Publications by authors named "Abdul Ghafoor"

32 Publications

Molecular dynamics analysis of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine against specific SARS-CoV-2's pathogenicity factors.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(5):e0252571. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute of Biophysics and Cell Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus.

The causative agent of the pandemic identified as SARS-CoV-2 leads to a severe respiratory illness similar to SARS and MERS with fever, cough, and shortness of breath symptoms and severe cases that can often be fatal. In our study, we report our findings based on molecular docking analysis which could be the new effective way for controlling the SARS-CoV-2 virus and additionally, another manipulative possibilities involving the mimicking of immune system as occurred during the bacterial cell recognition system. For this purpose, we performed molecular docking using computational biology techniques on several SARS-CoV-2 proteins that are responsible for its pathogenicity against N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. A similar molecular dynamics analysis has been carried out on both SARS-CoV-2 and anti-Staphylococcus aureus neutralizing antibodies to establish the potential of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine which likely induces the immune response against the virus. The results of molecular dynamic analysis have confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (PDB: 6M0J), RNA-binding domain of nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (PDB: 6WKP), refusion SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain trimer (PDB: 6X79), and main protease 3clpro at room temperature (PDB: 7JVZ) could bind with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine that these proteins play an important role in SARS-CoV-2's infection and evade the immune system. Moreover, our molecular docking analysis has supported a strong protein-ligand interaction of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine with these selected proteins. Furthermore, computational analysis against the D614G mutant of the virus has shown that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine affinity and its binding potential were not affected by the mutations occurring in the virus' receptor binding domain. The analysis on the affinity of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine towards human antibodies has shown that it could potentially bind to both SARS-CoV-2 proteins and antibodies based on our predictive modelling work. Our results confirmed that N-acetyl-D-glucosamine holds the potential to inhibit several SARS-CoV-2 proteins as well as induce an immune response against the virus in the host.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252571PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158907PMC
June 2021

Treatment Outcomes of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Pakistan: A Countrywide Retrospective Record Review.

Front Pharmacol 2021 31;12:640555. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

The current study is conducted with the aim to the fill the gap of information regarding treatment outcomes and variables associated with unsuccessful outcome among XDR-TB patients from Pakistan. A total of 404 culture confirmed XDR-TB patients who received treatment between 1 May 2010 and June 30, 2017 at 27 treatment centers all over Pakistan were retrospectively followed until their treatment outcomes were reported. A -value <0.05 reflected a statistical significant association. The patients had a mean age 32.9 ± 14.1 years. The overall treatment success rate was 40.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]:35.80-45.60%). A total of 155 (38.4%) patients were declared cured, 9 (2.2%) completed treatment, 149 (36.9%) died, 60 (14.9%) failed treatment and 31 (7.7%) were lost to follow up (LTFU). The results of the multivariate binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the patients' age of >60 years (OR = 4.69, 95%CI:1.57-15.57) and receiving high dose isoniazid (OR = 2.36, 95%CI:1.14-4.85) had statistically significant positive association with death, whereas baseline body weight >40 kg (OR = 0.43, 95%CI:0.25-0.73) and sputum culture conversion in the initial two months of treatment (OR = 0.33, 95%CI:0.19-0.58) had statistically significant negative association with death. Moreover, male gender had statistically significant positive association (OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.04-3.54) with LTFU. The treatment success rate (40.6%) of XDR-TB patients in Pakistan was poor. Providing special attention and enhanced clinical management to patients with identified risk factors for death and LTFU in the current cohort may improve the treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.640555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044444PMC
March 2021

Effectiveness of Shorter Treatment Regimen in Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Pakistan: A Multicenter Retrospective Record Review.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

5Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan.

In Pakistan, the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) with a shorter treatment regimen (STR), that is, 4-6 months of amikacin, moxifloxacin (Mfx), ethionamide, clofazimine (Cfz), pyrazinamide (Z), ethambutol (E), and high-dose isoniazid, followed by 5 months of Mfx, Cfz, Z, and E, was initiated in 2018. However, there is a lack of information about its effectiveness in Pakistani healthcare settings. Therefore, this retrospective record review of MDR-TB patients treated with STR at eight treatment sites in Pakistan aimed to fill this gap. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23. Multivariate binary logistic regression (MVBLR) analysis was conducted to find factors associated with death and treatment failure, and lost to follow-up (LTFU). A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of 912 MDR-TB patients enrolled at the study sites, only 313 (34.3%) eligible patients were treated with STR and included in the current study. Of them, a total of 250 (79.9%) were cured, 12 (3.8%) completed treated, 31 (9.9%) died, 16 (5.1%) were LTFU, and four (1.3%) were declared as treatment failures. The overall treatment success rate was 83.7%. In MVBLR analysis, patients' age of 41-60 (odds ratio [OR] = 4.9, P-value = 0.020) and > 60 years (OR = 3.6, P-value = 0.035), being underweight (OR = 2.7, P-value = 0.042), and previous TB treatment (OR = 0.4, P-value = 0.042) had statistically significant association with death and treatment failure, whereas patients' age of > 60 years (OR = 5.4, P-value = 0.040) and previous TB treatment (OR = 0.2, P-value = 0.008) had statistically significant association with LTFU. The treatment success rate of STR was encouraging. However, to further improve the treatment outcomes, special attention should be paid to the patients with identified risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-1134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103439PMC
March 2021

Incredible Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Grain Yield Sustainability under Water Scarcity Conditions in Wheat ( L.).

Plants (Basel) 2020 Sep 15;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile.

Interrogations of local germplasm and landraces can offer a foundation and genetic basis for drought tolerance in wheat. Potential of drought tolerance in a panel of 30 wheat genotypes including varieties, local landraces, and wild crosses were explored under drought stress (DS) and well-watered (WW) conditions. Considerable variation for an osmotic adjustment (OA) and yield components, coupled with genotype and environment interaction was observed, which indicates the differential potential of wheat genotypes under both conditions. Reduction in yield per plant (YP), thousand kernel weight (TKW), and induction of OA was detected. Correlation analysis revealed a strong positive association of YP with directly contributing yield components under both environments, indicating the impotence of these traits as a selection-criteria for the screening of drought-tolerant genotypes for drylands worldwide. Subsequently, the association of OA with TKW which contributes directly to YP, indicates that wheat attains OA to extract more water from the soil under low water-potential. Genotypes including WC-4, WC-8 and LLR-29 showed more TKW under both conditions, among them; LLR-29 also has maximum OA and batter yield comparatively. Result provides insight into the role of OA in plant yield sustainability under DS. In this study, we figure out the concept of OA and its incredible role in sustainable plant yield in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9091208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569908PMC
September 2020

Insights into Drought Stress Signaling in Plants and the Molecular Genetic Basis of Cotton Drought Tolerance.

Cells 2019 Dec 31;9(1). Epub 2019 Dec 31.

State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Institute of Cotton Research (ICR), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), 455000 Anyang, China.

Drought stress restricts plant growth and development by altering metabolic activity and biological functions. However, plants have evolved several cellular and molecular mechanisms to overcome drought stress. Drought tolerance is a multiplex trait involving the activation of signaling mechanisms and differentially expressed molecular responses. Broadly, drought tolerance comprises two steps: stress sensing/signaling and activation of various parallel stress responses (including physiological, molecular, and biochemical mechanisms) in plants. At the cellular level, drought induces oxidative stress by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ultimately causing the cell membrane to rupture and stimulating various stress signaling pathways (ROS, mitogen-activated-protein-kinase, Ca, and hormone-mediated signaling). Drought-induced transcription factors activation and abscisic acid concentration co-ordinate the stress signaling and responses in cotton. The key responses against drought stress, are root development, stomatal closure, photosynthesis, hormone production, and ROS scavenging. The genetic basis, quantitative trait loci and genes of cotton drought tolerance are presented as examples of genetic resources in plants. Sustainable genetic improvements could be achieved through functional genomic approaches and genome modification techniques such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system aid the characterization of genes, sorted out from stress-related candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms, quantitative trait loci, and genes. Exploration of the genetic basis for superior candidate genes linked to stress physiology can be facilitated by integrated functional genomic approaches. We propose a third-generation sequencing approach coupled with genome-wide studies and functional genomic tools, including a comparative sequenced data (transcriptomics, proteomics, and epigenomic) analysis, which offer a platform to identify and characterize novel genes. This will provide information for better understanding the complex stress cellular biology of plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9010105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7016789PMC
December 2019

Synthesis and in vitro cholinesterase inhibitory potential of dihydropyridine derivatives.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 May;32(3 (Supplementary)):1155-1162

Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Twelve derivatives of dihydropyridine derivatives (6-17) were synthesized and evaluated for in-vitro cholinesterases (AChE, BChE) inhibitory activity. All compounds showed potent activity with IC50 values between 0.21±0.003 to 147.14±0.12μM for AChE and among them five compounds showed potent activity with IC50 values 17.16±0.02 to 231.6±0.12μM for BChE when compared with standard Eserine (IC50 = 0.85±0.0001 μM (AChE) & 0.04±0.0001μM (BChE). The most potent compound 11 can be considered as potential lead compound showed an inhibition of 95.35±0.11 and IC= 0.21±0.003 while compound 7 showed an inhibition of 83.45±0.13 and IC50= 17.16±0.02. It is concluded from structural activity relationship that the presence of nitro group at C-2 and C-4 position of dihydropyridine ring increase the acetyl cholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities of these compounds while presence of -Br and -Cl also enhances the activities.
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May 2019

Acquisition of Cross-Resistance to Bedaquiline and Clofazimine following Treatment for Tuberculosis in Pakistan.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 09 23;63(9). Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Emerging Bacterial Pathogens Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy

We report on the first six cases of acquired resistance to bedaquiline in Pakistan. Seventy sequential isolates from 30 drug-resistant-tuberculosis patients on bedaquiline-containing regimens were retrospectively tested for bedaquiline resistance by MIC testing and by the detection of mutations in relevant genes. We documented cases failing therapy that developed specific mutations in and had increased MICs associated with cross-resistance to clofazimine during treatment. This study underlines the relevance of surveillance programs following the introduction of new drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00915-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6709449PMC
September 2019

Genome-wide variation patterns between landraces and cultivars uncover divergent selection during modern wheat breeding.

Theor Appl Genet 2019 Sep 28;132(9):2509-2523. Epub 2019 May 28.

Institute of Crop Science, National Wheat Improvement Center, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), 12 Zhongguancun South Street, Beijing, 100081, China.

Key Message: Genetic diversity, population structure, LD decay, and selective sweeps in 687 wheat accessions were analyzed, providing relevant guidelines to facilitate the use of the germplasm in wheat breeding. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most widely grown crops in the world. Landraces were subjected to strong human-mediated selection in developing high-yielding, good quality, and widely adapted cultivars. To investigate the genome-wide patterns of allelic variation, population structure and patterns of selective sweeps during modern wheat breeding, we tested 687 wheat accessions, including landraces (148) and cultivars (539) mainly from China and Pakistan in a wheat 90 K single nucleotide polymorphism array. Population structure analysis revealed that cultivars and landraces from China and Pakistan comprised three relatively independent genetic clusters. Cultivars displayed lower nucleotide diversity and a wider average LD decay across whole genome, indicating allelic erosion and a diversity bottleneck due to the modern breeding. Analysis of genetic differentiation between landraces and cultivars from China and Pakistan identified allelic variants subjected to selection during modern breeding. In total, 477 unique genome regions showed signatures of selection, where 109 were identified in both China and Pakistan germplasm. The majority of genomic regions were located in the B genome (225), followed by the A genome (175), and only 77 regions were located in the D genome. EigenGWAS was further used to identify key selection loci in modern wheat cultivars from China and Pakistan by comparing with global winter wheat and spring wheat diversity panels, respectively. A few known functional genes or loci found within these genome regions corresponded to known phenotypes for disease resistance, vernalization, quality, adaptability and yield-related traits. This study uncovered molecular footprints of modern wheat breeding and explained the genetic basis of polygenic adaptation in wheat. The results will be useful for understanding targets of modern wheat breeding, and in devising future breeding strategies to target beneficial alleles currently not pursued.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-019-03367-4DOI Listing
September 2019

Effects of oscillatory mobilization as compared to sustained stretch mobilization in the management of cervical radiculopathy: A randomized controlled trial.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2020 ;33(1):153-158

Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences, Foundation University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: Cervical radiculopathy is a relatively common musculoskeletal disorder resulting in a significant social and occupational impact. Manual therapy is thought to provide relief in cervical radiculopathy; however, evidence is lacking regarding the comparison of different manual therapy concepts.

Objective: To determine the effects of Maitland's oscillatory mobilization as compared to Kaltenborn's sustained stretch mobilization in the management of cervical radiculopathy.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted at Fauji Foundation Hospital comprising of 46 patients randomized into oscillatory and sustained stretch mobilization groups. Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), Neck Disability Index (NDI) and cervical range of motion (ROM) were used as outcome variables.

Results: No significant differences were observed at base line between the two groups (P> 0.05) except for ROM in extension and left side bending (P< 0.05). In terms of pre and post treatment comparison, P value of less than 0.05 was observed for both groups, indicating both treatments to be effective in isolation. However, post treatment comparison between both groups showed oscillatory mobilization to be superior to sustained stretch mobilization (P< 0.05) in the management of cervical radiculopathy except for the outcomes of pain and side bending.

Conclusion: Both oscillatory and sustained stretch mobilization techniques are found to be effective in the management of cervical radiculopathy in terms of pain, range and disability. However, oscillatory mobilization is found to be superior in terms of functional ability and range of motion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BMR-170914DOI Listing
August 2020

Biologically active scaffolds: Synthesis, characterization and studies of oxino bis-pyrazoles by environmental friendly method.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Mar;32(2 (Supplementary)):831-837

Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

In the present communication, synthesis of bis-pyrazolones containing aryl motifs (4-14) and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, hemolytic and antihemolytic activities were reported. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by analytical techniques such 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, mass spectrometry and compound No 4 additionally by X-ray crystallography. Compounds 4, 12, 14 were obtained in more than 85% yield. In comparison to typical acarbose (IC50 = 37.38±0.12μM), all synthesized compounds showed potent activity with IC50 values between 31.26±0.11 to 396.25±0.18μM. The most potent compounds 6, 8 and 11 showed IC50 values within the range of 31.26±0.11 to 37.48±0.12μM. Compounds 7, 10, 12 and 13 showed IC values within the range of 65.23±0.12 to 154.87±0.16μM, while compounds 4, 5 and 9 showed moderate inhibition with IC values 286.56±0.16 to 396.25±0.18μM. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, suggests that electron withdrawing groups played a crucial role in enhancing α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of title compounds. In addition, results of the hemolytic and antihemolytic activity studies indicated that compound 13 possessed moderate levels of hemolytic and highest anti- hemolytic activity while 8 showed low anti- hemolytic and high hemolytic activity.
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March 2019

Genome-wide association studies of seven agronomic traits under two sowing conditions in bread wheat.

BMC Plant Biol 2019 Apr 17;19(1):149. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Texas A&M Agrilife Research & Extension Center, Amarillo, TX, USA.

Background: Wheat is a cool seasoned crop requiring low temperature during grain filling duration and therefore increased temperature causes significant yield reduction. A set of 125 spring wheat genotypes from International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT-Mexico) was evaluated for phenological and yield related traits at three locations in Pakistan under normal sowing time and late sowing time for expose to prolonged high temperature. With the help of genome-wide association study using genotyping-by-sequencing, marker trait associations (MTAs) were observed separately for the traits under normal and late sown conditions.

Results: Significant reduction ranging from 9 to 74% was observed in all traits under high temperature. Especially 30, 25, 41 and 66% reduction was observed for days to heading (DH), plant height (PH), spikes per plant (SPP) and yield respectively. We identified 55,954 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using genotyping by sequencing of these 125 hexaploid spring wheat genotypes and conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for days to heading (DH), grain filled duration (GFD), plant height (PH), spikes per plant (SPP), grain number per spike (GNS), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield per plot (GY). Genomic regions identified through GWAS explained up to 13% of the phenotypic variance, on average. A total of 139 marker-trait associations (MTAs) across three wheat genomes (56 on genome A, 55 on B and 28 on D) were identified for all the seven traits studied. For days to heading, 20; grain filled duration, 21; plant height, 23; spikes per plant, 13; grain numbers per spike, 8; thousand kernel weight, 21 and for grain yield, 33 MTAs were detected under normal and late sown conditions.

Conclusions: This study identifies the essential resource of genetics research and underpins the chromosomal regions of seven agronomic traits under normal and high temperature. Significant relationship was observed between the number of favored alleles and trait observations. Fourteen protein coding genes with their respective annotations have been searched with the sequence of seven MTAs which were identified in this study. These findings will be helpful in the development of a breeder friendly platform for the selection of high yielding wheat lines at high temperature areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-1754-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6475106PMC
April 2019

Genome-Wide Association Studies for Spot Blotch (Cochliobolus sativus) Resistance in Bread Wheat Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing.

Phytopathology 2018 11 2;108(11):1307-1314. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

First and second authors: Department of Botany, University of Sargohda, Sargodha. Pakistan; third author: Atta-ur-Rehman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan and United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Hard Winter Wheat Genetics Research Unit, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA; fourth author: Plant Genetic Resources Institute, National Agriculture Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan; fifth author: Soil and Crop Sciences Department, Texas A&M University, TX 77843-2474; and sixth author: Texas A&M University, Amarillo, TX 79106.

Spot blotch is a severe biotic menace of wheat caused by Cochliobolus sativus (syn. Bipolaris sorokiniana). Spot blotch is liable to major yield losses in warm humid regions. A genome-wide association study using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) markers was conducted to identify genomic regions associated with spot blotch resistance in a diversity panel of 159 spring wheat genotypes. In total, 87,096 GBS markers covering the whole genome, with an average polymorphism information content value of 0.276, were applied. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis indicated that the LD decay extent was approximately 100 Mbp. The panel was evaluated for disease severity (DS) and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) for 2 years. In total, 24 marker-trait associations (MTA) were identified for DS and AUDPC of spot blotch, with 11 on chromosome 5B, 3 on 3A, 2 on 6B, and 1 each on 1A, 2A, 1D, 2D, 4B, 5A, 7A, and 7B. A marker on chromosome 7B significantly explained 14% of the phenotypic variation of spot blotch severity as well as 11% of AUDPC. Five markers-three on chromosome 5B, one on 3A, and one on 7B-were associated with both DS and AUDPC with R ranging from 8 to 12%. Significant MTA can be utilized to develop wheat germplasm with resistance to spot blotch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-02-18-0047-RDOI Listing
November 2018

Microwave and conventional synthesis of Co (II), Cu (II) and Ni (II) metal complexes of some acid hydrazones with their spectral characterization and biological evaluation.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 May;31(3(Supplementary)):1003-1011

University of Sahiwal, Sahiwal, Pakistan.

The transition metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) derived from N'-((5-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)furan-2-yl)methylene)-2-hydroxybenzohydrazide (L24) and N'-((5-(2, 5-dichlorophenyl)furan-2-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide (L21) have been synthesized by conventional as well as microwave method being shorter time consuming, solvent less and gives improved yields as compared to the traditional conventional technique. These compounds were characterized by melting point, TLC, FTIR, 1H-NMR, elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, ICP-OES and EIMS. From this analytical data it is confirmed that complexes are in octahedral structure with coordination number 6 which revealed 1:2 (metal:ligand). FTIR data shows that these synthesized hydrazone ligands have ONO donor sites and coordinate with transition metal ions in a tridentate monobasic manner. All these synthesized compounds were tested for evaluation of antibacterial activity by agar disc diffusion assay and total antioxidant activity by Phosphomolybdenum method.
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May 2018

Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis: Randomized Evaluation of Simple and Infotainment Chest Camps.

Ann Glob Health 2016 Sep - Oct;82(5):813-818

PHTB Consult, Tilburg, Netherlands.

Background: In Pakistan, many tuberculosis (TB) cases are not reported to the national surveillance system. An active case finding strategy in the form of conventional (simple) or innovative (infotainment) chest camps can contribute to diagnosing these missed cases.

Objective: To compare the yield in terms of TB patients detected at a simple chest camp (SCC) versus an infotainment chest camp (ICC) in rural areas.

Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial with 2 parallel arms was conducted in 4 districts of Pakistan from June 2012 to May 2013. Rural neighborhoods (n = 318) were randomly allocated in a ratio of 1:3 to receive either SCC or ICC. Incidence of TB (all forms and sputum smear positive [SS+]) and number needed to screen (NNS) to diagnose 1 TB case were calculated. Cluster analysis was done according to intention to treat and risk ratio (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.

Findings: A total of 3086 participants were tested at the SCC and 9029 at the ICC, of whom 38.5% were female. Mean age was 37.4 ± 15.9 years. Incidences of previously undiagnosed TB (all forms) for SCC and ICC were 23.6 (95% CI 20.04-27.4) and 22.1 (95% CI 20.3-24.1) per 100,000 population (P = .42), SS+ TB 22.5 (95% CI 19.3-26.1) and 21.6 (95% CI 19.8-23.6) (P = .67), respectively. NNS to diagnose 1 TB case were 260 (95% CI 234.3-289.6) and 258 (95% CI 233.3-287.9) for SCC and ICC, respectively (P = .9). RRs for all forms of TB and SS+ TB in SCC compared to ICC were 0.94 (95% CI 0.73-1.19) and 0.95 (95% CI 0.74-1.22) and P values were .58 and .71, respectively.

Conclusions: Both types of chest camps are equally effective in active case finding of previously undiagnosed TB cases in rural areas in 2 provinces in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2016.07.001DOI Listing
May 2018

Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010-2011.

PLoS One 2016 10;11(2):e0148293. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Background: We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010-2011 in Pakistan.

Method: A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010-2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design.

Result: Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217-323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333-463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5-3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0148293PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4749340PMC
July 2016

FREQUENCY OF AUTONOMIC NEUROPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION IN DIABETES MELLITUS.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2015 Jul-Sep;27(3):653-5

Background: Among diabetic patients autonomic neuropathy (AN) is one of the most frequent complications. This affects peripheral nervous system and thus results into erectile dysfunction (ED). The main objectives of the study were to determine the frequency of autonomic neuropathy (AN) in diabetic patients with ED and to find out the associated risk factors.

Methods: In this descriptive case series, a total 200 consecutive patients of Diabetes Mellitus with erectile dysfunction attended the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism (DEM), Services Hospital Lahore during three months (from June to August 2013), were included. For assessing erectile dysfunction (ED) and autonomic neuropathy (AN) International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Composite Autonomic Scoring System (CASS) were used respectively. Other factors impacting the autonomic functions in diabetes like duration of diabetes, age of patient, body mass index (BMI), and glycaemic control (HbAlc), hypertension and smoking status were recorded.

Results: Average age of the patients was 57.58±9.53 years (95% C.I. 55.54-59.63). Frequency of autonomic neuropathy (AN) in ED patients was 86 (43%). Duration of diabetes Mellitus and BMI were statistically significantly different among patients with severe, moderate and mild autonomic neuropathy.

Conclusions: Autonomic neuropathy was very frequent in diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction. The associated risk factors are duration of disease and body mass index.
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February 2016

HBA1C AS AN INDIRECT MARKER OF HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA IN TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2015 Jul-Sep;27(3):601-3

Background: Diabetes is usually accompanied by dyslipidaemia, and among these triglyceride levels are related to the insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. HbAlc which is an indicator of diabetes control can depict the severity of hypertriglyceridemia. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between HbAlc and Triglyceride levels in type 2 Diabetes mellitus.

Methods: A sample of 150 diabetic patients fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for this cross-sectional study. Patient included were type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with HbAlc >7. Patients with history of cardiovascular disease, taking lipid lowering medications, smoker and history of cerebral stroke were excluded. HbAlc and triglyceride levels were noted .Study patients were further stratified on the basis of severity of HbAlc and Triglyceride values. The correlation between HbAlc and Triglyceride levels were established with Pearson Correlation.

Results: Among total number of 150 patients 44% (n=70) were male and 50.3% (n=80) were female. The correlation of HbAlc with Triglyceride as estimated by Pearson Correlation was positive (p=0.033, r=0.033) and statistically significant.

Conclusions: In type 2 diabetes mellitus there is a predictable relationship between Triglycerides and HbAlc.
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February 2016

Marine Collagen: An Emerging Player in Biomedical applications.

J Food Sci Technol 2015 Aug 23;52(8):4703-7. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

National Agriculture Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan.

Mammalian collagen is a multifactorial biomaterial that is widely used for beneficial purposes in the advanced biomedical technologies. Generally, biomedical applicable collagen is extracted from the mammalian body, but it can also be derived from marine species. Recently, mammalian tissues collagen proteins are considered a great pathological risk for transmitted diseases, because purification of such protein is very challenging and needs efficient tool to avoid structure alteration. Thus, difficult extraction process and high cost decreased mammalian collagen demands for beneficial effects compared to marine collagen. In contrast, marine collagen is safe and easy to extract, however this potential source of collagen is hindered by low denaturing temperature, which is considered a main hurdle in the beneficial effects of marine collagen. Characterization and biomedical applications of marine collagen are in transition state and yet to be discovered. Therefore, an attempt was made to summarize the recent knowledge regarding different aspects of marine collagen applications in the biomedical engineering field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1652-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4519503PMC
August 2015

Effect of inorganic amendments for in situ stabilization of cadmium in contaminated soils and its phyto-availability to wheat and rice under rotation.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 Nov 25;22(21):16897-906. Epub 2015 Jun 25.

Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a widespread problem in crops grown on contaminated soils, and little information is available on the role of inorganic amendments in Cd immobilization, uptake, and tolerance in crops especially under filed conditions. The effect of three amendments, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), gypsum, and elemental sulfur (S), on Cd immobilization in soil and uptake in wheat and rice plants, under rotation, were investigated under field conditions receiving raw city effluent since >20 years and contaminated with Cd. Three levels of each treatment, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8% by weight, were applied at the start of the experiment, and wheat was sown in the field. After wheat harvesting, rice was sown in the same field without application of amendments. Both crops were harvested at physiological maturity, and data regarding grain yield, straw biomass, Cd concentrations, and uptake in grain and straw, and bioavailable Cd in soil and soil pH were recorded. Both MAP and gypsum application increased grain yield and biomass of wheat and rice, while S application did not increase the yield of both crops. MAP and gypsum amendments decreased gain and straw Cd concentrations and uptake in both crops, while S application increased Cd concentrations in these parts which were correlated with soil bioavailable Cd. We conclude that MAP and gypsum amendments could be used to decrease Cd uptake by plants receiving raw city effluents, and gypsum might be a better amendment for in situ immobilization of Cd due to its low cost and frequent availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4883-yDOI Listing
November 2015

Suppression of cadmium concentration in wheat grains by silicon is related to its application rate and cadmium accumulating abilities of cultivars.

J Sci Food Agric 2015 Sep 25;95(12):2467-72. Epub 2014 Nov 25.

Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background: Cadmium concentration in food grains could be minimised through application of beneficial plant nutrients such as silicon. Therefore, the impact of silicon application on immobilisation of Cd in soil and its concentration in low and high shoot-Cd (LSCd and HSCd, respectively) cultivars of wheat were evaluated in a pot experiment. Selected LSCd cultivars (Iqbal-2000 and Lasani-2008) and HSCd cultivars (Inqlab-91 and Sehar-2006) were grown on artificially Cd contaminated soil at 10 mg Cd kg(-1) . Three levels of Si (50, 100 and 150 mg kg(-1) soil), applied as calcium silicate (CaSiO3 ), were tested.

Results: None of the wheat cultivars showed any symptoms of toxicity or growth retardation against applied Cd stress. Silicon applied to Cd-treated plants did not improve root and shoot dry matter; however, it increased grain yield significantly at the highest rate of application (150 mg kg(-1) soil). Similarly, Si application at 150 mg kg(-1) decreased plant available soil Cd without affecting soil pH. Silicon application not only caused a linear decrease in Cd contents of shoots and grains but also decreased its translocation from roots to shoots and grains. Decrease in shoot Cd concentration was higher in HSCd than LSCd cultivars whereas the reverse was true for Cd concentration in grains.

Conclusion: Si addition decreased Cd concentration in wheat cultivars by causing a decrease in both plant-available soil Cd and its translocation from roots to shoots. Application of Si at 150 mg kg(-1) proved to be an effective level of Si that could significantly lower Cd concentration in wheat grains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6976DOI Listing
September 2015

Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for chickpea Fusarium oxysporum wilt resistant genotypes using PCR based molecular markers.

Mol Biol Rep 2014 Oct 14;41(10):6755-62. Epub 2014 Jul 14.

Department of Botany, University of Malakand, Chakdara Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan,

The exploration of genetically superior accessions is the key source of germplasm conservation and potential breeding material for the future. To meet the demand of better yielding chickpea cultivars in Pakistan the present study was organized to select more stable and resistant lines from indigenous as well as exotic chickpea germplasm obtained from Plant Genetic Resource Institute (PGRI), National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. For the identification and evaluation of chickpea wilt resistant lines against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Schlechtends), the germplasm was tested in the field for the selection of wilt resistant lines and the PCR based molecular markers were investigated to use Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) for selection of the desirable cultivars. In field trial, 70 % accessions were resistant to wilt disease, while the remaining 30 % have shown susceptibility to the disease. A total of 5 RAPD and 15 SSR markers were screened for molecular based characterization of wilt response. The data of molecular markers were scored by the presence (1) and absence (0) of allele and subjected to statistical analysis. The analysis was based on coefficient of molecular similarity using UPGMA and sorted the germplasm into two groups based on disease response. Among the total used RAPD/SSR primers, only TA194 SSR marker showed linkage to wilt resistant locus at 85 % probability. The linkage of a marker was reconfirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve. The use of the sorted wilt resistant genotypes through SSR marker TA194 can make available ample prospect in MAS breeding for yield improvement of the crop in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-014-3561-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4173118PMC
October 2014

Through-wall image enhancement using fuzzy and QR decomposition.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 23;2014:487506. Epub 2014 Feb 23.

Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Signals, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

QR decomposition and fuzzy logic based scheme is proposed for through-wall image enhancement. QR decomposition is less complex compared to singular value decomposition. Fuzzy inference engine assigns weights to different overlapping subspaces. Quantitative measures and visual inspection are used to analyze existing and proposed techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/487506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3953652PMC
November 2015

Improved guided image fusion for magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 13;2014:695752. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Center for Advanced Studies in Telecommunication (CAST), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Improved guided image fusion for magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging is proposed. Existing guided filtering scheme uses Gaussian filter and two-level weight maps due to which the scheme has limited performance for images having noise. Different modifications in filter (based on linear minimum mean square error estimator) and weight maps (with different levels) are proposed to overcome these limitations. Simulation results based on visual and quantitative analysis show the significance of proposed scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/695752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3947728PMC
December 2014

MRI and PET image fusion using fuzzy logic and image local features.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 19;2014:708075. Epub 2014 Jan 19.

School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Isra University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

An image fusion technique for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) using local features and fuzzy logic is presented. The aim of proposed technique is to maximally combine useful information present in MRI and PET images. Image local features are extracted and combined with fuzzy logic to compute weights for each pixel. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme produces significantly better results compared to state-of-art schemes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/708075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3916105PMC
October 2014

Flood detection/monitoring using adjustable histogram equalization technique.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 2;2014:809636. Epub 2014 Jan 2.

Department of Computer Software Engineering, College of Signals, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

Flood monitoring technique using adjustable histogram equalization is proposed. The technique overcomes the limitations (overenhancement, artifacts, and unnatural look) of existing technique by adjusting the contrast of images. The proposed technique takes pre- and postimages and applies different processing steps for generating flood map without user interaction. The resultant flood maps can be used for flood monitoring and detection. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides better output quality compared to the state of the art existing technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/809636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3914462PMC
October 2014

Modelling pesticide sorption in the surface and subsurface soils of an agricultural catchment.

Pest Manag Sci 2013 Aug 21;69(8):919-29. Epub 2012 Dec 21.

Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Sorption models that improve upon the koc concept are urgently needed for reliable spatial modelling of pesticide leaching. Sorption of glyphosate, bentazone and isoproturon was measured in surface and subsurface soils to test an 'extended' partitioning model that also accounts for inorganic sorbents and pH. Best-subset regression and Akaike information criteria were used to justify the inclusion of predictors and identify suitable models.

Results: The extended partitioning model improved upon the koc concept for all three compounds: inorganic sorbents dominated sorption in subsurface soils, and their effects were only masked by organic matter in surface soils with organic carbon contents larger than ca 2%. Interactions between organic and inorganic sorbents affected glyphosate sorption, but apparently not that of bentazone or isoproturon.

Conclusion: Information on clay, iron and aluminium oxides and soil pH, in addition to organic carbon, is needed for accurate prediction of pesticide leaching. The variables foc , fclay and pH are generally available, whereas measurements of oxides of Al and Fe are rarely reported. The authors therefore emphasise the need to measure and report contents of oxides of Al and Fe in soil survey databases, because small variations in their concentrations may contribute significantly to large variations in sorption, especially of ionisable pesticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.3453DOI Listing
August 2013

Multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis amongst Category I & II failures and Category II relapse patients from Pakistan.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2012 Sep 20;1(3):118-23. Epub 2012 Aug 20.

Dept. of Pathology and Microbiology, Aga Khan University, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among previously treated TB patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province, Pakistan.

Design And Settings: A cross-sectional study was conducted (January-September 2009) in 10 districts of KP. All Category (CAT) I and CAT II failures, and CAT II relapse cases were recruited within 1week following declaration of treatment outcome or re-registration of CAT II. Clinical information and sputum was collected from each patient.

Results: Total 139 patients were enrolled. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli (MTB) was isolated in 113 (81.3%) samples; Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis (MOTT) was isolated in 7 (5%) samples. MDR-TB was noted in 66 (58.4%) patients and extensive drug resistant (XDR-TB) in 2 (1.8%) patients. Amongst MDR patients, 20 (62.5%) were CAT I failure, 19 (76%) CAT II failure and 27 (48.2%) CAT II relapse cases. Resistance to Isoniazid was most common in 84 (74%) cases, followed by Pyrazinamide in 73 (64.6%) cases, Rifampicin in 67 (59%) cases, Streptomycin in 60 (53%) cases, Ethambutol in 58 (51%) cases, and Ofloxacin in 18 (22.2%) cases.

Conclusion: High rate of drug resistance, including MDR observed among failures and relapse cases. This study emphasizes the need to review TB care delivery, particularly in failure cases in difficult regions such as KP that have seen considerable population displacement and conflict in recent years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmyco.2012.07.004DOI Listing
September 2012

Modeling spatial variation in microbial degradation of pesticides in soil.

Environ Sci Technol 2011 Aug 8;45(15):6411-9. Epub 2011 Jul 8.

Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.

Currently, no general guidance is available on suitable approaches for dealing with spatial variation in the first-order pesticide degradation rate constant k even though it is a very sensitive parameter and often highly variable at the field, catchment, and regional scales. Supported by some mechanistic reasoning, we propose a simple general modeling approach to predict k from the sorption constant, which reflects bioavailability, and easily measurable surrogate variables for microbial biomass/activity (organic carbon and clay contents). The soil depth was also explicitly included as an additional predictor variable. This approach was tested in a meta-analysis of available literature data using bootstrapped partial least-squares regression. It explained 73% of the variation in k for the 19 pesticide-study combinations (n = 212) in the database. When 4 of the 19 pesticide-study combinations were excluded (n = 169), the approach explained 80% of the variation in the degradation rate constant. We conclude that the approach shows promise as an effective way to account for the effects of bioavailability and microbial activity on microbial pesticide degradation in large-scale model applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es2012353DOI Listing
August 2011

Chemically enhanced phytoextraction of Pb by wheat in texturally different soils.

Chemosphere 2010 Apr 23;79(6):652-8. Epub 2010 Mar 23.

Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan.

A pot study was used to examine the effects of amendments such as EDTA and elemental sulfur on the growth potential, gas exchange features, uptake and mobilization of Pb by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in two texturally different contaminated soils at three levels of EDTA (2, 4, 8 mmol kg(-1) dry soil) and two levels of elemental sulfur (100, 200 mmol kg(-1) dry soil). EDTA resulted in more solubilization of Pb than elemental sulfur in both soils. Application of EDTA and elemental sulfur increased shoot dry matter in the loamy sand soil, whereas in the sandy clay loam soil EDTA treated plants produced lower shoot dry matter compared to that observed with elemental sulfur. Application of EDTA 10d prior to harvest increased the amount of Pb accumulated into wheat shoots with more Pb accumulated by plants from the loamy sand than from the sandy clay loam soil. However, evaluation of the relative extraction efficiency expressed as the percentage of solubilized Pb that is subsequently also effectively accumulated by the plant shoots reveals that the relatively low efficiency does not warrant the massive mobilization induced by the environmentally persistent EDTA chelator. More modest mobilization of Pb induced by elemental sulfur and the higher relative extraction of mobilized Pb therefore deserves further attention in future research. In particular, attention needs to be paid to determining soil types in which elemental sulfur can induce significant impact on soil pH and metal mobility after application of a practically realistic dosage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.01.066DOI Listing
April 2010

Primary drug resistance to antituberculous drugs in NWFP Pakistan.

J Pak Med Assoc 2008 Aug;58(8):437-40

Department of Pulmonology, PGMI, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of Primary drug resistance to Antituberculous drugs in NWFP METHOD: A cross-sectional prevalence study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of drug resistance among new TB patients, using a non-probability convenience sampling methodology. Sample size was calculated according to the population and WHO's estimated incidence of smear positive tuberculosis in the province/country. Sputum samples were obtained from 122 newly diagnosed patients of pulmonary tuberculosis from centres in Peshawar and Abbotabad in NWFP.

Results: Sensitivities were performed by proportion method which showed the following resistance values in 118 eligible patients: 15 (12.7%) samples showed primary resistance to one or more drugs. 8 (6.4%) isolates were resistant to a single drug, 2 (1.6%) were resistant to 2 drugs, 4 (3.2%) to 3 drugs, 1 (0.8%) to 4 drugs while none to all 5 first line agents. Resistance to Streptomycin (10 microg/ml) was seen in 7 (5.9%), Isoniazid (1 microg/ml) in 10 (8.4%), Rifampicin (5 microg/ml) in 3 (2.5%), Ethambutol (10 microg/ml) in 2 (1.6%) and Pyrazinamide in 6 (5.0%) samples. Primary Multidrug resistance was 2.5%.

Conclusion: This study suggests that prevalence of MDR amongst untreated patients in NWFP is 2.5%, which is a cause of concern and should be addressed through effective TB control programmes with DOTS strategy.
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August 2008