Publications by authors named "Abdulhalim Jamal Kinsara"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Severe Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis, Worse Left Atrial Mechanics is Closely Associated with Echo Criteria for Intervention.

J Cardiovasc Echogr 2022 Jan-Mar;32(1):38-46. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

University of Glasgow, Adult Congenital Cardiac Service, Glasgow, Scotland.

Background: Rheumatic mitral valve (MV) stenosis is associated with progressive left atrial (LA) fibrosis and functional impairment, Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. The aims of the study were to determine in those patients with severe MV stenosis if LA mechanical function as assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography could identify those with increased PASP, atrial fibrillation (AFib), and RV dysfunction.

Subjects And Methods: Patients with severe MV stenosis were identified from the institutional echo database. Echocardiograms were read off line and measurements included atrial and ventricular strain. Patients were divided into tertiles of LA reservoir strain (LASr) values and data compared between the groups.

Results: Ninety-seven patients, 67 females, mean age 47.4 ± 11.9 years, had MV mean gradient of 8.3 ± 5.1 mmHg, MV area by pressure half time of 1.3 ± 0.3 cm and LASr of 11.18% ± 6.4%. Those patients in the lowest LASr tertile had more AFib (72%, = 0.0001), PASP >50 mm Hg (39%, = 0.005), and worst RV impairment. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, LASr, age, and mean MV gradient were the independent predictors of AFib and PASP >50 mm Hg. Cutoffs, determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis had high specificity for the composite outcome of Afib and PASP >50 mmHg (85% for LASr <7.7%).

Conclusion: In severe MV stenosis LASr, age and mean MV gradient, are independent predictors of Afib and PASP >50 mmHg. LASr <7.7% has high sensitivity and specificity in identifying those who meet ESC guideline 2017 criteria for valve intervention, suggesting its potentially helpful addendum to the surveillance of patients with MV stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcecho.jcecho_80_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9164921PMC
April 2022

Complications of White-coat Hypertension Compared to a Normotensive and Hypertensive Population.

Heart Views 2021 Jan-Mar;22(1):8-12. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, COM-WR, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Accumulating evidence demonstrates that white-coat hypertension (WCH) are associated with several risks and complications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the adverse effects of WCH compared with hypertensive and normotensive patients.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted over five years. Blood pressure (BP) data was collected from both clinic visits and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) reports. Epidemiological data and complications, cardiac and noncardiac, were also recorded.

Results: In total, 286 participants who were followed up for at least three years were included. The sample was divided into 99 normotensive patients (as a control group), 94 patients with clinically diagnosed hypertension (HTN), and 93 patients with WCH. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) was the most noted complication in the WCH group with a relative risk of 9.58 (1.23-74.16) ( = 0.008). Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was significantly correlated with a relative risk of 2.06 (0.52-13.38). No significant correlation was noted with noncardiac complications. Both HTN and WCH groups showed a significant association with blood pressure variability (BPV). WCH was associated with an increased BPV in ambulatory daytime systolic measurements ( = 0.031) and a unique increase in diastolic measurement variability in office BP measurements ( = 0.020).

Conclusion: WCH should be managed as HTN. WCH is associated with cardiac complications, particularly IHD, specifically in patients 55 years and older. WCH was significantly associated with a higher BPV in both ABPM and office-based measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_64_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254149PMC
April 2021

Gender differences in patients presenting with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the STAR registry.

Egypt Heart J 2021 Jun 22;73(1):54. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Cardiology, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of medicine, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: In most acute coronary artery (ACS) related literature, the female gender constitutes a smaller proportion. This study is based on gender-specific data in the Saudi Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry Program (STARS-1 Program). A prospective multicenter study, conducted with patients diagnosed with ACS in 50 participating hospitals.

Results: In total, 762 (34.12%) patients were diagnosed with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Of this group, only 164 (21.52%) were women. The mean age (64.52 ± 12.56 years) was older and the mean body mass index (BMI) was higher (30.58 ± 6.23). A significantly proportion was diabetic or hypertensive; however, a smaller proportion was smoking. Hyperlipidemia was present in 48%. The history of angina/MI/stroke and revascularization was similar, except for renal impairment. The presentation was atypical as only 70% presented with chest pain, and the rest with shortness of breath or epigastric pain. At presentation, the female group were more tachycardiac, had higher blood pressure, and a higher incidence of being in class 11-111 Killip heart failure. Only 32% had a normal systolic function, and the majority had either mild or moderate systolic dysfunction. In particular, the rate of percutaneous coronary intervention was similar. The in-hospital mortality was similar (5%), with more women diagnosed with atrial fibrillation and heart failure at follow-up.

Conclusions: Women had a higher prevalence of risk factors affecting the presentation and morbidity but not mortality. Improving these risk factors and the lifestyle is a priority to improve the outcome and decrease morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43044-021-00181-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219809PMC
June 2021

Embolisation of the Coronary Arterial Tree with Thick Contrast Material during Coronary Angiography.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Apr;30(4):466-468

Department of Cardiology, Ministry of National Guard Health Affair, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, COM-WR. Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

A 58-year male was referred to our centre with an acute inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). During the primary percutaneous coronary intervention, he suddenly collapsed with severe hypotension and severe bradycardia. The symptoms were attributed to an accidental embolisation of his left coronary system with the thick contrast material. When the remaining contrast in the bottle was investigated, it contained abnormally thick contrast material. This is a rare case of contrast embolisation, which is completely preventable but fatal, if undetected. Key Words: Coronary angiography, Contrast material, Contrast embolisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2021.04.466DOI Listing
April 2021

Figure 8 Shadow, What is Your Diagnosis?

J Cardiovasc Echogr 2020 Jul-Sep;30(3):177-178. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Cardiology, King Abdullah Medical Complex, Ministry of Health, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

We report this case, which described the echocardiographic and chest X-ray appearance of the amplatzer device. The echo images raised suspicion of a mass in the left atrium, but a simple X-ray showed that the mass is an amplatzer device for left atrial appendage closure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcecho.jcecho_90_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799067PMC
November 2020

Human papillomavirus infection and cardiovascular disease: A topic of interest for researchers.

Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2021 01;49(1):1-3

Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, COM-WR; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5543/tkda.2020.37963DOI Listing
January 2021

The Echocardiography Society of Saudi Heart Association Recommendation on Quality and Laboratory Accreditation Guideline and Standards.

J Saudi Heart Assoc 2020 22;32(2):298-306. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Saud Al Babtain Cardiac Center, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To create the Saudi Arabian Society of Echocardiography Accreditation Commission Guidelines and Standards.

Method: A review of available the North American and European accreditation guidelines was conducted and a model, locally appropriate for Saudi echocardiography laboratories and applicable in the current settings, was developed.

Results: The document specifies the organizational setting as well as the following categories of personnel: medical director, technical director, medical staff, and technical staff. The guideline team also examined aspects related to the facility and the facility safety policies and protocols. Examination and procedural issues for Adult transthoracic echocardiography including instrumentation, archiving media, examination interpretation and reports are also included as well as the required components for the Adult transthoracic echocardiography report. The last section of the guidelines focuses on Key Performance Indicators. A similar approach was taken regarding the Adult Stress Echocardiography, Transesophageal Echo, and monitoring of the patients during the procedures.

Conclusion: The development of the Saudi Echocardiography Guidelines and Standards is a basic requirement for accreditation and also mandatory to improve the quality and utilization of such an important investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.37616/2212-5043.1112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7640544PMC
July 2020

Abnormal mitral flow, what is the cause?

Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2021 Jun 27;29(5):408-410. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

King Abdullah Medical Complex, Jeddah, Ministry of Health, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Diastolic mitral regurgitation is a unique Doppler finding that can be missed if special attention is not paid to it. There are a few causes of such abnormal flow, ranging from a conduction abnormality to abnormal valvular and left ventricle function. Failure to recognize it might lead to unnecessary investigations and delay the primary diagnosis. We are presenting a teaching case and discuss the associated pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0218492320970759DOI Listing
June 2021

The validity of a daytime ambulatory blood pressure to diagnose masked hypertension.

Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2020 Jul 29;90(3). Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Princess Noorah Oncology Centre; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah.

Masked hypertension (MH) is traditionally diagnosed with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-ABPM). This is relatively costly and could cause discomfort during the night. We studied the validity of daytime ABP (DT-ABPM) in young National Guard soldiers and determined the prevalence in comparison to the standard 24-ABPM. A prospective study of 196 soldiers aged 21-50 years, without a history of hypertension or antihypertensive medication use. Each participant was fitted with a 12h-ABPM. Patients were diagnosed with MH if the office blood pressure (OBP) was <140/90 mmHg and the average DT-ABPM was ≥135/85 mmHg. By pairing the average OBP with the 12 h-ABPM, the prevalence of MH was estimated as 18/196 (9.2%), the SBP MH (systolic blood pressure) of 8.2% and the DPB MH (diastolic blood pressure) of 3.1%.  When we compared the daytime prevalence with the 24 h-ABPM, and the average OBP, the prevalence of MH was 29/196 (14.8%). No statistically significant difference was noted (kappa=0.74; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.88). We conclude that DT-ABPM is a good method and convenient to detect MH, with no statistically significant difference when compared to the 24 h-ABPM. The prevalence of MH in young healthy soldiers was unexpectedly high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2020.1356DOI Listing
July 2020

Mitral leaflet separation index for mitral valve assessment during balloon mitral valvuloplasty.

Echocardiography 2020 08 20;37(8):1159-1163. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the mitral leaflet separation index (MLSI) in selected patients with mitral stenosis, before and after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV), compared to conventional methods with transthoracic echocardiography [TTE].

Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 30 patients, ages 20-60 years, with severe symptomatic mitral stenosis (MS) who had PBMV in the Cardiology Department, Zagazig University and National Heart Institute. A mean of three to five measurements of MLSI was taken in diastole in the parasternal long-axis and apical four-chamber views. The MLSI was re-measured 24-48 hours after PBMV. We calculated the correlation of the MLSI, pre and post BMV, with two-dimensional (2D) MV planimetry and pressure half-time (PHT) methods to assess MVA.

Results: There was a positive, highly significant correlation between pre PBMV 2D planimetry and MLSI (r = .665, P-value < .001) as well as post PBMV 2D planimetry and MLSI (r = .410, P-value = .025). A positive highly significant correlation was also noted between pre PBMV PHT and MLSI (r = .678, P-value <.001) and between post PBMV PHT and MLSI (r = .706, P-value <.001).

Conclusion: Mitral leaflet separation index is an easy and reliable measurement for the assessment of mitral stenosis before and after PBMV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14754DOI Listing
August 2020

Author`s Reply.

Anatol J Cardiol 2019 ;22(6):338-339

Department of Cardiology, Ministry of National Guard Health Affair, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, COM-WR, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center; Jeddah-Saudi Arabia.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6955043PMC
December 2019

The effect of blood pressure variability on the prognosis of hypertensive patients.

Anatol J Cardiol 2019 Sep;22(3):112-116

Department of Cardiology, Ministry of National Guard Health Affair, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, COM-WR, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center; Jeddah-Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Our study aims to compare the effects of blood pressure variability (BPV) during ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) and visit-to-visit measurements to predict future cardiovascular complications among hypertensive patients.

Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study of patients with hypertension over 10 years. All adult patients with at least one recorded ABPM, and at least three recorded visit measurements were included. Patients with incomplete ABPM readings, a history of a tested outcome, or the occurrence of any of the tested outcomes within the measurement period were excluded. The outcome was the development of any of the following: acute coronary syndrome (ACS), chronic ischemic heart disease (IHD), heart failure (HF), or stroke.

Results: Of the 305 cases reviewed, 152 were included. The mean follow-up was 6.6±2.3 years. The mean age was 53.5±14.3 years. Eighty-two (53.9%) patients were male, while 70 (46.1%) were female. Risk factors included diabetes mellitus (53.9%), dyslipidemia (39.5%), obesity (16.4%), and smoking (8.6%). Comorbidities included stroke (2%), ACS (8.6%), IHD (20.4%), HF (2.6%), and renal failure (1.3%). One or more complications were seen in 22.4 % of the included patients. The variation of the daytime systolic ABP had been found to predict the future risk of developing IHD (OR=1.94; 95% CI=1.09-3.45; p=0.025). Moreover, IHD was associated with night-time systolic standard deviation (SD) in ABPM (OR=1.23; 95% CI=1.00-1.51; p=0.048). On the other side, ACS was found to be associated with systolic SD in visit-to-visit measurement (OR=1.10; 95% CI=1.01-1.21; p=0.04).

Conclusion: Hypertensive patients with high variability of daytime and night-time SD in ABPM are more likely to have IHD. Whereas, having high variability in systolic SD in visit-to-visit measurements is associated with developing ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14744/AnatolJCardiol.2019.00905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6735434PMC
September 2019

Prophylactic use of carvedilol to prevent ventricular dysfunction in patients with cancer treated with doxorubicin.

Indian Heart J 2018 Dec 18;70 Suppl 3:S96-S100. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

National Heart & Lung Institute, Royal Brompton & Harefield Hospitals, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: Deterioration in ventricular function is often observed in patients treated with anthracyclines for cancer. There is a paucity of evidence on interventions that might provide cardio-protection. We investigated whether prophylactic use of carvedilol can prevent doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and whether any observed effect is dose related.

Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in patients treated with doxorubicin, comparing placebo (n = 38) with different doses of carvedilol [6.25 mg/day (n = 41), 12.5 mg/day (n = 38) or 25 mg/day (n = 37)]. The primary endpoint was the measured change in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from baseline to 6 months.

Results: LVEF decreased from 62 ± 5% at baseline to 58 ± 7% at 6-months (p = 0.002) in patients assigned to placebo but no statistically significant changes were observed in any of the 3 carvedilol groups. At 6 months, only one of 116 patients (1%) assigned to carvedilol had an LVEF < 50% compared to four of the 38 assigned to placebo (11%), (p = 0.013). No significant differences were noted between carvedilol and placebo in terms of the development of diastolic dysfunction, clinically overt heart failure or death.

Conclusions: Carvedilol might prevent deterioration in LVEF in cancer patients treated with doxorubicin. This effect may not be dose related within the studied range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2018.06.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310701PMC
December 2018

Metformin in heart failure patients.

Indian Heart J 2018 Jan - Feb;70(1):175-176. Epub 2017 May 15.

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, COM-J King Abdul Aziz Medical City-WR, King Faisal Cardiac Center, Mail Code 6599, P.O. Box 9515, Jeddah, 21423, Saudi Arabia.

The use of metformin was considered a contraindication in heart failure patients because of the potential risk of lactic acidosis; however, more recent evidence has shown that this should no longer be the case. We reviewed the current literature and the recent guideline to correct the misconception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2017.05.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5902828PMC
July 2018

Do We Need Cardiac Rehabilitation in Heart Failure.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2018 Jan;28(1):61-62

King Saud in Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences COM-J, King Abdul Aziz Medical City-WR King Faisal Cardiac Centre, Jaddah, Saudi Arabia.

Cardiac rehabilitation is a well established therapy for heart failure patients. Discussion is made of the different types, modalities, time and number of sessions and whether it is restricted to systolic heart failure or younger patients only. Elaboration will be made on how to make it more accessible to a larger proportion of population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2018.01.61DOI Listing
January 2018

Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in daily practice.

Indian Heart J 2017 Nov - Dec;69(6):788-789. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, COM-J, King Abdul Aziz Medical City-WR, King Faisal Cardiac Center, Mail Code 6599, P.O. Box 9515, Jeddah 21423, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a useful diagnostic tool that still underutilized by community physicians. It is a cost effective, diagnostic and prognostic tool that had been emphasized by the guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2017.09.223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5717310PMC
July 2018

SNAAP to Replace MONA.

Am J Cardiol 2017 08 31;120(3):e39. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.08.062DOI Listing
August 2017

STEMI vs NSTEACS management trends in non-invasive hospital.

Indian Heart J 2016 Jul-Aug;68(4):519-22. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Department of Epidemiology & Medical Statistics, COM, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Objectives: To compare the clinical features, management, and in-hospital outcomes of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS), in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A total of 71 patients were enrolled in a longitudinal study at a tertiary hospital without cardiac catheterization facility. These data were collected from Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events registry.

Results: Twenty-three patients with STEMI were compared to 48 patients with NSTEACS. Mean age for STEMI was younger, 57.4±13.7 years compared to 63.2±13.9 years respectively (p=0.19). Forty-four percent arrived at the hospital by ambulance. History of hypertension and hyperlipidemia were more frequent in NSTEACS (p=0.05), while both groups showed no difference in diabetes mellitus, 17% vs 22% and smoking, 30% vs 17%. In-hospital medications were: Aspirin (100%) both groups, Clopidogrel (91% vs 100%) (p=0.03). There was more aggressive use of beta-blockers (74% vs 95%) (p=0.01) and statins (87% vs 100%) (p=0.01) in NSTEACS. In-hospital outcomes showed one recurrent myocardial infarction and one death in NSTEACS group (2%). Other outcome in the two groups showed recurrent ischemia (13% vs 29%) (p=0.14) and cardiogenic shock (9% vs 2%) (p=0.17). No stroke or major bleeding was reported in both groups.

Conclusion: NSTEACS patients in western province of KSA present at an older age are mostly males and have higher prevalence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia compared with STEMI patients. It is therefore important to identify patients with high-risk profile and put implement measures to reduce these factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2015.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4990765PMC
May 2017

Abnormal Chest X-ray Postmyocardial Infarction.

Heart Views 2014 Oct-Dec;15(4):121-3

Assistant Professor, Head of Adult Cardiology, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, King Abdul Aziz Medical City - Western Region. King Faisal Cardiac Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Pulmonary hemorrhage is a rare complication of fibrinolytic therapy. Only a few cases are reported in the literature. We present a patient who had myocardial infarction, treated with fibrinolytic therapy and developed pulmonary hemorrhage. We discuss the features that suggest and support the diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1995-705X.151086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4348984PMC
March 2015

The fate of post-myocardial infarction thrombi.

J Saudi Heart Assoc 2012 Jul 1;24(3):209-12. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Cardiology Section, Department of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdul Aziz Medical City, Jeddah.

We are reporting a patient who sustained a large myocardial infarction with large kissing thrombi in echocardiogram that disappeared within 1 month without the administration of thrombolytic, anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy. The patient did not manifest any embolic events. This unusual course calls for specific studies on the natural history of thrombi post myocardial infarction and the best modality to treat such thrombi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsha.2012.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3727466PMC
July 2012

Prevalence of hypertension in a population of healthy individuals.

Med Princ Pract 2011 20;20(2):152-5. Epub 2011 Jan 20.

Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in a random sample of individuals in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Subjects And Methods: A total of 243 participants were randomly selected at a megamall in Jeddah, on May 2008. Questionnaires were distributed to all the participants by one of the researchers, who explained the purpose of the study and the content of the questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to gather information regarding the prevalence of HTN in the general population in addition to identifying other risk factors associated with HTN. Notably, accurate blood pressure measurements were performed on all the participants.

Results: Of the 243 participants, 55 (22.6%) were hypertensive. Of these, 28 (50.9%) were males and 27 (49.1%) females. The probability of having HTN was significantly higher with increasing age with 7 (38.9%) of the participants >50 years of age. Similarly, HTN increased proportionately with the participant's body mass index. With regard to other risk factors, 13 (50%) of the diabetics, 10 (27.0%) of the dyslipidemic participants and 9 (18.4%) of the cigarette-smoking participants had HTN.

Conclusions: The occurrence of HTN was high and was strongly associated with diabetes, the aging process and obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000321217DOI Listing
May 2011

Effect of balloon mitral valvoplasty during pregnancy on childhood development.

Cardiology 2002 ;97(3):155-8

King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

In order to study the long-term effects of balloon mitral valvoplasty (BMV) on childhood development, we followed up closely 20 mothers with severe mitral stenosis who were treated with BMV during pregnancy. Their offspring aged 63 +/- 39 (range 6-98) months were also regularly assessed using standard developmental charts and relevant laboratory tests. They were all found to have maintained normal growth, development, and speech for their appropriate ages. Developmental milestones were normal for their ages and comparable with those of their siblings. The laboratory tests revealed no abnormalities. Two losses occurred during the early course of follow-up, at the ages of 4 and 37 weeks, respectively. One of the pregnant patients suffered a stillbirth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000063332DOI Listing
September 2002
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