Publications by authors named "Abdulaziz Alhazmi"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of Side Effects Associated with COVID-19 Vaccines in Saudi Arabia.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jun 18;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Medical Research Center, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca are recently introduced vaccines to combat COVID-19 pandemic. During clinical trials, mild to moderate side effects have been associated with these vaccines. Thus, we aimed to evaluate short-term post-vaccination side effects.

Methods: Cross-sectional, retrospective study using an online questionnaire was conducted among COVID-19 vaccines recipients in Saudi Arabia. General and demographic data were collected, and vaccine-associated side effects after receiving at least one dose of each vaccine were evaluated.

Results: Our final sample consisted of 515 participants with a median age of 26 years. Most of the study participants were female (57%). Nearly 13% of the study subjects have reported previous infections with SARS-CoV-2. Oxford-AstraZeneca and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines have been received by 75% and 25% of the study participants, respectively. Side effects associated with COVID-19 vaccines have been reported by 60% of the study subjects, and most of them reported fatigue (90%), pain at the site of the injections (85%).

Conclusion: Side effects that are reported post Oxford-AstraZeneca and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines among our study participants are not different from those that were reported in the clinical trials, indicating safe profiles for both vaccines. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the current vaccines in protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235009PMC
June 2021

Nationwide Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Saudi Arabia.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jul 24;14(7):832-838. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Estimated seroprevalence of Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a critical evidence for a better evaluation of the virus spread and monitoring the progress of COVID-19 pandemic in a population. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence has been reported in specific regions, but an extensive nationwide study has not been reported. Here, we report a nationwide study to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the population of KSA during the pandemic, using serum samples from healthy blood donors, non-COVID patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) in six different regions of the kingdom, with addition samples from COVID-19 patients.

Methods: A total of 11,703 serum samples were collected from different regions of the KSA including; 5395 samples from residual healthy blood donors (D); 5877 samples from non-COVID patients collected through residual sera at clinical biochemistry labs from non-COVID patients (P); and 400 samples from consented HCWs. To determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2, all serum samples, in addition to positive control sera from RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients, were subjected to in-house ELISA with a sample pooling strategy, which was further validated by testing individual samples that make up some of the pools, with a statistical estimation method to report seroprevalence estimates.

Results: Overall (combining D and P groups) seroprevalence estimate was around 11% in Saudi Arabia; and was 5.1% (Riyadh), 1.5% (Jazan), 18.4% (Qassim), 20.8% (Hail), 14.7% (ER; Alahsa), and 18.8% in Makkah. Makkah samples were only D group and had a rate of 24.4% and 12.8% in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah, respectively. The seroprevalence in Saudi Arabia across the sampled areas would be 12 times the reported COVID-19 infection rate. Among HCWs, 7.5% (4.95-10.16 CI 95%) had reactive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 without reporting any previously confirmed infection. This was higher in HCWs with hypertension. The study also presents the demographics and prevalence of co-morbidities in HCWs and subset of non-COVID-19 population.

Interpretation: Our study estimates the overall national serological prevalence of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia to be 11%, with an apparent disparity between regions. This indicates the prevalence of asymptomatic or mild unreported COVID-19 cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188888PMC
July 2021

Effect of Coxsackievirus B4 Infection on the Thymus: Elucidating Its Role in the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes.

Microorganisms 2021 May 29;9(6). Epub 2021 May 29.

Laboratoire de Virologie ULR3610, Université de Lille, CHU Lille, F-59000 Lille, France.

The thymus gland is a primary lymphoid organ for T-cell development. Various viral infections can result in disturbance of thymic functions. Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) are important for the negative selection of self-reactive T-cells to ensure central tolerance. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is the dominant self-peptide of the insulin family expressed in mTECs and plays a crucial role in the intra-thymic programing of central tolerance to insulin-secreting islet β-cells. Coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) can infect and persist in the thymus of humans and mice, thus hampering the T-cell maturation and differentiation process. The modulation of IGF2 expression and protein synthesis during a CVB4 infection has been observed in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. The effect of CVB4 infections on human and mouse fetal thymus has been studied in vitro. Moreover, following the inoculation of CVB4 in pregnant mice, the thymic function in the fetus and offspring was disturbed. A defect in the intra-thymic expression of self-peptides by mTECs may be triggered by CVB4. The effects of viral infections, especially CVB4 infection, on thymic cells and functions and their possible role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9061177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229779PMC
May 2021

Regional differences in COVID-19 ICU admission rates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A simulation of the new model of care under vision 2030.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jun 12;14(6):717-723. Epub 2021 May 12.

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan City, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Saudi Arabia has succeeded in having one of the lowest rates of COVID-19 worldwide due to the government's initiatives in taking swift action to control both the spread and severity of the virus. However, Covid-19 can serve as a test case of the expected response of the new healthcare system under Vision 2030. This study used data from the thirteen present administrative regions of KSA to simulate the variations in ICU admission as a quality indicator in the five business units proposed by a new Model of Care.

Methods: We determined the rates of ICU admission for patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) from March to mid-July 2020. The final sample included 1743 inpatients with moderate to severe COVID-19. Patient characteristics, including demographics, pre-existing chronic conditions, and COVID-19 complications, were collected. Business units (BUs) were compared with respect to the relative odds of ICU admission by using multiple logistic regression.

Results: After keeping patient and clinical characteristics constant, clear BU differences were observed in the relative odds of ICU admission of COVID-19 patients. Inpatient admission to ICU in our total sample was almost 50%. Compared to the Central BU, the Northern and Western BUs showed significantly higher odds of ICU admission while the Eastern & Southern BUs had significantly lower odds.

Conclusion: ICU use for COVID-19 patients differed significantly in KSA healthcare BUs, consistent with variations in care for other non-COVID-19-related conditions. These differences cannot be explained by patient or clinical characteristics, suggesting quality-of-care differences. We believe that privatization and the shift to fewer administrative BUs will help lessen or eliminate altogether the present variations in healthcare service provision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.04.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113109PMC
June 2021

Enteroviruses and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: An Overlooked Relationship in Some Regions.

Microorganisms 2020 Sep 23;8(10). Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Laboratoire de Virologie ULR3610, Univ Lille, CHU Lille, F-59000 Lille, France.

Enteroviruses (EVs) infect millions of people annually. EV infections can be asymptomatic or symptomatic with conditions ranging from mild illnesses to serious diseases such as dilated cardiomyopathy. A causal relationship between EV infections and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been heavily debated, with some studies suggesting that this relationship is not yet conclusive and requires additional evidence, whereas others strongly argue for this correlation. While this relationship is well investigated in some developed countries like the USA and Finland, it is understudied or neglected in other countries like Russia for many reasons such as the low incidence of T1DM. Although the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are highly affected by T1DM, the role of EVs in the disease in MENA has not been investigated extensively. Therefore, we aimed to address the relationship between T1DM and EVs in MENA and other regions globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598226PMC
September 2020

Repeated viral meningitis in a newborn.

J Neurovirol 2020 06 5;26(3):449-451. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Univ Lille, CHU Lille, Laboratoire de Virologie EA3610, F-59037, Lille, France.

Human enteroviruses (EV) are the most common cause of viral meningitis in children. Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are increasingly being recognized as a cause of central nervous system (CNS) infections and sepsis-like disease in children. Both viruses belong to Picornaviridae family. The clinical picture in EV and HPeV infections is usually nonspecific. Therefore, molecular detection of both viruses is needed for etiological diagnosis. In this case report, we describe and discuss clinical and laboratory findings of two consecutive episodes of viral meningitis caused by EV and HPeV, respectively, occurring in the first month of a newborn's life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-020-00829-0DOI Listing
June 2020

Paediatric enterovirus meningitis without cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis.

J Infect 2019 12 13;79(6):612-625. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Université de Lille Faculté de Médecine CHU Lille Laboratoire de Virologie, EA3610 F-59037, Lille, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2019.11.006DOI Listing
December 2019

Optimization of Phase Space files from clinical linear accelerators.

Phys Med 2019 Aug 24;64:54-68. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching b. München, Germany. Electronic address:

This work proposes a methodology to produce an optimized phase-space (PhSp) for the Elekta Synergy linac by tuning the energy and direction of particles inside the 6-MV Elekta Precise PhSp, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. First, the energies of the particles emerging from the original PhSp were increased by different factors, producing new PhSps. Percentage depth dose (PDD) profiles were simulated and compared to measured data from a Synergy linac for 6-MV photon beam. This process was repeated until a minimum difference was reached. Particles' directions were then manipulated following identified correlations to lateral profiles, resulting in two distinct perturbation factors based on inline and crossline profiles. Both factors were merged into one single optimal factor. For energy optimization, an increase of 0.32 MeV applied to all particles inside the original PhSp, but to 0.511 MeV annihilation photons, provided the best results. The direction optimization factor was the combination of the individual factors for inline (0.605%) and crossline (0.051%). The agreement between measured and simulated profiles, when using the optimized PhSp, improved considerably in comparison to simulations performed with the original IAEA PhSp. For all fields and depths analyzed, the discrepancies for PDD, inline and crossline profiles dropped from 11.2%, 15.7% and 27.5% to under 1.4%, 4.7% and 13.2%, respectively. The optimized PhSp should not replace the full linac modelling, however it offers an alternative for MC dose calculations when neither geometric details nor validated IAEA PhSp are available to the user.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2019.06.007DOI Listing
August 2019

A novel approach to EPID-based 3D volumetric dosimetry for IMRT and VMAT QA.

Phys Med Biol 2018 05 22;63(11):115002. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) are relatively complex treatment delivery techniques and require quality assurance (QA) procedures. Pre-treatment dosimetric verification represents a fundamental QA procedure in daily clinical routine in radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to develop an EPID-based approach to reconstruct a 3D dose distribution as imparted to a virtual cylindrical water phantom to be used for plan-specific pre-treatment dosimetric verification for IMRT and VMAT plans. For each depth, the planar 2D dose distributions acquired in air were back-projected and convolved by depth-specific scatter and attenuation kernels. The kernels were obtained by making use of scatter and attenuation models to iteratively estimate the parameters from a set of reference measurements. The derived parameters served as a look-up table for reconstruction of arbitrary measurements. The summation of the reconstructed 3D dose distributions resulted in the integrated 3D dose distribution of the treatment delivery. The accuracy of the proposed approach was validated in clinical IMRT and VMAT plans by means of gamma evaluation, comparing the reconstructed 3D dose distributions with Octavius measurement. The comparison was carried out using (3%, 3 mm) criteria scoring 99% and 96% passing rates for IMRT and VMAT, respectively. An accuracy comparable to the one of the commercial device for 3D volumetric dosimetry was demonstrated. In addition, five IMRT and five VMAT were validated against the 3D dose calculation performed by the TPS in a water phantom using the same passing rate criteria. The median passing rates within the ten treatment plans was 97.3%, whereas the lowest was 95%. Besides, the reconstructed 3D distribution is obtained without predictions relying on forward dose calculation and without external phantom or dosimetric devices. Thus, the approach provides a fully automated, fast and easy QA procedure for plan-specific pre-treatment dosimetric verification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/aac1a6DOI Listing
May 2018

Corrigendum: Three capsid amino acids notably influence coxsackie B3 virus stability.

J Gen Virol 2017 01;98(1):126-127

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska College of Medicine, 986495 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000732DOI Listing
January 2017

Three capsid amino acids notably influence coxsackie B3 virus stability.

J Gen Virol 2016 Jan 20;97(1):60-68. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska College of Medicine, 986495 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495, USA.

Coxsackievirus B3 strain 28 (CVB3/28) is less stable at 37 °C than eight other CVB3 strains with which it has been compared, including four in this study. In a variant CVB3/28 population selected for increased stability at 37 °C, the capsid proteins of the stable variant differed from the parental CVB3/28 by two mutations in Vp1 and one mutation in Vp3, each of which resulted in altered protein sequences. Each of the amino acid changes was individually associated with a more stable virus. Competition between CVB3/28 and a more stable derivative of the strain showed that propagation of the less stable virus was favoured in receptor-rich HeLa cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000319DOI Listing
January 2016

Coxsackievirus can persist in murine pancreas by deletion of 5' terminal genomic sequences.

J Med Virol 2015 Feb 11;87(2):240-7. Epub 2014 Aug 11.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska.

Enterovirus infections are generally acute and rapidly cleared by the host immune response. Enteroviruses can at times persist in immunologically intact individuals after the rise of the type-specific neutralizing immune response. The mechanism of enterovirus persistence was shown in group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) to be due to naturally-occurring deletions at the 5' terminus of the genome which variably impact the stem-loop secondary structure called domain I. These deletions result in much slower viral replication and a loss of measurable cytopathic effect when such 5' terminally deleted (TD) viruses are assayed in cell culture. The existence and persistence of CVB-TD long after the acute phase of infection has been documented in hearts of experimentally inoculated mice and naturally infected humans but to date, the existence of TD enteroviral populations have not been documented in any other organ. Enteroviral infections have been shown to impact type 1 diabetes (T1D) onset in humans as well as in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of T1D. The first step to studying the potential impact of CVB-TD on T1D etiology is to determine whether CVB-TD populations can arise in the pancreas. After inoculation of NOD diabetic mice with CVB, viral RNA persists in the absence of cytopathic virus in pancreas weeks past the acute infectious period. Analysis of viral genomic 5' termini by RT-PCR showed CVB-TD populations displace the parental population during persistent replication in murine pancreata.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24039DOI Listing
February 2015