-year-old gentleman who closed a door on his left third finger.

Methods: Because the fractures were noncomminuted and only minimally displaced, he was treated nonsurgically using a multi-step process of splinting to prevent impairment of either proximal interphalangeal joint extension or flexion, combined with active range of motion exercises. This included five weeks of splinting in neutral, 24-hour daily use of a proximal interphalangeal dorsal block, followed by active range of motion exercises combined with nocturnal splinting using a PIP volar block over the next 7 weeks, with relative motion and Joint Jack splints added over the final 4 of these 7 weeks.

Results: Twelve weeks after initial splinting, the patient's finger was pain free, with swelling largely resolved, normal extension (-10 degrees) and near-normal flexion (95 degrees) achieved, and full function restored. The patient was very satisfied with the result.

Conclusions: Ours is just the third case of concomitant central slip and volar plate injuries reported in the literature. Other surgeons are strongly encouraged to publish similar cases, approaches, and results, as clinical wisdom can sometimes be gleaned from even a small number of well-documented clinical cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000003923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8604033PMC
November 2021

Bilateral Renal Lymphangiectasia with No Significant Morbidity for Over 25 Years: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Nov 8;22:e933934. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

BACKGROUND Renal lymphangiectasia is a rare benign disorder with unknown pathophysiology. Renal lymphangiectasia can affect both males and females with no known age predilection. Its diagnosis can be accomplished with radiological images and confirmed by aspiration of lymphatic fluid in certain cases. However, there is no clear presentation to be relied on, apart from incidental findings or presentation of complications, such as hypertension due to mass effect on the kidney or renal failure from chronic compression and obstruction or renal vein thrombosis. Management is directed toward symptomatic relief and protection of the kidneys from failure or obstruction. The timing of possible complications and the duration of conservative therapy are undetermined. CASE REPORT Here, we present a case of a healthy 39-year-old woman with bilateral renal lymphangiectasia. It was initially discovered and confirmed to be lymphangiectasia when she was 13 years old and underwent bilateral renal aspiration. She recently presented to the Emergency Department with abdominal symptoms that were found to be caused by diverticulitis. The radiological images showed the persistence of her previous diagnosis of bilateral renal lymphangiectasia. She has had the same condition for more than 25 years, with no related complications or further intervention beyond conservative management. CONCLUSIONS Renal lymphangiectasia has a benign long-term course with insignificant and minor effects in certain patients regardless of the considerable size of cysts and bilateral involvement of the kidneys. The findings of our case could reassure patients with a diagnosis of a similar condition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.933934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8591518PMC
November 2021

The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome among Saudi population in Riyadh by use of Rome IV criteria and self-reported dietary restriction.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2021 Nov-Dec;27(6):383-390

College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. Diet may play a role in triggering the symptoms. We aimed to measure the prevalence of IBS and its types, and its association with food restrictions among the Saudi population, using the Rome IV criteria.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient clinics of three major hospitals in Riyadh in conjunction with an electronic survey which was shared on social media. A total of 1,319 subjects (706 males and 613 females) completed a questionnaire of four domains (sociodemography, Rome IV, food restriction, and herbs) between Nov 2019 and February 2020. Convenience sampling was used.

Results: IBS was diagnosed in 104 subjects (7.9%) and, of these, 52% were IBS-M (mixed) type. The prevalence was higher in women than in men (4.9% vs. 3.0%; P = 0.006). A significant association was found between the presence of IBS symptoms and low income (P = 0.010), and not working (P < 0.0001). Most of the IBS patients showed food restriction related to milk (P < 0.0001) and legumes (P = 0.0029), besides other types of food and drinks.

Conclusions: IBS is less common among the Saudi population. A female gender, low family income, and working status, have the highest association with IBS. The foods most often restricted were legumes and milk. Future community studies may present an opportunity to relate with cultural differences and food preferences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sjg.sjg_43_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8656325PMC
March 2022

Design, synthesis, molecular modeling, and antimicrobial potential of novel 3-[(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)imino]indolin-2-one derivatives as DNA gyrase inhibitors.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2022 Jan 8;355(1):e2100266. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

A series of 3-[(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)imino]indolin-2-one derivatives were designed using the molecular hybridization method, characterized using different spectroscopic techniques, and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Most of the target compounds demonstrated good to moderate antimicrobial activity compared with ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Four compounds (8b, 9a, 9c, and 10a) showed encouraging results, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (53.45-258.32 µM) comparable to those of norfloxacin (100.31-200.63 µM) and ciprofloxacin (48.33-96.68 µM). Noticeably, the four derivatives revealed excellent bactericidal and fungicidal activities, except for the bacteriostatic potential of compounds 8b and 9a against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The time-killing kinetic study against S. aureus confirmed the efficacy of these derivatives. Furthermore, two of the four promising derivatives, 9a and 10a, could prevent the formation of biofilms of S. aureus without affecting the bacterial growth at low concentrations. A combination study with seven commercial antibiotics against the multidrug-resistant bacterium P. aeruginosa showed a notable reduction in the antibiotic MIC values, represented mainly through a synergistic or additive effect. The enzymatic assay implied that the most active derivatives had inhibition potency against DNA gyrase comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. Molecular docking and density functional theory calculations were performed to explore the binding mode and study the reactivity of the promising compounds.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.202100266DOI Listing
January 2022

Effect of pH Modifiers on the Solubility, Dissolution Rate, and Stability of Telmisartan Solid Dispersions Produced by Hot-melt Extrusion Technology.

J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2021 Oct 29;65. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.

The aim of the current study was to investigate the dual effect of an amorphous solid dispersion generated by hot melt extrusion and the addition of pH modifiers on the solubility and stability of telmisartan. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate L grade was used as a polymeric carrier and recrystallization inhibitor, and meglumine, sodium carbonate, or Neusilin S2 were incorporated as pH modifiers to generate a desirable microenvironmental pH in the solid dispersions. Differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were incorporated to obtain the solid-state characterizations of telmisartan, and the results confirm a partial transformation of telmisartan to an amorphous state. An release study revealed that the transformation of telmisartan to an amorphous material improved its dissolution rate by 2-fold compared to pure drug and by up to 5-fold with the incorporation of pH modifiers. Results of the stability studies demonstrated that the samples have no significant degradation under accelerated stability conditions at 40 °C/75% RH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jddst.2021.102674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8452187PMC
October 2021

MicroRNA-7188-5p and miR-7235 regulates Multiple sclerosis in an experimental mouse model.

Mol Immunol 2021 11 17;139:157-167. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Pondicherry Centre for Biological Science and Educational Trust, Pondicherry, 605005, India.

The short non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as reliable modulators of various pathological conditions including autoimmune diseases in mammals. The current study, aims to identify new potential differential expressed miRNAs and their downstream mRNA targets of the autoimmune disease, Multiple sclerosis (MS). The study identifies a new set of miRNA(s) that are probably implicated in MS using computational tools. The study further carried-out different in vivo and in vitro experiments to check these identified miRNAs could be role in as therapeutic and prognostic applications. Preliminary insilico screening revealed that miR-659-3p, miR-659-5p, miR-684, miR-3607-3p, miR-3607-5p, miR-3682-3p, miR-3682-5p miR-4647, miR-7188-3p, miR-7188-5p and miR-7235 are specifically elevated in the secondary lymphoid cells of EAE mice. In addition, expression of the downstream target mRNA of these miRNAs such as FXBO33, SGMS-1, ZDHHC-9, GABRA-3, NRXN-2 were reciprocal to miRNA expression in lymphoid cells. These confirmed by applying the mimic and silencing miRNA models, suggesting new inflammatory target genes of these promising miRNA markers. The in vivo adoptive transfer model revealed that the suppression of miRNA-7188-5p and miR-7235 changed the pattern of astrocytes and CNS pathophysiology. The current study opens a new miRNA and their mRNA targets in MS disease. The absence of miRNA-7188-5p and miR-7235 enhanced the disease alleviation, confirms the regulatory effect of these targets. These optimized results highlights new set of miRNA's with therapeutic potential in experimental MS. Further studies are required to confirm these miRNA as therapeutic biomarker.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.07.002DOI Listing
November 2021
-->