Publications by authors named "Abdul Samad Khan"

36 Publications

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Clinical Practices of Dental Professionals during COVID-19 Pandemic in Pakistan.

Eur J Dent 2020 Dec 7;14(S 01):S63-S69. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

School of Dental Medicine, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, USA.

Objective:  The aim of this study is to assess knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practices of dental professionals regarding the prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Pakistan.

Materials And Methods:  General dentists and dental specialists working in public and private dental practices, hospitals, and academic institutions participated in this cross-sectional study. A pilot-tested questionnaire was sent to dental professionals through an online link in Pakistan and data collection was completed in April-May 2020. The knowledge score was calculated from 22 variables about the COVID-19.

Results:  The study included data of 343 dental professionals with 47.2% of males and 52.8% of females. The mean knowledge score was 16.78 ± 2.25, and it significantly differed between general dentists (16.55 ± 2.36) and dental specialists (17.15 ± 2.04) ( = 0.020), and those with up to 10 years of experience (16.58 ± 2.28) and those with more than 10 years of experience (17.05 ± 2.2) ( = 0.026). Only 15.5% of the participants were comfortable in treating patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. A workshop/seminar on the COVID-19 was attended by 23% of the participants. In multivariate analysis, being comfortable in treating patients (odds ratio = 3.31, 95% confidence interval = 1.63, 6.73) was associated with the attendance of workshop/seminar on COVID-19.

Conclusions:  Dental professionals had adequate knowledge about COVID-19, but a few of them were comfortable in treating patients during the pandemic. A minority of dental professionals attended a workshop/seminar on the COVID-19. Continuous education activities should be provided to dental professionals to enhance their role in the prevention of COVID-19 spread and promotion of oral health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1718785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840435PMC
December 2020

Bibliometric Analysis of Literature Published on Antibacterial Dental Adhesive from 1996-2020.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Nov 29;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Islamabad Model College for Boys, H-9, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

This study aimed to investigate the current state of research on antibacterial dental adhesives. The interest in this field can be drawn from an increasing number of scholarly works in this area. However, there is still a lack of quantitative measurement of this topic. The main aim of this study was to consolidate the research published on the antibacterial adhesive from 1996 to 2020 in Web of Science indexed journals. The bibliometric method, a quantitative study of investigating publishing trends and patterns, was used for this study. The result has shown that a gradual increase in research was found, whereby a substantial increase was observed from 2013. A total of 248 documents were published in 84 journals with total citations of 5107. The highly cited articles were published mainly in Q1 category journals. Most of the published articles were from the USA, China, and other developed countries; however, some developing countries contributed as well. The authorship pattern showed an interdisciplinary and collaborative approach among researchers. The thematic evaluation of keywords along with a three-factor analysis showed that 'antibacterial adhesives' and 'quaternary ammonium' have been used commonly. This bibliometric analysis can provide direction not only to researchers but also to funding organizations and policymakers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12122848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761276PMC
November 2020

Preparation of a toothpaste containing theobromine and fluoridated bioactive glass and its effect on surface micro-hardness and roughness of enamel.

Dent Mater J 2021 Mar 19;40(2):393-398. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University.

The aim was to synthesize a toothpaste and analyze its effect on surface micro-hardness and roughness of enamel. Basic paste was prepared by using basic ingredients. Theobromine (0.2 wt%) and laboratory synthesized fluoridated-bioactive glass (F-BG, 4 wt%) were added to it. Post-demineralization, 36 enamel blocks were divided into six groups that were brushed with their respective toothpaste+artificial saliva (AS): group 1 (control): basic paste; group 2: basic paste+theobromine; group 3: commercial theobromine toothpaste; group 4: commercial BG toothpaste; group 5: basic paste+F-BG; and group 6: basic paste+theobromine+F-BG. On micro-hardness analysis, group 6 performed best, followed by group 4. Surface roughness results showed the maximum decrease in roughness values for group 6, followed by group 5. Treatment with toothpaste composition containing theobromine+F-BG resulted in the enamel's increased micro-hardness and decreased surface roughness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2020-078DOI Listing
March 2021

Hyperimmune anti-COVID-19 IVIG (C-IVIG) Therapy for Passive Immunization of Severe and Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Nov 2;21(1):905. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objectives: The aim of this trial is to investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of passive immunization therapy through Hyperimmune anti-COVID-19 Intravenous Immunoglobulin (C-IVIG: 5% liquid formulation), on severe and critically ill patients with COVID-19.

Trial Design: This is a phase I/II single centre, randomised controlled, single-blinded, superiority trial, through parallel-group design with sequential assignment. Participants will be randomised either to receive both C-IVIG and standard care or only standard care (4:1).

Participants: The study is mono-centric with the participants including COVID19 infected individuals (positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR on nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal swabs) admitted in institute affiliated with Dow University Hospital, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. Consenting patients above 18 years that are classified by the treating physician as severely ill i.e. showing symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia; dyspnea, respiratory rate ≥30/min, blood oxygen saturation ≤93%, PaO/FiO <300, and lung infiltrates >50% on CXR; or critically ill i.e. respiratory failure, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction or failure. Patients with reported IgA deficiency, autoimmune disorder, thromboembolic disorder, and allergic reaction to immunoglobulin treatment were excluded from study. Similarly, pregnant females, patients requiring two or more inotropic agents to maintain blood pressure and patients with acute or chronic kidney injury/failure, were also excluded from the study.

Intervention And Comparator: The study consists of four interventions and one comparator arm. All participants receive standard hospital care which includes airway support, anti-viral medication, antibiotics, fluid resuscitation, hemodynamic support, steroids, painkillers, and anti-pyretics. Randomised test patients will receive single dose of C-IVIG in following four dosage groups: Group 1: 0.15g/Kg with standard hospital care Group 2: 0.2g/Kg with standard hospital care Group 3: 0.25g/Kg with standard hospital care Group 4: 0.3g/Kg with standard hospital care Group 5 (comparator) will receive standard hospital care only MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcomes are assessment and follow-up of participants to observe 28-day mortality and, • the level and duration of assisted ventilation during hospital stay, • number of days to step down (shifting from ICU to isolation ward), • number of days to hospital discharge, • adverse events (Kidney failure, hypersensitivity with cutaneous or hemodynamic manifestations, aseptic meningitis, hemolytic anemia, leuko-neutropenia, transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI)) during hospital stay, • change in C-Reactive Protein (CRP) levels, • change in neutrophil lymphocyte ratio to monitor inflammation.

Randomisation: Consenting participants who fulfill the criteria are allocated to either intervention or comparator arm with a ratio of 4:1, using sequentially numbered opaque sealed envelope simple randomization method. The participant allocated for intervention will be sequentially assigned dosage group 1-4 in ascending order. Participants will not be recruited in the next dosage group before a set number of participants in one group (10) are achieved.

Blinding (masking): Single blinded study, with participants blinded to allocation.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): Total 50 patients are randomised. The intervention arms consist of 40 participants divided in four groups of 10 participants while the comparator group consists of 10 patients.

Trial Status: Current version of the protocol is "Version 2" dated 29 September, 2020. Participants are being recruited. Recruitment started on June, 2020 and is estimated to primarily end on January, 2021.

Trial Registration: This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04521309 on 20 August 2020 and is retrospectively registered.

Full Protocol: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04839-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604645PMC
November 2020

Application of natural crosslinkers on tooth surface: an in-vitro comparative evaluation of resin-dentin bond strength.

J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Aug;70(8):1363-1370

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To investigate the effect of natural crosslinkers proanthocyanidin, genipin and glutaraldehyde on shear bond strength at the composite resin-dentin interface .

Methods: The in-vitro study was conducted at the Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, Pakistan, from June to September 2018. Exposed dentin surfaces of extracted teeth were conditioned and randomly divided into proanthocyanidin, genipin, glutaraldehyde and control groups according to the type of surface treatment. The dentin surfaces were treated with 6.5% of primers proanthocyanidin, genipin, glutaraldehyde in the relevant groups, while teeth in the control group did not receive any primer application. After thorough rinsing, surfaces of all teeth were restored with a bonding agent and a restorative composite. After 24h, shear bond strength was tested at the Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research laboratories in Lahore. Pattern of fractures and quality of interface were investigated microscopically at the Lahore campus of COMSATS University, Islamabad. Data was analysed using SPSS 22.

Results: Of the 80 teeth, there were 20(25%) in each of the 4 groups. Surface treatment in the three intervention groups significantly raised the shear bond strength at the composite resin-dentin interface compared to the control group (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Chemical modification with collagen crosslinkers improved bond strength at the composite resin-dentin interface.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/JPMA.17870DOI Listing
August 2020

Clinical Effectiveness of Bulk-Fill and Conventional Resin Composite Restorations: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Aug 10;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of General Dentistry, Medical University of Lodz, 92-213 Lodz, Poland.

The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the clinical effectiveness of bulk-fill and conventional resin in composite restorations. A bibliographic search was carried out until May 2020, in the biomedical databases Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CENTRAL and Web of Science. The study selection criteria were: randomized clinical trials, in English, with no time limit, with a follow-up greater than or equal to 6 months and that reported the clinical effects (absence of fractures, absence of discoloration or marginal staining, adequate adaptation marginal, absence of post-operative sensitivity, absence of secondary caries, adequate color stability and translucency, proper surface texture, proper anatomical form, adequate tooth integrity without wear, adequate restoration integrity, proper occlusion, absence of inflammation and adequate point of contact) of restorations made with conventional and bulk resins. The risk of bias of the study was analyzed using the Cochrane Manual of Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Sixteen articles were eligible and included in the study. The results indicated that there is no difference between restorations with conventional and bulk resins for the type of restoration, type of tooth restored and restoration technique used. However, further properly designed clinical studies are required in order to reach a better conclusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12081786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464794PMC
August 2020

Comparative evaluation of two chelating agents in collagen fiber network modification over dentinal tubules: An in vitro analysis.

Saudi Pharm J 2020 Jun 28;28(6):657-661. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To compare effectiveness of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid in removing collagen fiber network covering dentinal tubules of human teeth.

Materials And Methods: Eighteen dentin discs were divided in three groups; Gp 1: discs received no treatment (control), Gp 2: discs etched with 17% EDTA (pH = 7.1), and Gp 3: discs etched with 6 wt% citric acid (pH = 4.0). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to assess collagen fiber removal and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was implemented to analyse crystal peaks of discs.

Results: The SEM analysis demonstrated more collagen removal with EDTA treatment compared to citric acid treated specimens. Grade 6 (81% to 100% fiber removal) was mostly achieved for Gp 2 samples whereas grade 2 (1% to 20% fiber removal) was mostly achieved for Gp 3 samples and inter-group comparisons between these groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05). X-ray diffractogram of control and experimental samples demonstrated absence of calcite phase in experimental groups. The change in peak shapes and intensities were observed and citric acid treated samples revealed more intense peaks than EDTA group.

Conclusion: Our study found 17% EDTA to be more effective in removing collagen fibers when matched with 6% citric acid.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2020.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292877PMC
June 2020

Synthesis and characterization of cellulose/hydroxyapatite based dental restorative composites.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2020 10 12;31(14):1806-1819. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.

The aim of this study was an synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) on cellulose fibers to be used as a new reinforcing agent for dental restorations. The microwave irradiation method was used for synthesis and the materials were characterized with analytical techniques. The prepared dental resin composites were mechanically tested by a universal testing machine and electrodynamic fatigue testing system. FTIR, XRD, SEM/EDS analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of HA on cellulose fibers. The Alamar blue biocompatibility assay showed more than 90% cell viability for the prepared cellulose/HA. The mechanical properties of resin composites improved with cellulose content from 30 wt.% to 50 wt.% in the polymer matrix. Substantially, increasing the cellulose/HA content from 40% to 50% improved the mechanical properties. The results suggested that HA could be successfully synthesized on cellulose fibers using microwave irradiation and contributed to improving the mechanical properties of dental resin composites.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2020.1777827DOI Listing
October 2020

Smart injectable self-setting bioceramics for dental applications.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Aug 15;113:110956. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, 54000, Pakistan. Electronic address:

A thermo-responsive injectable bioactive glass (BAG) that has the ability to set at body temperature was prepared using pluronic F127 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as the carrier. The injectable composite has the advantage to fill irregular shape implantation sites and quick setting at body temperature. The structural and morphological analysis of injectable BAG before and after setting was done by using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The effect of an ultrasonic scaler for a quick setting of injectable BAG was also investigated. The ultrasonic scaler sets the BAG formulation three-folds faster than at body temperature and homogenized the dispersion. The in vitro bio-adhesion was studied in the bovine tooth in both artificial saliva and deionized water for periodic time intervals, i.e., day 7, 30, 90, and 180, which confirmed the apatite layer formation. The mineral density analysis was used to differentiate the newly formed apatite with tooth apatite. In the MTT assay, the experimental material showed continuous proliferation and cell growth. This indicated that injectable hydrogel promoted cell growth, facilitated proliferation, and had no cytotoxic effect. The SEM and micro-CT results (performed after in vitro bioactivity testing) showed that the injectable BAG had the ability to regenerate dentin, hence this material has the potential to be used for dental and biomedical applications including tooth and bone regeneration in minimally invasive procedures in future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.110956DOI Listing
August 2020

Effects of Surface Treatments of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Post on Bond Strength to Root Dentine: A Systematic Review.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Apr 23;13(8). Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of General Dentistry, Medical University of Lodz, 92-213 Lodz, Poland.

The objective of this systematic review was to determine the influence of surface treatment of glass fiber posts on bond strength to dentine. Laboratory studies were searched in MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, PubMed Central, Scopus, and Web of Science search engine. All authors interdependently screened all identified articles for eligibility. The included studies were assessed for bias. Because of the considerable heterogeneity of the studies, a meta-analysis was not possible. Twelve articles were found eligible and included in the review. An assessment of the risk of bias in the included studies provided a result that classified the studies as low, medium, and high risk of bias. The available evidence indicated that the coronal region of the root canal bonded better to the glass fiber post than apical regions. Phosphoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and silane application enhance post's retentiveness. In light of the current evidence, surface treatment strategies increase the bond strength of glass fiber post to dentine. However, recommendations for standardized testing methods and reporting of future clinical studies are required to maintain clinically relevant information and to understand the effects of various surface treatment of glass fiber post and their bond strength with dentine walls of the root canal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13081967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7215824PMC
April 2020

Effectiveness of Thymoquinone and Fluoridated Bioactive Glass/Nano-Oxide Contained Dentifrices on Abrasion and Dentine Tubules Occlusion: An Ex Vivo Study.

Eur J Dent 2020 Feb 13;14(1):45-54. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives:  Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is mainly due to the loss and replenishment of minerals from tooth structure, where the lost minerals can be rehabilitated with a biomimetic approach. The objectives were to determine the relative dentin abrasivity (RDA) of experimental (EXT) dentifrices and to determine the efficacy to occlude dentinal tubules.

Materials And Methods:  Experimental dentifrices contained nano-fluoridated bioactive glass (n-FBG: 1.5 wt.% [EXT-A], 2.5 wt.% [EXT-B], and 3.5 wt.% [EXT-C]), nano-zinc oxide (n-ZnO), and thymoquinone as active agents. Bovine dentin blocks were subjected to brushing treatments as per groups, that is, distilled water; commercial dentifrice (control, CT); EXT toothpastes; and EXT-D without active agents. Samples were tested for three-dimensional (3D) abrasion analysis according to ISO-11609:2010 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO]). The roughness average (Ra), RDA, surface topography, and elemental compositions were investigated.

Statistical Analysis:  One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Tukey's and Tamhane's test was performed for characterizations using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. The result was considered significant with -value ≤ 0.05.

Results:  Comparisons of Ra differed significantly between all groups with < 0.05 except CT and EXT-A. The RDA values of EXT-A, EXT-B, and EXT-C were calculated as 74.04, 84.26, and 116.24, respectively, which were well within the acceptable limit set by international standards. All n-FBG containing dentifrices demonstrated uniform occlusion of dentinal tubules; however, highly concentrated EXT dentifrices showed more occlusion.

Conclusions:  Acceptable range of RDA and superior occlusion of tubules by novel dentifrices suggest that it may be recommended for treating DH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1703418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7069742PMC
February 2020

Structural, fluoride release, and 3D interfacial adhesion analysis of bioactive endodontic sealers.

Dent Mater J 2020 Jun 21;39(3):483-489. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University.

The experimental bioactive sealers were synthesized by incorporating fluoridated-nano-bioactive glass (F-nBG; 2.5 and 5wt%) in AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) sealer and denoted as AH-FBG2.5 and AH-FBG5, respectively. Structural pattern, setting time, flowability, and water sorption analysis were performed. The fluoride release behavior was evaluated periodically over the course of 40 days using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. For sealing ability, post-extraction single-rooted teeth were obturated with sealers. The percentage of voids and sealing ability were evaluated periodically using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) followed by push-out bond strength. The Fourier transform infrared spectra showed a change in peak height with an increase in the concentration of fillers. The setting time, flowability, and water sorption of experimental groups were within the acceptable clinical range. The fluoride release, sealing ability, and bond strength of experimental sealers were significantly high. The experimental sealers have potential to overcome sealing ability issues of sealers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2019-064DOI Listing
June 2020

Comparative Fluoride Release and Antimicrobial Analysis of Commercial and Experimental Bioactive Glass/Nano-Oxide-Based Dentifrices.

Eur J Dent 2020 Feb 4;14(1):38-44. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives:  The objectives were to measure fluoride release and assess the antimicrobial behavior of fluoride-doped nano bioactive glass (F-nBG) and nano zinc oxide (ZnO)-enriched novel dentifrices.

Materials And Methods:  Experimental dentifrices were synthesized by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles and F-nBG (1.5 wt% and 4 wt%) as active ingredients. The fluoride release behavior of suspensions and elutes of samples were analyzed by ion selective electrode. Antimicrobial activity and minimum bactericidal concentration against and were evaluated. Microbial stability against contamination was also assessed by a challenge test.

Results:  The fluoride release behavior of experimental dentifrices was higher than that of commercial dentifrices and was dependent on filler loading. The fluoride release was more from suspensions than elutes. Zones of inhibition (ZOIs) and minimum bactericidal concentration values for novel dentifrices showed direct proportionality with filler loading, and effectiveness was exhibited against both strains. Experimental dentifrices exhibited effective antibacterial potential, which could possibly be due to release of sufficient fluoride and zinc ions in aqueous media from F-nBG and ZnO present in their formulations.

Conclusion:  Combination of F-nBG and ZnO may provide a multi-benefit approach for simultaneously treating early white spot lesions, reducing bacterial growth, and providing core plaque control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1701292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7069735PMC
February 2020

Prosthodontics dental materials: From conventional to unconventional.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Jan 7;106:110167. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore 54600, Pakistan.

New inventions and innovations in the field of dentistry have potential applications to satisfy the patient's demand. In prosthodontics, a dental prosthesis plays a major role in improving the quality of oral health care. Currently, the trends have shifted towards the implants and implant-supported prosthesis for the replacement of missing teeth. Conventional dentures are patient's preference mainly due to financial constraints. In an attempt to find solutions to current problems, we have come across new materials zirconium, titanium and new inventions like flexible dentures, fenestrated dentures, and CAD/CAM fabricated dentures. Using the progress of past five years in the field of prosthodontics, this comprehensive review focuses on denture base materials, denture liners, removable partial dentures, fixed prosthesis such as crown and bridge materials, implant-supported a fixed denture, artificial teeth materials, impression materials, and ingenious alternatives to conventional dentures. This article also sheds some light on the current promising researches and gives insight into the problems that can be the focus of future researches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.110167DOI Listing
January 2020

Thyroxine-loaded chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose/hydroxyapatite hydrogels enhance angiogenesis in in-ovo experiments.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Feb 12;145:1162-1170. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, 54000, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Angiogenesis is one of the most important processes in repair and regeneration of many tissues and organs. Blood vessel formation also play a major role in repair of dental tissue(s) after ailments like periodontitis. Here we report the preparation of chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose/hydroxyapatite based hydrogels, loaded with variable concentrations of thyroxin i.e., 0.1 μg/ml, 0.5 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml. Scanning electron microcopy images (SEM) showed all hydrogels were found to be porous and solution absorption study exhibited high swelling potential in aqueous media. FTIR spectra confirmed that the used materials did not change their chemical identity in synthesized hydrogels. The synthesized hydrogels demonstrated good bending, folding, rolling and stretching abilities. The hydrogels were tested in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay to investigate their angiogenic potential. Hydrogel containing 0.1 μg/ml of thyroxine showed maximum neovascularization. For cytotoxicity analyses, preosteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were seeded on these hydrogels and materials were found to be non-toxic. These hydrogels with pro-angiogenic activity possess great potential to be used for periodontal regeneration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.10.043DOI Listing
February 2020

Dentin Tubule Occlusion Potential of Novel Dentifrices Having Fluoride Containing Bioactive Glass and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

Med Princ Pract 2020 5;29(4):338-346. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To compare the in vitro potential of dentin tubule occlusion of two novel experimental dentifrices consisting of fluoride containing bioactive glass (BG) with zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Materials And Methods: Forty-eight dentin discs (n = 48) were divided into 6 groups (n = 8), based on their brushing dentifrices: Group 1 = artificial saliva (AS; control); Group 2 = fluoride dentifrice (Colgate Palmolive©, UK); Group 3 = experimental nonactive agent dentifrice; Group 4 = experimental dentifrice with 1.5% BG; Group 5 = experimental dentifrice with 4% BG; and Group 6 = BioMinF© dentifrice. Postbrushing, the discs were subjected to acidic challenge with 6% wt citric acid (pH = 4.0) for 1 min. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were performed pre- and post-citric acid challenges, and percentages of tubule occlusion assessed.

Results: SEM micrographs of group 1 (AS) show no tubule occlusion (0%), whereas those of groups 2 and 3 show partial tubule occlusion (25 to <50% of tubules occluded). The SEM micrographs of dentifrices containing fluoride-BG (groups 4, 5, and 6) show that most of the tubules (>50 and <100%) were occluded. For all the groups (excluding group 1), pre- and post-citric acid challenge values are statistically significant (p < 0.05). EDX analysis reveals the presence of zinc in experimental dentifrices only.

Conclusion: The results of novel experimental dentifrices are comparable to those of the BioMinF©, in terms of tubule occlusion. Dentifrices containing BG could serve as an alternative in dentin sensitivity management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000503706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445664PMC
November 2019

Effect Of Lignocaine Addition On The Properties Of Irreversible Hydrocolloid Impression Material.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2019 Jul-Sep;31(3):359-363

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials have been a staple in dentistry and useful for the fabrication of dental prosthesis. Gagging is most commonly experienced during maxillary impression making, which may affect the clinical management of the patient. Different techniques have been described to alleviate this problem. One of them is mixing lignocaine local anesthetic solution in irreversible hydrocolloid impression material before making the impression. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of lignocaine addition in irreversible hydrocolloid impression on the properties of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials.

Methods: Irreversible hydrocolloid was mixed with water (Control group) or water and adrenalin (Lidocaine hydrochloride) (Experimental group). Compressive strength, tear strength and setting time were measured according to ISO1567 and ANSI/ADA specifications 18. The structural analysis of both groups was also evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).

Results: In the experimental group, insignificant decrease was observed in compressive and tear strength of irreversible hydrocolloid (p>0.05). There was significant (p<0.05) increase in setting time of irreversible hydrocolloid impression material. FTIR analysis indicated no change in chemistry of irreversible hydrocolloid before and after setting.

Conclusions: Addition of lignocaine in irreversible hydrocolloid impression material may result in control of gag reflex without affecting its mechanical and chemical properties.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2020

Tri-layered functionally graded membrane for potential application in periodontal regeneration.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019 Oct 28;103:109812. Epub 2019 May 28.

Chair in Bioengineering, Engineering Department, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lancaster University, Gillow Avenue, Lancaster, LA1 4YW, UK.

A novel tri-layered, functionally-graded chitosan membrane (FGM) with bioactive glass gradient (50%, 25%, and 0% wt.) was developed by lyophilization. A step-wise grading of chitosan, bioactive glass (BG), and Pluronic F127 was introduced into the membrane in which each layer has separate surface functions that play a role of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membranes. The lower layer was designed to replicate alveolar bone and contains 50%wt. BG, the middle layer contains 25%wt. BG, while the upper layer was non-porous without BG and it did not support cell growth. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that the lower FGM surface possessed a porous structure with embedded BG particles, while the upper surface was non-porous with interconnected architecture. The contact angle measurement confirmed that the surface with BG was hydrophilic (≈0), while the opposite surface was hydrophobic (91 ± 3.84). Both osteoblast and fibroblast cells have maximum adhesion at contact angle <80°. Alamar blue assay revealed the biocompatibility of the MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts cells with these membranes in vitro. The cells attachment and proliferation was seen for lower surface, while no cells adhesion was observed for the upper layer. Additionally, the interaction of the tissue with these tri-layered membranes was also investigated in vivo. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed the biocompatible nature of these membranes. Altogether, these results indicated that due to the biocompatible nature of these membranes, they will be a good carrier of in vivo implantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.109812DOI Listing
October 2019

Effect of nano-zinc oxide and fluoride-doped bioactive glass-based dentifrices on esthetic restorations.

Dent Med Probl 2019 Jan-Mar;56(1):59-65

Department of Restorative Dental Science, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Over time, improvements have been made in dentifrices and recently bioactive components have been added. It is important to address the abrasivity of these dentifrices, which can cause wear of dental restorative materials.

Objectives: A comparative study was conducted to examine the effects of commercial and experimental dentifrices upon commonly used dental restorative materials.

Material And Methods: Three types of experimental dentifrices were prepared with variable concentrations of fluoride-based bioactive glass, nano-zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder as active ingredients. A custom-made toothbrush simulator was used with variable cycles (0; 5,000; and 10,000) to treat samples prepared from dental restorative materials. Prior to and after the treatment cycles, the physical properties of the restorative materials were assessed and compared with commercial toothpaste through micro-hardness, surface roughness and color stability testing.

Results: The restorative materials showed an insignificant difference in terms of micro-hardness before and after the treatment with all dentifrices. A significant difference was observed in terms of surface roughness. With respect to color stability, there has been observed an insignificant difference between the control and the other 3 experimental dentifrices for all the cycles - pre, post-5,000 and post-10,000.

Conclusions: Experimental fluoride-containing bioactive dentifrices caused a change in the restorative material properties; however, it was minimal and the properties still met the requirements for clinical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/dmp/103597DOI Listing
November 2019

Fabrication, in vitro and in vivo studies of bilayer composite membrane for periodontal guided tissue regeneration.

J Biomater Appl 2019 02 3;33(7):967-978. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

1 Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.

Development of a guided occlusive biodegradable membrane with controlled morphology in order to restrict the ingrowth of epithelial cells is still a challenge in dental tissue engineering. A bilayer membrane with a non-porous upper layer (polyurethane) and porous lower layer (polycaprolactone and bioactive glass composite) with thermoelastic properties to sustain surgery treatment was developed by lyophilization. Morphology, porosity, and layers attachment were controlled by using the multi-solvent system. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, cell attachment, and cell proliferation were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histology. The cell proliferation rate and cell attachment results showed good biocompatibility of both surfaces, though cell metabolic activity was better on the polycaprolactone-bioactive glass surface. Furthermore, the cells were viable, adhered, and proliferated well on the lower porous bioactive surface, while non-porous polyurethane surface demonstrated low cell attachment, which was deliberately designed and a pre-requisite for guided tissue regeneration/guided bone regeneration membranes. In addition, in vivo studies performed in a rat model for six weeks revealed good compatibility of membranes. Histological analysis (staining with hematoxylin and eosin) indicated no signs of inflammation or accumulation of host immune cells. These results suggested that the fabricated biocompatible bilayer membrane has the potential for use in periodontal tissue regeneration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885328218814986DOI Listing
February 2019

A review of bioceramics-based dental restorative materials.

Dent Mater J 2019 Mar 1;38(2):163-176. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Dental Materials, University of Health Sciences.

Currently, much has been published related to conventional resin-based composites and adhesives; however, little information is available about bioceramics-based restorative materials. The aim was to structure this topic into its component parts and to highlight the translational research that has been conducted up to the present time. A literature search was done from indexed journals up to September 2017. The main search terms used were based on dental resin-based composites, dental adhesives along with bioactive glass and the calcium phosphate family. The results showed that in 123 articles, amorphous calcium phosphate (39.83%), hydroxyapatite (23.5%), bioactive glass (16.2%), dicalcium phosphate (5.69%), monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (3.25%), and tricalcium phosphate (2.43%) have been used in restorative materials. Moreover, seven studies were found related to a newly developed commercial bioactive composite. The utilization of bioactive materials for tooth restorations can promote remineralization and a durable seal of the tooth-material interface.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2018-039DOI Listing
March 2019

Microwave-assisted synthesis and in vitro osteogenic analysis of novel bioactive glass fibers for biomedical and dental applications.

Biomed Mater 2018 10 31;14(1):015005. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.

Glass fiber-based materials have gained interest for use in biomedical and dental applications. The aim of this study was to make E-glass fiber bioactive by a novel method using the microwave irradiation technique. Industrial E-glass fibers were used after surface activation with the hydrolysis method. The ratio of calcium and phosphorous precursors was set at 1.67. After maintaining the pH of the calcium solution, E-glass fibers in two ratios, i.e. 30% (nHA/E30) and 50% (nHA/E50) wt/wt, were added. The phosphorous precursor was added later and the solution was irradiated in a microwave to obtain nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) particles on E-glass fibers. The structural, physical and in vitro biocompatibility analyses of the resulting materials were conducted. The expression of osteopontin (OPN) and collagen (Col) type 1 was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and comparison was made between all the groups. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction showed characteristic peaks of nHA, and a change in the peak intensities was observed with an increase in the concentration of E-glass fibers. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images confirmed the homogenous adhesion of nHA spherical particles all over the fibers. Cell viability with mesenchymal stem cells showed growth, proliferation, and adhesion. All the materials were able to upregulate the expression of the OPN and Col, where gene expression was highest in nHA followed by nHA/E30 and nHA/E50. The bioactive glass fibers were synthesized in the shortest time and showed osteogenic properties. These materials have the potential for use in bone tissue engineering, dental prosthesis, and tooth restoration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-605X/aae3f0DOI Listing
October 2018

Effect of nano-bioceramics on monomer leaching and degree of conversion of resin-based composites.

Dent Mater J 2018 Nov 23;37(6):940-949. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University.

The aim of this laboratory study was to evaluate the monomer leaching and degree of conversion (DC) from experimental bioactive resin composites (RBCs) and to do comparison with commercial bulkfill and packable resin composites. Experimental dimethacrylatebased resin composites were reinforced with silanated nano-hydroxyapatite (30 and 45 wt%). The ion leaching and DC of these resin composites were compared and contrasted with SDR™ and Filtek P60™ by using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. A significant difference was found in elution of monomer between the resin composites. SDR™ showed significantly high monomer elution and structural changes compared to other resin composites. The DC of bioactive RBCs showed the highest conversion rate after polymerization. Resin composite with nano-hydroxyapatite with the presence of a bioactive component might provide biomimetic approach for the material. Moreover, a low concentration of nanohydroxyapatite nano-fillers have shown better properties than micro-fillers based resin composites.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2017-338DOI Listing
November 2018

A retrospective study of causes, management, and complications of pediatric facial fractures.

Eur J Dent 2018 Apr-Jun;12(2):247-252

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to report causes, management options, and complications of facial fractures among children.

Materials And Methods: The groups were defined on the basis of age, gender, cause of injuries, location, and type of injuries. The treatment modalities ranged from no intervention, closed reduction alone or with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF).

Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were generated by using SPSS software for the entire range of the variables under study.

Results: Records of 240 pediatric patients were obtained and a total of 322 fractures were found among a study sample. Among these, one-thirds were due to road traffic accidents (RTAs) (37.26%) and fall injuries (36.64%), making them the leading causes of facial fractures. Mandibular fractures were the most common and they accounted for 46% ( = 148) of all fractures. The highest number of RTA ( = 27) was found in adolescents and fall injuries were more prevalent in preschool children ( = 34). Forty-two percent of the fractures ( = 101) were treated with close treatment using arch bars and splints, followed by ORIF ( = 68). The rest, 29.6% ( = 71), received conservative treatments. Postoperative complications were observed in 18.33% ( = 44) of cases, of which jaw deviation, growth disturbance, and trismus were more frequently encountered.

Conclusion: Pediatric facial fractures if not managed properly can cause severe issues; therefore, injury prevention strategies should be strictly followed to reduce pediatric injuries in low socioeconomic countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ejd.ejd_370_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6004801PMC
July 2018

Comparative abrasive wear resistance and surface analysis of dental resin-based materials.

Eur J Dent 2018 Jan-Mar;12(1):57-66

Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the surface properties (microhardness and wear resistance) of various composites and compomer materials. In addition, the methodologies used for assessing wear resistance were compared.

Materials And Methods: This study was conducted using restorative material (Filtek Z250, Filtek Z350, QuiXfil, SureFil SDR, and Dyract XP) to assess wear resistance. A custom-made toothbrush simulator was employed for wear testing. Before and after wear resistance, structural, surface, and physical properties were assessed using various techniques.

Results: Structural changes and mass loss were observed after treatment, whereas no significant difference in terms of microhardness was observed. The correlation between atomic force microscopy (AFM) and profilometer and between wear resistance and filler volume was highly significant. The correlation between wear resistance and microhardness were insignificant.

Conclusions: The AFM presented higher precision compared to optical profilometers at a nanoscale level, but both methods can be used in tandem for a more detailed and precise roughness analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ejd.ejd_380_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5883477PMC
April 2018

Thirty Years of Translational Research in Zirconia Dental Implants: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

J Oral Implantol 2017 Aug 8;43(4):314-325. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

3   Discipline of Paediatric Dentistry, UWA Dental School, Australia.

Thirty years of transitional research in zirconia (Zr) ceramics has led to significant improvements in the biomedical field, especially in dental implantology. Oral implants made of yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP) because of their excellent mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, and esthetically acceptable color have emerged as an attractive metal-free alternative to titanium (Ti) implants. The aim of the review was to highlight the translation research in Zr dental implants that has been conducted over the past 3 decades using preclinical animal models. A computer search of electronic databases, primarily PubMed, was performed with the following key words: "zirconia ceramics AND animal trials," "ceramic implants AND animal trials," "zirconia AND animal trials," "zirconia AND in vivo animal trials," without any language restriction. However, the search was limited to animal trials discussing percentage bone-implant contact (%BIC) around zirconia implants/discs. This search resulted in 132 articles (reviews, in vivo studies, and animal studies) of potential interest. We restricted our search terms to "zirconia/ceramic," "bone-implant-contact," and "animal trials" and found 29 relevant publications, which were then selected for full-text reading. Reasons for exclusion included the article's not being an animal study, being a review article, and not discussing %BIC around Zr implants/discs. Most of the studies investigated BIC around Zr in rabbits (30%), pigs (approximately 20%), dogs, sheep, and rats. This review of the literature shows that preclinical animal models can be successfully used to investigate osseointegration around Zr ceramics. Results of the reviewed studies demonstrated excellent %BIC around Zr implants. It should be noted that most of the studies investigated %BIC/removal torque under nonloading conditions, and results would have been somewhat different in functional loading situations because of inherent limitations of Zr ceramics. Further trials are needed to evaluate the performance of Zr ceramics in clinical conditions using implants designed and manufactured via novel techniques that enhance their biomechanical properties.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1563/aaid-joi-D-17-00016DOI Listing
August 2017

Protein adsorption capability on polyurethane and modified-polyurethane membrane for periodontal guided tissue regeneration applications.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016 Nov 10;68:267-275. Epub 2016 May 10.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Kroto Research Institute, North Campus, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom.

Periodontal disease if left untreated can result in creation of defects within the alveolar ridge. Barrier membranes are frequently used with or without bone replacement graft materials for achieving periodontal guided tissue regeneration (GTR). Surface properties of barrier membranes play a vital role in their functionality and clinical success. In this study polyetherurethane (PEU) membranes were synthesized by using 4,4'-methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO) and 1,4-butane diol (BDO) as a chain extender via solution polymerization. Hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) due to having inherent surface orientation towards air was used for surface modification of PEU on one side of the membranes. This resulting membranes had one surface being PEU and the other being PDMS coated PEU. The prepared membranes were treated with solutions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in de-ionized water at 37°C at a pH of 7.2. The surface protein adsorptive potential of PEU membranes was observed using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and Confocal Raman spectroscopy. The contact angle measurement, tensile strength and modulus of prepared membranes were also evaluated. PEU membrane (89.86±1.62°) exhibited less hydrophobic behavior than PEU-PDMS (105.87±3.16°). The ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus of PEU (27±1MPa and 14±2MPa) and PEU-PDMS (8±1MPa and 26±1MPa) membranes was in required range. The spectral analysis revealed adsorption of BSA proteins on the surface of non PDMS coated PEU surface. The PDMS modified PEU membranes demonstrated a lack of BSA adsorption. The non PDMS coated side of the membrane which adsorbs proteins could potentially be used facing towards the defect attracting growth factors for periodontal tissue regeneration. Whereas, the PDMS coated side could serve as an occlusive barrier for preventing gingival epithelial cells from proliferating and migrating into the defect space by facing the soft tissue flaps. This study demonstrates the potential of a dual natured PEU barrier membrane for use in periodontal tissue engineering applications and further investigations are required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.05.026DOI Listing
November 2016

Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics.

Int J Mol Sci 2016 Jul 14;17(7). Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Kroto Research Institute, The University of Sheffield, North Campus, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, UK.

Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1-100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs) can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4964507PMC
July 2016

Novel meloxicam releasing electrospun polymer/ceramic reinforced biodegradable membranes for periodontal regeneration applications.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016 Jul 23;64:148-156. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000, Pakistan; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Kroto Research Institute, The University of Sheffield, North Campus, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom.

Periodontal disease is associated with the destruction of periodontal tissues, along with other disorders/problems including inflammation of tissues and severe pain. This paper reports the synthesis of meloxicam (MX) immobilized biodegradable chitosan (CS)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/hydroxyapatite (HA) based electrospun (e-spun) fibers and films. Electrospinning was employed to produce drug loaded fibrous mats, whereas films were generated by solvent casting method. In-vitro drug release from materials containing varying concentrations of MX revealed that the scaffolds containing higher amount of drug showed comparatively faster release. During initial first few hours fast release was noted from membranes and films; however after around 5h sustained release was achieved. The hydrogels showed good swelling property, which is highly desired for soft tissue engineered implants. To investigate the biocompatibility of our synthesized materials, VERO cells (epithelial cells) were selected and cell culture results showed that these all materials were non-cytotoxic and also these cells were very well proliferated on these synthesized scaffolds. These properties along with the anti-inflammatory potential of our fabricated materials suggest their effective utilization in periodontital treatments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.03.072DOI Listing
July 2016

Effect of calcium hydroxide on mechanical strength and biological properties of bioactive glass.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2016 08 6;61:617-626. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

Department of Material Science and Engineering, The Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom.

In this manuscript for the first time calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been used for preparation of bioactive glass (BG-2) by co-precipitation method and compared with glass prepared using calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Ca(NO3)2·4H2O (BG-1), which is a conventional source of calcium. The new source positively affected physical, biological and mechanical properties of BG-2. The glasses were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis/Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA-DSC), BET surface area analysis and Knoop hardness. The results showed that BG-2 possessed relatively larger surface properties (100m(2)g(-1) surface area) as compared to BG-1 (78m(2)g(-1)), spherical morphology and crystalline phases (wollastonite and apatite) after sintering at lower than conventional temperature. These properties contribute critical role in both mechanical and biological properties of glasses. The Knoop hardness measurements revealed that BG-2 possessed much better hardness (0.43±0.06GPa at 680°C and 2.16±0.46GPa at 980°C) than BG-1 (0.24±0.01 at 680°C and 0.57±0.07GPA at 980°C) under same conditions. Alamar blue Assay and confocal microscopy revealed that BG-2 exhibited better attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells. Based on the improved biological properties of BG-2 as a consequent of novel calcium source selection, BG-2 is proposed as a bioactive ceramic for hard tissue repair and regeneration applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.03.030DOI Listing
August 2016