Publications by authors named "Abdul Rahim"

360 Publications

Treatment Outcomes of Proliferative vs. Non-proliferative Adult Lupus Nephritis: A 10-Year Follow-Up.

Cureus 2021 Aug 6;13(8):e16955. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Nephrology Department, Urology & Nephrology Center, Mansoura, EGY.

Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic disease with clinically heterogeneous outcomes. Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common complication of SLE. LN impacts clinical SLE outcomes both directly, in the form of target organ damage, and indirectly, through the adverse effects of immunosuppressive therapy. Patients & methods The study included 402 SLE cases with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis who were under follow-up for the past 13 years at Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center, Egypt. We studied the differences in outcome among various LN classes and between 275 proliferative cases and 102 non-proliferative cases. Results Class IV was the main LN class in our series with renal survival of 60% at 10 years. The major induction regimen after the first biopsy was cyclophosphamide. Mycophenolate mofetil was the main induction and adjunctive regimen after the second biopsy. The mean follow-up period was 6.7 + 5.2 years. Higher serum creatinine, proteinuria, activity, and chronicity indices were noted in proliferative LN. Patients suffering from proliferative lesions received higher immunosuppression and demonstrated higher morbidity than those with non-proliferative lesions. Remission was higher among the non-proliferative compared to the proliferative group. Conclusions Serum creatinine, proteinuria, and LN class were the most relevant prognostic factors for renal survival among Egyptian LN patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.16955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418876PMC
August 2021

Biomarkers for Atrial Fibrillation Detection After Stroke: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Neurology 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Objective: To identify clinical, ECG and blood-based biomarkers associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) detection after ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) that could help inform patient selection for cardiac monitoring.

Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis and searched electronic databases for cohort studies from 15/01/2000-15/01/2020. The outcome was AF ≥30 seconds within one year after ischaemic stroke/TIA. We used random effects models to create summary estimates of risk. Risk of bias was assessed using the Quality in Prognostic Studies tool. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020168307.

Results: We identified 8503 studies, selected 34 studies and assessed 69 variables (42 clinical, 20 ECG and seven blood-based biomarkers). The studies included 11569 participants and AF was detected in 1478 people (12.8%). Overall, risk of bias was moderate. Variables associated with increased likelihood of AF detection are older age (OR 3.26, 95%CI 2.35-4.54), female sex (OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.23-1.77), a history of heart failure (OR 2.56, 95%CI 1.87-3.49), hypertension (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.15-1.75) or ischaemic heart disease (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.34-2.42), higher modified Rankin Scale (OR 6.13, 95%CI 2.93-12.84) or National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (OR 2.50, 95%CI 1.64-3.81), no significant carotid/intracranial artery stenosis (OR 3.23, 95%CI 1.14-9.11), no tobacco use (OR 1.93, 95%CI 1.48-2.51), statin therapy (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.14-3.73), stroke as index diagnosis (OR 1.59, 95%CI 1.17-2.18), systolic blood pressure (OR 1.61, 95%CI 1.16-2.22), intravenous thrombolysis treatment (OR 2.40, 95%CI 1.83-3.16), atrioventricular block (OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.08-4.17), left ventricular hypertrophy (OR 2.21, 95%CI 1.03-4.74), premature atrial contraction (OR 3.90, 95%CI 1.74-8.74), maximum P-wave duration (OR 3.19, 95%CI 1.40-7.25), PR interval (OR 2.32, 95%CI 1.11-4.83), P-wave dispersion (OR 7.79, 95%CI 4.16-14.61), P-wave index (OR 3.44, 95%CI 1.87-6.32), QTc interval (OR 3.68, 95%CI 1.63-8.28), brain natriuretic peptide (OR 13.73, 95%CI 3.31-57.07) and HDL-cholesterol (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.17-1.88) concentrations. Variables associated with reduced likelihood are minimum P-wave duration (OR 0.53, 95%CI 0.29-0.98), LDL-cholesterol (OR 0.73, 95%CI 0.57-0.93) and triglyceride (OR 0.51, 95%CI 0.41-0.64) concentrations.

Discussion: We have identified multi-modal biomarkers that could help guide patient selection for cardiac monitoring after ischaemic stroke/TIA. Their prognostic utility should be prospectively assessed with AF detection and recurrent stroke as outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000012769DOI Listing
September 2021

Prevalence, Risk Factors, Harm Perception, and Attitudes Toward E-cigarette Use Among University Students in Qatar: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Front Public Health 2021 20;9:682355. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is becoming more popular worldwide, especially among youth. Studies report that university students have inadequate knowledge as well as misconceptions about the health risks of e-cigarettes, which may lead to their use even in populations where smoking prevalence is relatively low. At this age, the influence of peers is also significant. Understanding attitudes of university students toward the use of e-cigarettes is important for effective tobacco prevention interventions. In this study, we assess the prevalence of e-cigarette use among students in Qatar's largest national university, as well as their knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of harm in relation to e-cigarettes. We conducted a cross-sectional study among Qatar University students using a self-administered online questionnaire. Descriptive univariate analyses were conducted as well as bivariate analyses to check the association of e-cigarette use with variables of interest. A binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess determinants of e-cigarette use among students. One hundred ninety-nine students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of e-cigarette use among students was 14%, with no significant difference by gender (16.2% in males and 12.8% in females). In bivariate analyses, significantly fewer e-cigarette users believed that e-cigarettes cause disease compared to non-users. 67.9% of e-cigarette users compared to 37.6% of non-users believed that e-cigarettes were less harmful than traditional cigarettes, and 78.6% of users compared to 40.4% of non-users believed that their use could be helpful in preventing smoking traditional cigarettes. Bivariate associations between e-cigarette use and knowledge items were significant ( < 0.05) as well as having a smoker among siblings or friends. In the multivariate analysis, only having a friend who was a smoker remained significant after controlling for other variables (OR = 7.3, < 0.001). Our study found that university students have knowledge gaps and misconceptions with regard to the harms associated with e-cigarettes use, especially among users. A comprehensive smoking prevention policy, educational interventions, and quit support are needed to enhance awareness among university students about the health effects associated with e-cigarettes use. Such interventions should also take into account the influence of peers on smoking practices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.682355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417713PMC
August 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Infection Is at Herd Immunity in the Majority Segment of the Population of Qatar.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Aug 2;8(8):ofab221. Epub 2021 May 2.

Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Background: Qatar experienced a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic that disproportionately affected the craft and manual worker (CMW) population, who comprise 60% of the total population. This study aimed to assess ever and/or current infection prevalence in this population.

Methods: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted during July 26 to September 09, 2020, to assess both anti-SARS-CoV-2 positivity through serological testing and current infection positivity through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Associations with antibody and PCR positivity were identified through regression analyses.

Results: The study included 2641 participants, 69.3% of whom were <40 years of age. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 positivity was 55.3% (95% CI, 53.3%-57.3%) and was significantly associated with nationality, geographic location, educational attainment, occupation, and previous infection diagnosis. PCR positivity was 11.3% (95% CI, 9.9%-12.8%) and was significantly associated with nationality, geographic location, occupation, contact with an infected person, and reporting 2 or more symptoms. Infection positivity (antibody and/or PCR positive) was 60.6% (95% CI, 58.6%-62.5%). The proportion of antibody-positive CMWs who had a prior SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was 9.3% (95% CI, 7.9%-11.0%). Only seven infections were ever severe, and only 1 was ever critical-an infection severity rate of 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2%-1.0%).

Conclusions: Six in every 10 CMWs in Qatar have been infected, suggestive of reaching the herd immunity threshold. Infection severity was low, with only 1 in every 200 infections progressing to be severe or critical. Only 1 in every 10 infections had been previously diagnosed, which is suggestive of mostly asymptomatic or mild infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135898PMC
August 2021

Worldwide trends in hypertension prevalence and progress in treatment and control from 1990 to 2019: a pooled analysis of 1201 population-representative studies with 104 million participants.

Authors:

Lancet 2021 Sep 24;398(10304):957-980. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Background: Hypertension can be detected at the primary health-care level and low-cost treatments can effectively control hypertension. We aimed to measure the prevalence of hypertension and progress in its detection, treatment, and control from 1990 to 2019 for 200 countries and territories.

Methods: We used data from 1990 to 2019 on people aged 30-79 years from population-representative studies with measurement of blood pressure and data on blood pressure treatment. We defined hypertension as having systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or greater, diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or greater, or taking medication for hypertension. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and the proportion of people with hypertension who had a previous diagnosis (detection), who were taking medication for hypertension (treatment), and whose hypertension was controlled to below 140/90 mm Hg (control). The model allowed for trends over time to be non-linear and to vary by age.

Findings: The number of people aged 30-79 years with hypertension doubled from 1990 to 2019, from 331 (95% credible interval 306-359) million women and 317 (292-344) million men in 1990 to 626 (584-668) million women and 652 (604-698) million men in 2019, despite stable global age-standardised prevalence. In 2019, age-standardised hypertension prevalence was lowest in Canada and Peru for both men and women; in Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, and some countries in western Europe including Switzerland, Spain, and the UK for women; and in several low-income and middle-income countries such as Eritrea, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Solomon Islands for men. Hypertension prevalence surpassed 50% for women in two countries and men in nine countries, in central and eastern Europe, central Asia, Oceania, and Latin America. Globally, 59% (55-62) of women and 49% (46-52) of men with hypertension reported a previous diagnosis of hypertension in 2019, and 47% (43-51) of women and 38% (35-41) of men were treated. Control rates among people with hypertension in 2019 were 23% (20-27) for women and 18% (16-21) for men. In 2019, treatment and control rates were highest in South Korea, Canada, and Iceland (treatment >70%; control >50%), followed by the USA, Costa Rica, Germany, Portugal, and Taiwan. Treatment rates were less than 25% for women and less than 20% for men in Nepal, Indonesia, and some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania. Control rates were below 10% for women and men in these countries and for men in some countries in north Africa, central and south Asia, and eastern Europe. Treatment and control rates have improved in most countries since 1990, but we found little change in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania. Improvements were largest in high-income countries, central Europe, and some upper-middle-income and recently high-income countries including Costa Rica, Taiwan, Kazakhstan, South Africa, Brazil, Chile, Turkey, and Iran.

Interpretation: Improvements in the detection, treatment, and control of hypertension have varied substantially across countries, with some middle-income countries now outperforming most high-income nations. The dual approach of reducing hypertension prevalence through primary prevention and enhancing its treatment and control is achievable not only in high-income countries but also in low-income and middle-income settings.

Funding: WHO.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01330-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446938PMC
September 2021

Kinetic studies and homology modeling of a dual-substrate linalool/nerolidol synthase from Plectranthus amboinicus.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 24;11(1):17094. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Linalool and nerolidol are terpene alcohols that occur naturally in many aromatic plants and are commonly used in food and cosmetic industries as flavors and fragrances. In plants, linalool and nerolidol are biosynthesized as a result of respective linalool synthase and nerolidol synthase, or a single linalool/nerolidol synthase. In our previous work, we have isolated a linalool/nerolidol synthase (designated as PamTps1) from a local herbal plant, Plectranthus amboinicus, and successfully demonstrated the production of linalool and nerolidol in an Escherichia coli system. In this work, the biochemical properties of PamTps1 were analyzed, and its 3D homology model with the docking positions of its substrates, geranyl pyrophosphate (C) and farnesyl pyrophosphate (C) in the active site were constructed. PamTps1 exhibited the highest enzymatic activity at an optimal pH and temperature of 6.5 and 30 °C, respectively, and in the presence of 20 mM magnesium as a cofactor. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K) and catalytic efficiency (k/K) values of 16.72 ± 1.32 µM and 9.57 × 10 µM s, respectively, showed that PamTps1 had a higher binding affinity and specificity for GPP instead of FPP as expected for a monoterpene synthase. The PamTps1 exhibits feature of a class I terpene synthase fold that made up of α-helices architecture with N-terminal domain and catalytic C-terminal domain. Nine aromatic residues (W268, Y272, Y299, F371, Y378, Y379, F447, Y517 and Y523) outlined the hydrophobic walls of the active site cavity, whilst residues from the RRxW motif, RxR motif, H-α1 and J-K loops formed the active site lid that shielded the highly reactive carbocationic intermediates from the solvents. The dual substrates use by PamTps1 was hypothesized to be possible due to the architecture and residues lining the catalytic site that can accommodate larger substrate (FPP) as demonstrated by the protein modelling and docking analysis. This model serves as a first glimpse into the structural insights of the PamTps1 catalytic active site as a multi-substrate linalool/nerolidol synthase.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96524-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385045PMC
August 2021

Biomechanical analysis of three different types of fixators for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction via finite element method: a patient-specific study.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2021 Sep 15;59(9):1945-1960. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Medical Devices & Technology Centre (MEDiTEC), Institute of Human Centered Engineering (iHumEn), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

Complication rates of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) were reported to be around 15% although it is a common arthroscopic procedure with good outcomes. Breakage and migration of fixators are still possible even months after surgery. A fixator with optimum stability can minimise those two complications. Factors that affect the stability of a fixator are its configuration, material, and design. Thus, this paper aims to analyse the biomechanical effects of different types of fixators (cross-pin, interference screw, and cortical button) towards the stability of the knee joint after ACL-R. In this study, finite element modelling and analyses of a knee joint attached with double semitendinosus graft and fixators were carried out. Mimics and 3-Matic softwares were used in the development of the knee joint models. Meanwhile, the graft and fixators were designed by using SolidWorks software. Once the meshes of all models were finished in 3-Matic, simulation of the configurations was done using MSC Marc Mentat software. A 100-N anterior tibial load was applied onto the tibia to simulate the anterior drawer test. Based on the findings, cross-pin was found to have optimum stability in terms of stress and strain at the femoral fixation site for better treatment of ACL-R.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-021-02419-6DOI Listing
September 2021

Spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases, epidemic spread rate, spatial pattern, and its correlation with meteorological factors during the first to the second waves.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Environmental Science Program, Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Currently, many countries all over the world are facing the second wave of COVID-19. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases, epidemic spread rate, spatial pattern during the first to the second waves in the South Sumatra Province of Indonesia. This study used the geographical information system (GIS) software to map the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases and epidemic spread rate. The spatial autocorrelation of the COVID-19 cases was carried out using Moran's I, while the Pearson correlation was used to examining the relationship between meteorological factors and the epidemic spread rate. Most infected areas and the direction of virus spread were predicted using wind rose analysis. The results revealed that the epidemic rapidly spread from August 1 to December 1, 2020. The highest epidemic spread rate was observed in the Palembang district and in its peripheral areas (dense urban areas), while the lowest spread rate was found in the eastern and southern parts of South Sumatra Province (remote areas). The spatial correlation characteristic of the epidemic distribution exhibited a negative correlation and random distribution. Air temperature, wind speed, and precipitation have contributed to a significant impact on the high epidemic spread rate in the second wave. In summary, this study offers new insight for arranging control and prevention strategies against the potential of second wave strike.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.07.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280608PMC
July 2021

Phenyl-Lactic Acid Is an Active Ingredient in Bactericidal Supernatants of Lactobacillus crispatus.

J Bacteriol 2021 Sep 8;203(19):e0036021. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicagogrid.164971.c, Maywood, Illinois, USA.

Lactobacillus crispatus is a well-established probiotic with antimicrobial activity against pathogens across several niches of the human body generally attributed to the production of bacteriostatic molecules, including hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid. Here, we show that the cell-free supernatants of clinical isolates of L. crispatus harbor robust bactericidal activity. We further identify phenyl-lactic acid as a bactericidal compound with properties and a susceptibility range nearly identical to that of the cell-free supernatant. As such, we hypothesize that phenyl-lactic acid is a key active ingredient in L. crispatus supernatant. Although Lactobacillus crispatus is an established commensal microbe frequently used in probiotics, its protective role in the bladder microbiome has not been clarified. We report here that some urinary isolates of L. crispatus exhibit bactericidal activity, primarily due to its ability to excrete phenyl-lactic acid into its environment. Both cell-free supernatants of L. crispatus isolates and phenyl-lactic acid exhibit bactericidal activity against a wide range of pathogens, including several that are resistant to multiple antibiotics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00360-21DOI Listing
September 2021

Assessing grit as a potential additional domain for dental students' selection.

J Dent Educ 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Centre of Comprehensive Care Studies, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Unhappiness, stress, and burnout will often lead to low academic performance among dental students. Perseverance and passion for long-term goal, known as grit, could overcome these despondent emotions. Our Study is looking at whether grit should be added as another domain during the interview process. The main objective of this study was to determine the association between grit and happiness among Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) dental students. In addition to that, the prevalence of gritty and happy dental students in UiTM was also determined and compared across the years of study.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Validated Short Grit Scale (Grit-S) and Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) were distributed to all 409 undergraduate dental students in Faculty of Dentistry, UiTM through their class representatives. Scores for both grit and happiness were calculated according to their instruction manual. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 25 by descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA, independent t-test, Pearson's correlation, and linear regression.

Result: Two hundred sixty-six students returned the answered questionnaires, yielding a response rate of 65%. Prevalence of gritty and happy UiTM dental students was found to be at 79% and 41%, respectively. There was a significant positive fair linear correlation between grit and happiness among dental students (r = 0.225, p < 0.001). A significantly higher happiness score is observed among gritty student (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: While this study demonstrated high prevalence of grit, prevalence of happiness among UiTM dental students was low. Higher grit score had a positive impact on happiness score among dental students in UiTM. For this reason, grit may be considered as an additional element in selecting upcoming dental students.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12741DOI Listing
July 2021

mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants and severe COVID-19 disease in Qatar.

Nat Med 2021 09 9;27(9):1614-1621. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation-Education City, Doha, Qatar.

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to be a global health concern. The mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine was reported to have an efficacy of 94.1% at preventing symptomatic COVID-19 due to infection with 'wild-type' variants in a randomized clinical trial. Here, we assess the real-world effectiveness of this vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, specifically B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B.1.351 (Beta), in Qatar, a population that comprises mainly working-age adults, using a matched test-negative, case-control study design. We show that vaccine effectiveness was negligible for 2 weeks after the first dose, but increased rapidly in the third and fourth weeks immediately before administration of a second dose. Effectiveness against B.1.1.7 infection was 88.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 83.7-91.5%) ≥14 days after the first dose but before the second dose, and was 100% (95% CI: 91.8-100.0%) ≥14 days after the second dose. Analogous effectiveness against B.1.351 infection was 61.3% after the first dose (95% CI: 56.5-65.5%) and 96.4% after the second dose (95% CI: 91.9-98.7%). Effectiveness against any severe, critical or fatal COVID-19 disease due to any SARS-CoV-2 infection (predominantly B.1.1.7 and B.1.351) was 81.6% (95% CI: 71.0-88.8%) and 95.7% (95% CI: 73.4-99.9%) after the first and second dose, respectively. The mRNA-1273 vaccine is highly effective against B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 infections, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, and against any COVID-19 hospitalization and death, even after a single dose.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01446-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Epidemiological impact of prioritising SARS-CoV-2 vaccination by antibody status: mathematical modelling analyses.

BMJ Innov 2021 Apr 31;7(2):327-336. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Cornell University, Doha, Qatar.

Background: Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed, but their availability falls far short of global needs. This study aimed to investigate the impact of prioritising available doses on the basis of recipient antibody status, that is by exposure status, using Qatar as an example.

Methods: Vaccination impact (defined as the reduction in infection incidence and the number of vaccinations needed to avert one infection or one adverse disease outcome) was assessed under different scale-up scenarios using a deterministic meta-population mathematical model describing SARS-CoV-2 transmission and disease progression in the presence of vaccination.

Results: For a vaccine that protects against infection with an efficacy of 95%, half as many vaccinations were needed to avert one infection, disease outcome or death by prioritising antibody-negative individuals for vaccination. Prioritisation by antibody status reduced incidence at a faster rate and led to faster elimination of infection and return to normalcy. Further prioritisation by age group amplified the gains of prioritisation by antibody status. Gains from prioritisation by antibody status were largest in settings where the proportion of the population already infected at the commencement of vaccination was 30%-60%. For a vaccine that only protects against disease and not infection, vaccine impact was reduced by half, whether this impact was measured in terms of averted infections or disease outcomes, but the relative gains from using antibody status to prioritise vaccination recipients were similar.

Conclusions: Major health and economic gains can be achieved more quickly by prioritizing those who are antibody-negative while doses of the vaccine remain in short supply.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjinnov-2021-000677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025209PMC
April 2021

A Randomized Clinical Trial of Standard versus Expanded Cultures to Diagnose Urinary Tract Infections in Women.

J Urol 2021 Jun 29:101097JU0000000000001949. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Departments of Urology & Obstetrics/Gynecology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois.

Purpose: We compared urinary tract infection (UTI) symptom resolution rates at 7-10 days in symptomatic women randomized to treatment based on standard urine culture (SUC) versus expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) results.

Materials And Methods: Women ≥18 years old who responded "yes" to "do you feel you have a UTI?" agreed to urethral catheterization, and followup. Symptoms were assessed using the validated UTI Symptom Assessment (UTISA) questionnaire. Culture method was randomized 2:1 (SUC:EQUC); antibiotics were prescribed to women with positive cultures. The primary outcome, UTI symptom resolution, was determined 7-10 days following enrollment on all participants regardless of treatment.

Results: Demographic data were similar between groups. Of the SUC and EQUC groups 63% and 74% had positive cultures (p=0.10), respectively. Of participants with positive cultures 97% received antibiotics. Primary outcome data were provided by 215 of 225 participants (SUC 143 [95%], EQUC 72 [97%]). At the primary outcome assessment, 64% and 69% in the SUC and EQUC groups, respectively, reported UTI symptom resolution (p=0.46); UTISA scores improved from baseline in the EQUC arm compared to the SUC arm (p=0.04). In the subset of women predominated by non- (76), there was a trend toward more symptom resolution in the EQUC arm (21%, p=0.08).

Conclusions: Symptom resolution was similar for the overall population ( and non-) of women treated for UTI symptoms based on SUC or EQUC. Although the sample size limits conclusions regarding the utility of EQUC in women with non- uropathogens, the detected trend indicates that this understudied clinical subset warrants further study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000001949DOI Listing
June 2021

The effect of a brown-rice diets on glycemic control and metabolic parameters in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials.

PeerJ 2021 26;9:e11291. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Brown rice is a whole-grain food that is often assumed to have a lower glycemic index compared to white rice. A few studies have objectively confirmed the effect of a brown-rice diet on glycemic control and metabolic parameters compared to a white-rice diet. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of brown rice on improving glycemic control and metabolic parameters in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. The researchers conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials.

Methods: PRISMA guidelines were used as the basis of this systematic review. Relevant studies were identified by searching the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (PubMed), as well as Epistemonikos for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials published not later than January 2021 involving adults with prediabetes and diabetes mellitus who were consuming brown rice compared to those consuming white rice. The primary outcomes measured were glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels. The secondary outcomes were body weight, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels, LDL and HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between brown and white-rice-diet groups were calculated using a random-effects model.

Results: Seven trials involving 417 adults with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes were included in this study. Brown-rice diet did not improve the glycemic control because it had no effect on the HbA1c level ( = 0.15) and the FBG level ( = 0.95) compared to white-rice diet. Brown-rice diet reduced body weight ( < 0.00001; MD -2.2 kg; 95% CI [-3.13 to -1.26];  = 0%). However, it had no effect on the waist circumference ( = 0.09), systolic blood pressure ( = 0.60) and diastolic blood pressure level ( = 0.40). HDL-cholesterol level is increased in brown-rice diet ( = 0.01; MD 0.10, 95% CI [0.02 to 0.17];  = 44%) but it had no effect on the LDL-cholesterol level ( = 0.81).

Conclusions: The available evidence indicated that consuming brown rice in substitute for white rice does not affect glycemic control (HbA1c and FBG levels) in pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes patients. Brown rice, however, may be used as an alternative for white rice in such patients because it was found to reduce body weight and increase the HDL-cholesterol level. The benefits of a brown-rice diet on glycemic control may not be detected in short-term studies. The obtained evidence in this meta-analysis ranged from low to moderate quality. Thus, more high-quality trials with a larger sample size and a longer follow-up duration are needed to further investigate the effects of a brown-rice diet on diabetes glycemic control with stronger evidence.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019143266.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164413PMC
May 2021

The importance of worldwide governance indicators for transitions toward sustainable bioenergy industry.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 8;294:112960. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Business and Economics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

This study examined the impact of worldwide governance indicators on the sustainability of the bioenergy industry in selected European countries for the period 1996-2018. Applying the Fixed Effect (FE) Model, the results reveal that the bioenergy industry can significantly grow by improving the quality of worldwide governance indicators in European countries, especially in Western European Countries (WEC). Government effectiveness, rule of law, regulatory quality, and voice and accountability are found to be increasing the growth of the bioenergy industry. Precisely, the results further show that the magnitude of the effect of government effectiveness, voice and accountability, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on bioenergy output is higher in Western European Countries (WEC) as compared to the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC). Also, the findings further elaborate that the significant positive impact of regulatory quality and rule of law on bioenergy output is higher in CEEC countries compared to the WEC countries. The finding implies that the growth of the bioenergy industry in European countries can be effectively increased by improving the practice and quality of worldwide governance indicators. The study recommends for European countries to increase the efficiency of worldwide governance in their bioenergy industry to increase the sustainability of bioenergy production and reduce Dioxide Carbon (CO2) emissions. Policymakers in these countries should also invest more in worldwide governance to increase its effectiveness and transparency in the bioenergy industry. The authorities should equally emphasize the effectiveness and transparency of worldwide governance indicators to attain bioenergy security and lessen the dependence on fossil fuels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112960DOI Listing
September 2021

Students' perceptions of a university 'No Smoking' policy and barriers to implementation: a cross- sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 06 9;11(6):e043691. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Ad Dawhah, Qatar

Objectives: Effective policies are an important tool for reducing tobacco use. We examine student perceptions of the existing no-smoking policy in the country's largest national university and identify perceived barriers to its implementation. We explore student support for a 100% tobacco-free campus policy.

Design: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered on-line questionnaire.

Setting: This study was conducted at Qatar University (QU), the largest national institution of higher education in Qatar.

Participants: A total of 199 students participated out of a stratified random sample of students aged ≥18 years with active registration in the Spring 2020 semester.

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: We assessed students' knowledge of and attitudes towards QU's current no-smoking policy, the perceived barriers to its implementation, and support for a 100% tobacco-free policy.

Results: Only 26% (95% CI 19.97 to 32.03) and 16.6% (95% CI 11.70 to 22.49) of respondents correctly identified the current policy on traditional and electronic cigarettes, respectively. Less than 30% of respondents held positive attitudes towards policy enforcement, and more male respondents reported positive attitudes towards compliance than women. Support for a 100% tobacco-free policy was at 77.2%, but it was significantly lower among tobacco users compared with non-users (35.9% and 91.8%, respectively; p<0.001). Failure to establish clear penalties, opposition from smoking students, and lack of cessation services were perceived as major barriers to implementation.

Conclusions: Clear and comprehensive tobacco-free policies are important tools for creating environments conducive to rejecting smoking and seeking cessation support. The findings underscore the need to increase awareness about the policy, advocate for clear penalties for violations, and promote cessation services on campus. Qualitative research is needed to further understand perceived barriers to successful enforcement of the policy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191599PMC
June 2021

Repatriation operation in South Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic: initial planning and preparedness.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2021 May 27;45. Epub 2021 May 27.

Communicable Disease Control Branch, Health Regulation and Protection, Department for Health and Wellbeing, Government of South Australia.

Abstract: With COVID-19 affecting millions of people around the globe, quarantine of international arrivals is a critical public health measure to prevent further disease transmission in local populations. This measure has also been applied in the repatriation of citizens, undertaken by several countries as an ethical obligation and legal responsibility. This article describes the process of planning and preparing for the repatriation operation in South Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interagency collaboration, development of a COVID-19 testing and quarantining protocol, implementing infection prevention and control, and building a specialised health care delivery model were essential aspects of the repatriation operational planning, with a focus on maintaining dignity and wellbeing of the passengers as well as on effective prevention of COVID-19 transmission. From April 2020 to mid-February 2021, more than 14,000 international arrivals travellers have been repatriated under the South Australian repatriation operations. This paper has implications to inform ongoing repatriation efforts in Australia and overseas in a pandemic situation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2021.45.29DOI Listing
May 2021

Enhanced Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes via Modification with Ionic Liquids for Fuel Cell Applications.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 May 27;11(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia.

The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is a key component in the PEM fuel cell (PEMFC) system. This study highlights the latest development of PEM technology by combining Nafion and ionic liquids, namely 2-Hydroxyethylammonium Formate (2-HEAF) and Propylammonium Nitrate (PAN). Test membranes were prepared using the casting technique. The impact of functional groups in grafting, morphology, thermal stability, ion exchange capacity, water absorption, swelling and proton conductivity for the prepared membranes is discussed. Both hybrid membranes showed higher values in ion exchange capacity, water uptake and swelling rate as compared to the recast pure Nafion membrane. The results also show that the proton conductivity of Nafion/2-HEAF and Nafion/PAN membranes increased with increasing ionic liquid concentrations. The maximum values of proton conductivity for Nafion/2-HEAF and Nafion/PAN membranes were 2.87 and 4.55 mScm, respectively, equivalent to 2.2 and 3.5 times that of the pure recast Nafion membrane.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11060395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229627PMC
May 2021

SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the urban population of Qatar: An analysis of antibody testing on a sample of 112,941 individuals.

iScience 2021 Jun 24;24(6):102646. Epub 2021 May 24.

Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation - Education City, P.O. Box 24144, Doha, Qatar.

The study objective was to the assess level of detectable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in the urban population of Qatar. Antibody testing was performed on residual blood specimens for 112,941 individuals (∼10% of Qatar's urban population) attending for routine/other clinical care between May 12 and September 9, 2020. Seropositivity was 13.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.1-13.6%) and was independently associated with sex, age, nationality, clinical care encounter type, and testing date. Median optical density (antibody titer) among antibody-positive persons was 27.0 (range = 1.0-150.0), with higher values associated with age, nationality, clinical care encounter type, and testing date. Seropositivity by nationality was positively correlated with the likelihood of having higher antibody titers (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.47-0.96). Less than two in every 10 individuals in Qatar's urban population had detectable antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, suggesting this population is still far from herd immunity and at risk of subsequent infection waves. Higher antibody titer appears to be a biomarker of repeated exposures to the infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142077PMC
June 2021

SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positivity protects against reinfection for at least seven months with 95% efficacy.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 May 28;35:100861. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Ministry of Public Health, Doha, Qatar.

Background: Reinfection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been documented, raising public health concerns. SARS-CoV-2 reinfections were assessed in a cohort of antibody-positive persons in Qatar.

Methods: All SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positive persons from April 16 to December 31, 2020 with a PCR-positive swab ≥14 days after the first-positive antibody test were investigated for evidence of reinfection. Viral genome sequencing was conducted for paired viral specimens to confirm reinfection. Incidence of reinfection was compared to incidence of infection in the complement cohort of those who were antibody-negative.

Findings: Among 43,044 antibody-positive persons who were followed for a median of 16.3 weeks (range: 0-34.6), 314 individuals (0.7%) had at least one PCR positive swab ≥14 days after the first-positive antibody test. Of these individuals, 129 (41.1%) had supporting epidemiological evidence for reinfection. Reinfection was next investigated using viral genome sequencing. Applying the viral-genome-sequencing confirmation rate, the incidence rate of reinfection was estimated at 0.66 per 10,000 person-weeks (95% CI: 0.56-0.78). Incidence rate of reinfection versus month of follow-up did not show any evidence of waning of immunity for over seven months of follow-up. Meanwhile, in the complement cohort of 149,923 antibody-negative persons followed for a median of 17.0 weeks (range: 0-45.6), incidence rate of infection was estimated at 13.69 per 10,000 person-weeks (95% CI: 13.22-14.14). Efficacy of natural infection against reinfection was estimated at 95.2% (95% CI: 94.1-96.0%). Reinfections were less severe than primary infections. Only one reinfection was severe, two were moderate, and none were critical or fatal. Most reinfections (66.7%) were diagnosed incidentally through random or routine testing, or through contact tracing.

Interpretation: Reinfection is rare in the young and international population of Qatar. Natural infection appears to elicit strong protection against reinfection with an efficacy ~95% for at least seven months.

Funding: Biomedical Research Program, the Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Biomathematics Research Core, and the Genomics Core, all at Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, the Ministry of Public Health, Hamad Medical Corporation, and the Qatar Genome Programme.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079668PMC
May 2021

BF-OEt Catalyzed C3-Alkylation of Indole: Synthesis of Indolylsuccinimidesand Their Cytotoxicity Studies.

Molecules 2021 Apr 11;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

A simple and efficient BF-OEt promoted C3-alkylation of indole has been developed to obtain3-indolylsuccinimidesfrom commercially available indoles and maleimides, with excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Furthermore, anti-proliferative activity of these conjugates was evaluated against HT-29 (Colorectal), Hepg2 (Liver) and A549 (Lung) human cancer cell lines. One of the compounds, , having ,-Dimethylatedindolylsuccinimide is a potent congener amongst the series with IC value 0.02 µM and 0.8 µM against HT-29 and Hepg2 cell lines, respectively, and compound was most active amongst the series with IC value 1.5 µM against A549 cells. Molecular docking study and mechanism of reaction have briefly beendiscussed. This method is better than previous reports in view of yield and substrate scope including electron deficient indoles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069703PMC
April 2021

Longitudinal transcriptomics define the stages of myeloid activation in the living human brain after intracerebral hemorrhage.

Sci Immunol 2021 Feb 19;6(56). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Opportunities to interrogate the immune responses in the injured tissue of living patients suffering from acute sterile injuries such as stroke and heart attack are limited. We leveraged a clinical trial of minimally invasive neurosurgery for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a severely disabling subtype of stroke, to investigate the dynamics of inflammation at the site of brain injury over time. Longitudinal transcriptional profiling of CD14 monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils from hematomas of patients with ICH revealed that the myeloid response to ICH within the hematoma is distinct from that in the blood and occurs in stages conserved across the patient cohort. Initially, hematoma myeloid cells expressed a robust anabolic proinflammatory profile characterized by activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and expression of genes encoding immune factors and glycolysis. Subsequently, inflammatory gene expression decreased over time, whereas anti-inflammatory circuits were maintained and phagocytic and antioxidative pathways up-regulated. During this transition to immune resolution, glycolysis gene expression and levels of the potent proresolution lipid mediator prostaglandin E remained elevated in the hematoma, and unexpectedly, these elevations correlated with positive patient outcomes. Ex vivo activation of human macrophages by ICH-associated stimuli highlighted an important role for HIFs in production of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, including PGE, which, in turn, augmented VEGF production. Our findings define the time course of myeloid activation in the human brain after ICH, revealing a conserved progression of immune responses from proinflammatory to proresolution states in humans after brain injury and identifying transcriptional programs associated with neurological recovery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abd6279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8252865PMC
February 2021

Synergy of the Polymyxin-Chloramphenicol Combination against New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Is Predominately Driven by Chloramphenicol.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 06 9;7(6):1584-1595. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

Carbapenem-resistant has been classified as an Urgent Threat by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The combination of two "old" antibiotics, polymyxin and chloramphenicol, displays synergistic killing against New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing . However, the mechanism(s) underpinning their synergistic killing are not well studied. We employed an pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to mimic the pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics in patients and examined bacterial killing against NDM-producing using a metabolomic approach. Metabolomic analysis was integrated with an isolate-specific genome-scale metabolic network (GSMN). Our results show that metabolic responses to polymyxin B and/or chloramphenicol against NDM-producing involved the inhibition of cell envelope biogenesis, metabolism of arginine and nucleotides, glycolysis, and pentose phosphate pathways. Our metabolomic and GSMN modeling results highlight the novel mechanisms of a synergistic antibiotic combination at the network level and may have a significant potential in developing precision antimicrobial chemotherapy in patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00661DOI Listing
June 2021

Mental Health of Children and Adolescents Amidst COVID-19 and Past Pandemics: A Rapid Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 26;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.

The COVID‑19 pandemic and associated public health measures have disrupted the lives of people around the world. It is already evident that the direct and indirect psychological and social effects of the COVID‑19 pandemic are insidious and affect the mental health of young children and adolescents now and will in the future. The aim and objectives of this knowledge-synthesis study were to identify the impact of the pandemic on children's and adolescent's mental health and to evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions employed during previous and the current pandemic to promote children's and adolescents' mental health. We conducted the systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and included experimental randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, observational studies, and qualitative studies. : Of the 5828 articles that we retrieved, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. We thematically analyzed them and put the major findings under the thematic areas of impact of the pandemic on children's and adolescents' mental health. These studies reported that pandemics cause stress, worry, helplessness, and social and risky behavioral problems among children and adolescents (e.g., substance abuse, suicide, relationship problems, academic issues, and absenteeism from work). Interventions such as art-based programs, support services, and clinician-led mental health and psychosocial services effectively decrease mental health issues among children and adolescents. Children and adolescents are more likely to experience high rates of depression and anxiety during and after a pandemic. It is critical that future researchers explore effective mental health strategies that are tailored to the needs of children and adolescents. Explorations of effective channels regarding the development and delivery of evidenced-based, age-appropriate services are vital to lessen the effects and improve long-term capacities for mental health services for children and adolescents. : The COVID-19 pandemic's physical restrictions and social distancing measures have affected each and every domain of life. Although the number of children and adolescents affected by the disease is small, the disease and the containment measures such as social distancing, school closure, and isolation have negatively impacted the mental health and well-being of children and adolescents. The impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of children and adolescents is of great concern. Anxiety, depression, disturbances in sleep and appetite, as well as impairment in social interactions are the most common presentations. It has been indicated that compared to adults, this pandemic may continue to have increased long term adverse consequences on children's and adolescents' mental health. As the pandemic continues, it is important to monitor the impact on children's and adolescents' mental health status and how to help them to improve their mental health outcomes in the time of the current or future pandemics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038056PMC
March 2021

Radioprotective Effects of Kelulut Honey in Zebrafish Model.

Molecules 2021 Mar 12;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Kajang 43000, Malaysia.

Large doses of ionizing radiation can damage human tissues. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the radiation effects as well as identify effective and non-toxic radioprotectors. This study evaluated the radioprotective effects of Kelulut honey (KH) from stingless bee ( sp.) on zebrafish () embryos. Viable zebrafish embryos at 24 hpf were dechorionated and divided into four groups, namely untreated and non-irradiated, untreated and irradiated, KH pre-treatment and amifostine pre-treatment. The embryos were first treated with KH (8 mg/mL) or amifostine (4 mM) before irradiation at doses of 11 Gy to 20 Gy using gamma ray source, caesium-137 (Cs). Lethality and abnormality analysis were performed on all of the embryos in the study. Immunohistochemistry assay was also performed using selected proteins, namely γ-H2AX and caspase-3, to investigate DNA damages and incidences of apoptosis. KH was found to reduce coagulation effects at up to 20 Gy in the lethality analysis. The embryos developed combinations of abnormality, namely microphthalmia (M), body curvature and microphthalmia (BM), body curvature with microphthalmia and microcephaly (BMC), microphthalmia and pericardial oedema (MO), pericardial oedema (O), microphthalmia with microcephaly and pericardial oedema (MCO) and all of the abnormalities (AA). There were more abnormalities developed from 24 to 72 h (h) post-irradiation in all groups. At 96 h post-irradiation, KH was identified to reduce body curvature effect in the irradiated embryos (up to 16 Gy). γ-H2AX and caspase-3 intensities in the embryos pre-treated with KH were also found to be lower than the untreated group at gamma irradiation doses of 11 Gy to 20 Gy and 11 Gy to 19 Gy, respectively. KH was proven to increase the survival rate of zebrafish embryos and exhibited protection against organ-specific abnormality. KH was also found to possess cellular protective mechanism by reducing DNA damage and apoptosis proteins expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000245PMC
March 2021

Anticancer Potential of Damnacanthal and Nordamnacanthal from Roots on T-lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells.

Molecules 2021 Mar 12;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: This study reports on the cytotoxic properties of nordamnacanthal and damnacanthal, isolated from roots of on T-lymphoblastic leukaemia (CEM-SS) cell lines.

Methods: MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, ELISA and cell cycle analysis were carried out.

Results: Nordamnacanthal and damnacanthal at IC values of 1.7 μg/mL and10 μg/mL, respectively. At the molecular level, these compounds caused internucleosomal DNA cleavage producing multiple 180-200 bp fragments that are visible as a "ladder" on the agarose gel. This was due to the activation of the Mg/Ca-dependent endonuclease. The induction of apoptosis by nordamnacanthal was different from the one induced by damnacanthal, in a way that it occurs independently of ongoing transcription process. Nevertheless, in both cases, the process of dephosphorylation of protein phosphates 1 and 2A, the ongoing protein synthesis and the elevations of the cytosolic Ca concentration were not needed for apoptosis to take place. Nordamnacanthal was found to have a cytotoxic effect by inducing apoptosis, while damnacanthal caused arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle.

Conclusion: Damnacanthal and nordamnacanthal have anticancer properties, and could act as potential treatment for T-lymphoblastic leukemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998966PMC
March 2021

Potential Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of and Its Health Beneficial Effects: A Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 29;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia.

Oxidative stress and inflammation are two common risk factors of various life-threatening disease pathogenesis. In recent years, medicinal plants that possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were extensively studied for their potential role in treating and preventing diseases. (), which has been traditionally used to treat toothache in Malaysia, contains various active metabolites responsible for its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and anesthetic bioactivities. These bioactivities were attributed to bioactive compounds, such as phenolic, flavonoids, and alkamides. The review focused on the summarization of in vitro and in vivo experimental reports on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of , as well as how they contributed to potential health benefits in lowering the risk of diseases that were related to oxidative stress. The molecular mechanism of in reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory targets, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), transcription factors of the nuclear factor-κB family (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were discussed. Besides, the antioxidant potential of was measured by total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and superoxide anion radical scavenging (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assays. This review revealed that might have a potential role as a reservoir of bioactive agents contributing to the observed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and health beneficial effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036807PMC
March 2021

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination modelling for safe surgery to save lives: data from an international prospective cohort study.

Authors:

Br J Surg 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Background: Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could support safer elective surgery. Vaccine numbers are limited so this study aimed to inform their prioritization by modelling.

Methods: The primary outcome was the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one COVID-19-related death in 1 year. NNVs were based on postoperative SARS-CoV-2 rates and mortality in an international cohort study (surgical patients), and community SARS-CoV-2 incidence and case fatality data (general population). NNV estimates were stratified by age (18-49, 50-69, 70 or more years) and type of surgery. Best- and worst-case scenarios were used to describe uncertainty.

Results: NNVs were more favourable in surgical patients than the general population. The most favourable NNVs were in patients aged 70 years or more needing cancer surgery (351; best case 196, worst case 816) or non-cancer surgery (733; best case 407, worst case 1664). Both exceeded the NNV in the general population (1840; best case 1196, worst case 3066). NNVs for surgical patients remained favourable at a range of SARS-CoV-2 incidence rates in sensitivity analysis modelling. Globally, prioritizing preoperative vaccination of patients needing elective surgery ahead of the general population could prevent an additional 58 687 (best case 115 007, worst case 20 177) COVID-19-related deaths in 1 year.

Conclusion: As global roll out of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination proceeds, patients needing elective surgery should be prioritized ahead of the general population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjs/znab101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995808PMC
March 2021
-->