Publications by authors named "Abdorreza Mohammadi"

49 Publications

Food safety and quality assessment: comprehensive review and recent trends in the applications of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS).

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Feb 8:1-34. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Environmental Health, Food Safety Division, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an analytical separation and diagnostic technique that is simple and sensitive and a rapid response and low-priced technique for detecting trace levels of chemical compounds in different matrices. Chemical agents and environmental contaminants are successfully detected by IMS and have been recently considered to employ in food safety. In addition, IMS uses stand-alone or coupled analytical diagnostic tools with chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Scientific publications show that IMS has been applied 21% in the pharmaceutical industry, 9% in environmental studies and 13% in quality control and food safety. Nevertheless, applications of IMS in food safety and quality analysis have not been adequately explored. This review presents the IMS-related analysis and focuses on the application of IMS in food safety and quality. This review presents the important topics including detection of traces of chemicals, rate of food spoilage and freshness, food adulteration and authenticity as well as natural toxins, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, veterinary, and growth promoter drug residues. Further, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), acrylamide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), biogenic amines, nitrosamine, furfural, phenolic compounds, heavy metals, food packaging materials, melamine, and food additives were also examined for the first time. Therefore, it is logical to predict that the application of the IMS technique in food safety, food quality, and contaminant analysis will be impressively increased in the future. Highlights Current status of IMS for residues and contaminant detection in food safety. To assess all the detected contaminants in food safety, for the first time. Identified IMS-related parameters and chemical compounds in food safety control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1879003DOI Listing
February 2021

Response Surface Methodology of Quantitative of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Fried Fish Using Efficient Microextraction Method Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Central Composite Design.

J Chromatogr Sci 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute/Faculty of Nutrition Science, Food Science and Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Meat and meat products are indispensable part of our diet. Heat processing of these tasty foods such as fried fish causes to form heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs). The sources of heating have directly affected on the level and type of HAAs. In this research, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4'5-b] pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoline (MeIQ) and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx) were determined using an efficient analytical methodology coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. The effective parameters were optimized by central composite design. The results of this survey demonstrated that rang of relative standard deviation were between 4.5 and 8.2, extraction recoveries were obtained 86-97% and limits of detection were between 0.40 and 0.63 for 4 HAAs. The amounts of HAAs found in 20 different fried fish samples were between 0 and 4.8 ng g-1. PhIP with 1.57 ng g-1 and MeIQ with 2.08 ng g-1 have the lowest and highest average level of HAAs, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmaa137DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of chicken raw materials on physicochemical and microbiological properties of ‎mechanically deboned chicken meat.

Vet Res Forum 2020 15;11(2):153-158. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Food Sciences and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Excessive consumption of red meat is associated with various diseases including coronary heart diseases and cancer. Lower health-related problems of chicken meat, consumption of chicken meat, and mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) have been increased due to their cheaper prices. Thereby, chemical, microbial, and physical causes of chicken meat losses and the safety aspects are needed to be fully considered to save food by improved application of chicken meat and its by-product. This study investigated the effects of chicken classes, layer, and broiler, and different carcass cuts, fillet, skeleton, and the whole carcass, on physicochemical, protein, fat, ash, moisture, pH, and peroxide, and microbiological, total plate counts, , , , and , characteristics as well as introducing content changes of metal elements iron, calcium (Ca), lead, cadmium, and arsenic in MDCM. The highest values of physicochemical characteristics, calcium, iron, and heavy metals were observed in deboned layer chicken carcass and deboned broiler skeleton (<0.05). Although was detected in all of the treatments, , and contamination were found only in the deboned layer and broiler skeleton. In conclusion, the application of MDCM by-products in meat products without thermal processing is not recommended. The broiler and layer skeleton MDCMs are not suitable for human consumption due to the high contents of heavy metals. However, the whole carcasses of layer chickens are suitable to be mutually used in MDCM at the end of the egg laying period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2018.90365.2186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413012PMC
June 2020

Acrylamide content of collected food products from Tehran's market: a risk assessment study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Aug 28;27(24):30558-30570. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Monteiro Lobato, 80, Caixa Postal 6121, Campinas, São Paulo, 13083-862, Brazil.

Acrylamide concentration in food products collected from the Tehran market was investigated by the aid of a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) system coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Also, the dietary exposure distribution and related potential risk for acrylamide ingestion were estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The highest and lowest mean concentration of acrylamide was detected in coffee and roasted nuts samples as 549 and 133 μg/kg, respectively. The mean acrylamide dietary exposure values for children (3-10 years), adolescents (11-17 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (61-96 years) were estimated to be 1.81, 1.02, 0.61, and 0.53 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day, respectively. In all age groups, except children, the estimated exposure in men and boys was higher than that in women and girls. Bread, despite containing low acrylamide content groups (157 μg/kg while compared with other, except roasted nuts), showed with the highest contribution rate in all age groups due to its high consumption rate. The estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for all age groups was noted as greater than 10 indicating serious risk to the population. Moreover, the margin of exposure (MOE) values based on carcinogenicity showed health concern to all age groups (< 10,000). Regarding the non-carcinogenic risk, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was lower than 1, and MOE based on neurotoxicity was higher than 125 (safety thresholds), which represented negligible and ignorable risk in all age groups except in a small group of children and adolescents. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09323-wDOI Listing
August 2020

Quantitative determination of trace phenazopyridine in human urine samples by hyphenation of dispersive solid-phase extraction and liquid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

J Sep Sci 2020 Jul 4;43(14):2897-2904. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was applied for the quantitative analysis of phenazopyridine in urinary samples. Magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction was carried out using magnetic graphene oxide nanoparticles modified by poly(thiophene-pyrrole) copolymer. The eluting solvent of this step was used as the disperser solvent for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure. To reach the maximum efficiency of the method, effective parameters including sorbent amount, adsorption time, type and volume of disperser and extraction solvents, pH of the sample solution, and ionic strength as well as desorption time, and approach were optimized, separately. Characterization of the synthesized sorbent was studied by utilizing infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5-250 ng/mL (R  = 0.9988) with limits of detection and quantification of 0.1 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. Intra- and interday precisions (RSD%, n = 3) of the method were in the range of 4.6-5.4% and 4.0-5.5%, respectively, at three different concentration levels. Under the optimal condition, this method was successfully applied for the determination of phenazopyridine in human urine samples. The relative recoveries were obtained in the range of 85.0-89.0%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202000055DOI Listing
July 2020

Reduction in Acrylamide Formation in Potato Crisps: Application of Extract and Hydrocolloid-Based Coatings.

J Food Prot 2020 May;83(5):754-761

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Monteiro Lobato, 80, Caixa Postal: 6121, CEP: 13083-862, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil (ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5769-0004 [A.M.K.]).

Abstract: Two different potato chip coatings-aqueous extracts including Zataria multiflora and Allium hirtifolium at concentrations of 1, 3, 5, and 7% and hydrocolloids individually or in combination-were used to decrease acrylamide content, and their effects on the characteristics of the product were then investigated. According to the results, the incorporation of hydrocolloids as the coating was more efficient in the reduction of acrylamide production than with the extracts. Also, the application of each extract and hydrocolloids individually can be considered a more efficient technique for acrylamide reduction than their mixture. In this regard, the economic aspects of the application of hydrocolloids in the coating of fried potato crisps can be evaluated.

Highlights:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-19-357DOI Listing
May 2020

Heterocyclic aromatic amines in doner kebab: Quantitation using an efficient microextraction technique coupled with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Jan 28;8(1):88-96. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of Food Science Faculty of Food Engineering University of Campinas (UNICAMP) Campinas São Paulo Brazil.

The safety of doner kebab as a traditional Middle East tasty food can threaten via the formation of dangerous compounds such as heterocyclic aromatic amines during heat process. In this regard, the current investigation was devoted to measuring of 4 HAAs (2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)) in doner kebab samples with an innovative microextraction technique combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The limit of detection was in the range of 4.8 and 5.3 ng/g, while relative standard deviations were between 6.5% and 8.3%, and recoveries were calculated in the range of 89%-97%. The most and the least total mean values of HAA levels were 13.30 ng/g for MeIQx and 5.0 ng/g for IQ. The proposed method showed a high capability to extract trace amount of HAAs from a complex matrix such as doner kebab. Also, this technique is easy, high sensitive, selective, accurate and efficient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6977492PMC
January 2020

The synergistic effects of cinnamon essential oil and nano TiO on antimicrobial and functional properties of sago starch films.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Aug 2;157:743-751. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia.

This study describes a sago starch-based film by incorporation of cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and nano titanium dioxide (TiO-N). Different concentrations (i.e., 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%, w/w) of TiO-N and CEO (i.e., 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3%, v/w) were incorporated into sago starch film, and the physicochemical, barrier, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties of the bionanocomposite films were estimated. Incorporation of CEO into the sago starch matrix increased oxygen and water vapor permeability of starch films while increasing TiO-N concentration decreased barrier properties. Moisture content also decreased from 12.96% to 8.04%, solubility in water decreased from 25% to 13.7%, and the mechanical properties of sago starch films improved. Sago starch bionanocomposite films showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Results also showed that incorporation of TiO-N and CEO had synergistic effects on functional properties of sago starch films. In summary, sago starch films incorporated with both TiO-N and CEO shows potential application for active packaging in food industries such as fresh pistachio packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.11.244DOI Listing
August 2020

Haas in grilled meat: Determination using an advanced lab-on-a-chip flat electromembrane extraction coupled with on-line HPLC.

Food Chem 2020 May 11;311:125876. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

In this research, a new design of channels in a lab-on-a-chip device with flat electromembrane extraction (LOC-FLEME) was fabricated. The latter microfluidic device was successfully used for the determination of 2-amino-3-methyl imidazo[4-5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3, 8-dimethlylimidazo[4, 5-f]quinolone (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,4- dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP) in grilled meat, by on-line coupling of LOC-FLEME to an HPLC system. Important parameters in extraction process were optimized. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 5-1000 ng g with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.9991. The relative recoveries were between 95 and 98% at three concentration levels. The relative standard deviations were 4.1 to 6.0%. The limits of detection were 1.4, 0.9, 1.7 and 1.3 ng g for PhIP, IQ, MeIQ and MeIQx, respectively. Sums of 4HAAs concentrations for different grilled meat samples were 2.75-6.17 ng g.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125876DOI Listing
May 2020

Water resistance and mechanical properties of low methoxy-pectin nanocomposite film responses to interactions of Ca ions and glycerol concentrations as crosslinking agents.

Food Chem 2019 Sep 29;293:429-437. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Microbial Biotechnology Department, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran. Electronic address:

To achieve a low methoxy-pectin nanocomposite film with maximum resistance to water and acceptable mechanical properties, the interactions of different glycerol concentrations and Ca ions in both steps of crosslinking on the swelling degree (SD) and mechanical properties of prepared films were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Accordingly, quadratic second-order models were fitted to the SD and tensile strength responses; while the cubic model demonstrated a good relation between independent variables and elongation at break respectively. As a compromise between water resistance and mechanical properties of the prepared films, the use of 0.5% Ca, 0.75% Gly and 7.5% Gly is suggested as the optimum condition. Generally, crosslinking of pectin polymer with Ca cations in the second step along with incorporation of nanocellulose into pectin film led to the formation of more flexible and completely water insoluble pectin nanocomposite film in comparison to the other polymers crosslinked with Ca cations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.04.110DOI Listing
September 2019

Central Composite Design for Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction of 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol in Human Serum.

J Chromatogr Sci 2019 Jul;57(6):575-581

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Science, Food Science and Technology/National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The human body's vitamin D levels are determined by measuring the level of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25-OH-vitamin D3) in human serum. In this research, a fast, simple, efficient and highly sensitive low-density solvent based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was employed for the successful determination of 25-OH-vitamin D3 from complex human serum matrices. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used as a powerful technique. The important parameters in the low-density solvent-DLLME method were optimized using response surface methodology based on central composite design. The calibration curves displayed a high level of linearity (R2 > 0.997) for 25-OH-vitamin D3 in the range of 2-500 ng mL-1. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.6 ng mL-1 and 1.9 ng mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviation for the seven analyses was 7.1%. The relative recoveries of vitamin D3 in spiked human serum samples were between 85% and 97%. The amount of 25-OH-vitamin D3 in samples was determined using the proposed method and acceptable results were reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmz016DOI Listing
July 2019

Heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked food: A review on formation, health risk-toxicology and their analytical techniques.

Food Chem 2019 May 20;280:240-254. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Science, Food Science and Technology/National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are defined as a major class of poisonous compounds formed from proteinaceous foods during heat processing and flavour-forming. These toxicants have detrimental effects on the human body and eventually bring about mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Owing to the presence of HAAs at a marginal level in the intricate tissue of food and their interactivity, an effective sample preparation should be employed to extract these controversial chemicals from the food matrix. For separation and detection of HAAs, advanced extraction methods and instrumental techniques have been applied. According to the type of sample preparation, sensitivity of the experiment, laboratory conditions and available facilities, the choice of analytical equipment will be different. In this review, various cooked food samples containing HAAs and heat processing of them have been listed. Also, sample pre-treatment and analytical techniques that have been applied to determine HAAs are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.12.058DOI Listing
May 2019

Extraction of caffeine and catechins using microwave-assisted and ultrasonic extraction from green tea leaves: an optimization study by the IV-optimal design.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2017 8;26(5):1281-1290. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Science, Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In this research, optimal conditions for extraction of caffeine and polyphenols were established from Iranian green tea leaves. In the first step, caffeine was extracted with efficacy about 86% versed to 4.5% of EGC + EGCG. The EGCG + EGC was extracted from partially decaffeinated green tea leaves through microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) with efficiency levels of 95 and 85%, respectively. The best results for the MAE process were obtained with 7.8 min and three number of extraction cycles and for the USE process were as followed: time 57 min, temperature 65 °C, and the number of extraction cycles 3. The total phenol content values at the best conditions of MAE and the USE processes were 125 ± 5 and 96 ± 6 mg gallic acid/g DW. The 50% inhibition (IC) on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were 56 and 66 mg/g of phenol for the MAE and USE processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-0182-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6049776PMC
September 2017

The impacts of water compositions on sensory properties of foods and beverages cannot be underestimated.

Food Res Int 2018 06 14;108:101-110. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Water is the main component of foods and beverages. Drinking water contains minerals, gasses and organic compounds which determine its sensory characteristics. In many texts, the discussion on water is focused on the water molecule and its physico-chemical behaviors in the food systems, while the impacts of water constituents on properties of foods and beverages are often overlooked. The chemical compositions of drinking water depend on the water source, the treatment method, and the distribution system. Hence, water like any other ingredients can be a significant source of variations in quality of foods and beverages. The chemical compositions of water can react with foods and beverages constituents to alter their sensory properties. However, water constituents can also have positive impacts on their sensory properties and increase their acceptability. The goal of this publication is to summarize the existing, accessible literature regarding potable water obtained from private and public water supplies, and how that water's composition can affect the sensory characteristics of food and beverage products. The authors found that such literature is limited and that there is a need to conduct more studies and publish more information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.03.024DOI Listing
June 2018

Characterization of lycopene hydrocolloidal structure induced by tomato processing.

Food Chem 2018 Apr 22;245:958-965. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.

Tomato juice and paste are special type of dispersions, composed of suspended particles (pulp) dispersed in a colloidal liquid medium (serum). The bright red appearance of soluble solid separated by high speed centrifugation denoted the presence of lycopene in this fraction. Since lycopene is a hydrophobic compound it is not expected to appear in the water soluble fraction. HPLC analysis indicated presence of substantial amount of lycopene in soluble fraction which was confirmed by the appearance of lycopene crystals when observed under Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Considerable amount of pectin in the soluble fraction led to hypothesis that pectin facilitated the formation of hydrocolloidal system of suspended lycopene during processing. Enzyme treatment confirmed this hypothesis when pectinase effectively disrupted colloidal system and precipitated lycopene. Necessity of the divalent ions to retain the suspension signified the electrostatic interactions in the matrix surrounding lycopene crystals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.11.077DOI Listing
April 2018

Characterization and oxidative stability of purslane seed oil microencapsulated in yeast cells biocapsules.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 May 14;98(7):2490-2497. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Purslane seed oil, as a potential nutritious source of omega-3 fatty acid, is susceptible to oxidation. Encapsulation in yeast cells is a possible approach for overcoming this problem. In the present study, purslane seed oil was encapsulated in non-plasmolysed, plasmolysed and plasmolysed carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)-coated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and measurements of oil loading capacity (LC), encapsulation efficiency (EE), oxidative stability and the fatty acid composition of oil-loaded microcapsules were made. Furthermore, investigations of morphology and thermal behavior, as well as a Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) analyses of microcapsules, were performed.

Results: The values of EE, LC were approximately 53-65% and 187-231 g kg respectively. Studies found that the plasmolysis treatment increased EE and LC and decreased the mean peroxide value (PV) of microencapsulated oil. The presence of purslane seed oil in yeast microcapsules was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. The lowest rate of oxidation belonged to the oil-loaded plasmolysed CMC-coated microcapsules (16.73 meqvO kg ), whereas the highest amount of oxidation regardless of native oil referred to the oil-loaded in non-plasmolysed cells (28.15 meqvO kg ).

Conclusion: The encapsulation of purslane seed oil in the yeast cells of S. cerevisiae can be considered as an efficient approach for extending the oxidative stability of this nutritious oil and facilitating its application in food products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8696DOI Listing
May 2018

Microwave-assisted extraction of L. essential oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity.

J Food Sci Technol 2017 Nov 4;54(12):3779-3790. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

Department of Food Science and Technology/National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 46, West Arghavan St., Farahzadi Blvd., ShahrakQods, P.O. Box 19395-4741, 1981619573 Tehran, Iran.

It has been previously reported that the essential oil of L. seeds and its major active component, thymoquinone (TQ), possess a broad variety of biological activities and therapeutic properties. In this work, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of the essential oil from L. seeds and its antioxidant activity were studied. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to evaluate the effects of extraction time, irradiation power and moisture content on extraction yield and TQ content. Optimal parameters obtained by CCD and RSM were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 450 W, and moisture content 50%. The extraction yield and TQ content of the essential oil were 0.33 and 20% under the optimum conditions, respectively. In contrast, extraction yield and TQ amount of oil obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) were 0.23 and 3.71%, respectively. The main constituents of the essential oil extracted by MAE and HD were -cymene, TQ, α-thujene and longifolene, comprising more than 60% of total peak area. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, and compared with traditional antioxidants. The results showed that MAE method was a viable alternative to HD for the essential oil extraction from seeds due to the excellent extraction efficiency, higher thymoquinone content, and stronger antioxidant activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-2718-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5643791PMC
November 2017

Application of cold plasma to develop carboxymethyl cellulose-coated polypropylene films containing essential oil.

Carbohydr Polym 2017 11 16;176:1-10. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

This study was aimed to develop and characterize carboxymethyl cellulose-coated polypropylene (PP/CMC) films with Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) as a new antimicrobial food packaging. For better attachment of CMC on polypropylene (PP) film surface, atmospheric plasma pretreatment was used. Results showed the formation of polar groups such as CO and OH in the PP surface following the plasma treatment. Plasma-treated PP had rougher surfaces and their contact angle reduced from 88.92° to 52.15° indicating increased surface hydrophilicity. Plasma-treated PP/CMC films showed lower water vapor permeability (WVP) and higher tensile strength compared to untreated bilayer films. Results revealed that antimicrobial PP/CMC films with higher content of ZEO had lower WVP, but was more sensitive to breakage. Antimicrobial characteristics in the direct contact and vapor phase represented great inhibition for all the tested bacteria. Our findings suggest that plasma-treated PP/CMC films have the potential for application in food antimicrobial packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.08.054DOI Listing
November 2017

Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an efficient and sensitive method for determining of acrylamide in potato chips samples.

Food Chem 2017 Nov 30;234:55-61. Epub 2017 Apr 30.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Science, Food Science and Technology/National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

In this research, for the first time, we successfully developed ultrasonic-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a new, fast and highly sensitive method for determining of acrylamide in potato chips samples. Xanthydrol was used as a derivatization reagent and parameters affecting in the derivatization and microextraction steps were studied and optimized. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curves showed high levels of linearity (R>0.9993) for acrylamide in the range of 2-500ngmL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the seven analyses was 6.8%. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.6ngg and 2ngg, respectively. The UAE-DLLME-GC-MS method demonstrated high sensitivity, good linearity, recovery, and enrichment factor. The performance of the new proposed method was evaluated for the determination of acrylamide in various types of chips samples and satisfactory results were obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.141DOI Listing
November 2017

Using ß-cyclodextrin and Arabic Gum as Wall Materials for Encapsulation of Saffron Essential Oil.

Iran J Pharm Res 2017 ;16(1):93-102

Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19395-4741, Tehran, Iran.

Saffron essential oil has a pleasant aroma and medicinal activities. However, it is sensible into the environmental condition. Therefore, it should be protected against unwanted changes during storage or processing. Encapsulation is introduced as a process by which liable materials are protected from unwanted changes. In the present study, different ratios (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0) of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and arabic gum (GA) were used as wall martial for encapsulation saffron essential oil. In order to calculate of loading capacity (LC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE), and release (RE), safranal was determined as indicator of saffron essential oil using GC. According to the results, the highest LC and EE were related to the mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio. In contrast, the lowest encapsulate hygroscopicity (EH) and RE were observed when only ß-CD was applied as wall material (P≤0.05). Comparing the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of the control and encapsulate of ß-CD/GA (75:25) confirmed encapsulation of saffron essential oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images with high magnifications showed the rhombic structure that partially coated by GA. The mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio can be recommended for saffron essential oil encapsulation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5423236PMC
January 2017

Preparation and characterization of a novel bionanocomposite edible film based on pectin and crystalline nanocellulose.

Carbohydr Polym 2017 Feb 20;157:167-175. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

In this study, for the first time, the edible pectin film was reinforced by crystalline nanocelullose (CNC). The incorporation of three levels of CNC (2, 5 and 7% w/w) on mechanical, thermal and water vapor barrier properties of pectin-based biodegradable film were investigated using solution casting evaporation method for film preparation. The optimum result was obtained through the nanocomposite film with 5% CNC in terms of mechanical and water vapor properties as the tensile strength increased up to 84% and water vapor permeability decreased by 40%. However, analysis of thermal properties indicated no significant effect of CNC on glass transition temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies illustrated a positive correlation between the degree of crystallinity and the CNC level. Moreover, AFM images presented good dispersion of CNC in the pectin matrix suggesting appropriate interaction between the filler and matrix, which is in agreement with mechanical consequences. According to the overall results, the reinforcement of pectin film with 5% CNC compared to other strengthening strategies had a higher effect and therefore it could be introduced as a good candidate for the development of strong, completely biodegradable and renewable food packaging material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.09.062DOI Listing
February 2017

Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of α-tocopherol loaded nanoliposome's containing DHA and EPA.

Food Chem 2017 Jan 28;215:157-64. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition Science and Food Science Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this study was to prepare α-tocopherol loaded nanoliposomes as carriers of DHA and EPA and to investigate their physicochemical properties, such as peroxide value (PV), volatile compounds (VOCs), particle size, size distribution, zeta potential and morphology of the liposomes. The particle size of liposomes was in the range of 82.4-107.2nm. The highest extent of lipid oxidation was observed at 40°C for 90days, with the lowest PV and propanal levels for a nanoliposome formulation in comparison with the control sample. The zeta potential of the nanoliposomes was decreased during storage. No significant change in the PV and zeta potential of the liposome formulations with α-tocopherol was observed at 4°C after 90days (0.14meq/kg and -43.5mV, respectively). This study demonstrated that incorporation of α-tocopherol into liposomes contributes a significant antioxidant effect on DHA and EPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.07.139DOI Listing
January 2017

Polypyrrole nanowire as an excellent solid phase microextraction fiber for bisphenol A analysis in food samples followed by ion mobility spectrometry.

Talanta 2016 Aug 3;156-157:147-153. Epub 2016 May 3.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

A polypyrrole nanowire coated fiber was prepared and used in head-space solid phase microextraction coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (HS-SPME-IMS) to the analysis of bisphenol A (BPA) in canned food samples, for the first time. This fiber was synthesized by electrochemical oxidation of the monomer in aqueous solution. The fiber characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the new fiber exhibited two-dimensional structures with a nanowire morphology. The effects of important extraction parameters on the efficiency of HS-SPME were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity of 10-150ngg(-1) and limit of detection (based on S/N=3) of 1ngg(-1) were obtained in BPA analysis. The repeatability (n=5) expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD%) was 5.8%. At the end, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine BPA in various canned food samples (peas, corns, beans). Relative recoveries were obtained 93-96%. Method validation was conducted by comparing our results with those obtained through HPLC with fluorescence detection (FLD). Compatible results indicate that the proposed method can be successfully used in BPA analysis. This method is simple and cheaper than chromatographic methods, with no need of extra organic solvent consumption and derivatization prior to sample introduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2016.05.007DOI Listing
August 2016

A comparative study on the in vitro antioxidant activity of tocopherol and extracts from rosemary and Ferulago angulata on oil oxidation during deep frying of potato slices.

J Food Sci Technol 2016 Jan 15;53(1):611-20. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19395-4741, Tehran, Iran.

There is a tendency towards the use of natural antioxidative substances due to toxic effects of synthetic antioxidants. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of tocopherol and extracts from rosemary and ferulago on oxidation in a mixture (1:1, w/w) of sunflower seed oil and palm olein, during deep frying of potato slices. Besides the control groups, tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) served as a standard for comparison. The DPPH radical scavenging activities of extracts followed the order of rosemary10% > rosemary1% > rosemary0.1 % > ferulago 10 % > ferulago 1 % > ferulago 0.1 %. Frying performance of antioxidants were tested with regards to primary (peroxide value (PV)) and secondary (anisidine value (AnV), free fatty acids (FFA), total polar compounds (TPC) and volatile oxidation compounds such as hexanal and heptanal) oxidation products and by sensory evaluation. After frying process, rosemary extract treatment exhibited PV (1.2 meq O2/kg), FFA content (0.124 %), TPC (12.2 %), hexanal concentration (62.4 ng/g) and heptanal concentration (73.8 ng/g), which were significantly equal or sometimes less than those of TBHQ treatment ((1.23 meq O2/kg), (0.123 %), (12.6 %), (64.4 ng/g) and (74.1 ng/g), respectively). Whilst the ferulago extract showed higher PV (2 meq O2/kg) than the control sample, it was efficient in delaying secondary oxidative changes. Tocopherol markedly retarded primary stage but its activity fell down toward secondary oxidation products. The overall results of this research suggest that rosemary extract may be a good natural alternative to TBHQ, but further studies are necessary to investigate the use of ferulago extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-015-2062-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711482PMC
January 2016

Functional, thermal, and antimicrobial properties of soluble soybean polysaccharide biocomposites reinforced by nano TiO2.

Carbohydr Polym 2015 Dec 25;134:726-31. Epub 2015 Aug 25.

Food Biopolymer Research Group, Food Science and Technology Department, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Semnan, Iran.

This study describes a new polysaccharide-based bionanocomposite developed through solvent casting. Different concentrations (i.e., 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w)) of nano titanium dioxide (TiO2-N) were incorporated into soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), and the functional properties of the resultant SSPS films were estimated. Incorporation of TiO2-N into the SSPS matrix decreased water vapor permeability from 7.41 to 4.44 × (10(-11)gm(-1) s(-1) Pa(-1)) and oxygen permeability from 202 to 98 (cm(3)μmm(-2) d(-1) atm(-1)). Moisture content also decreased, the glass transition temperature increased, and the mechanical properties and heat seal strength of the SSPS films improved. SSPS bionanocomposite films showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In summary, TiO2-N shows potential use as a filler in SSPS-based films for the food and non-food industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.08.073DOI Listing
December 2015

Application and optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for sensitive determination of polyamines in turkey breast meat samples.

Food Chem 2016 Jan 23;190:1168-1173. Epub 2015 Jun 23.

Department of Food Science and Technology/National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

A novel method based on microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MAE-DLLME) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the determination of three polyamines from turkey breast meat samples. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the effective factors in DLLME process. The optimum microextraction efficiency was obtained under optimized conditions. The calibration graphs of the proposed method were linear in the range of 20-200 ng g(-1), with the coefficient determination (R(2)) higher than 0.9914. The relative standard deviations were 6.72-7.30% (n = 7). The limits of detection were in the range of 0.8-1.4 ng g(-1). The recoveries of these compounds in spiked turkey breast meat samples were from 95% to 105%. The increased sensitivity in using the MAE-DLLME-HPLC-UV has been demonstrated. Compared with previous methods, the proposed method is an accurate, rapid and reliable sample-pretreatment method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.06.079DOI Listing
January 2016

Evaluation and application of microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of polar heterocyclic aromatic amines in hamburger patties.

Food Chem 2016 Jan 27;190:429-435. Epub 2015 May 27.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Science, Food Science and Technology/National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

This study developed an analytical method based on microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of three polar heterocyclic aromatic amines from hamburger patties. Effective parameters controlling the performance of the microextraction process, such as the type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents, microwave time, nature of alkaline aqueous solution, pH and salt amount, were optimized. The calibration graphs were linear in the range of 1-200 ng g(-1), with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) better than 0.9993. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for seven analyses were between 3.2% and 6.5%. The recoveries of those compounds in hamburger patties were from 90% to 105%. Detection limits were between 0.06 and 0.21 ng g(-1). A comparison of the proposed method with the existing literature demonstrates that it is a simple, rapid, highly selective and sensitive, and it gives good enrichment factors and detection limits for determining HAAs in real hamburger patties samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.05.103DOI Listing
January 2016

Determination of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural from baby formula using headspace solid phase microextraction based on nanostructured polypyrrole fiber coupled with ion mobility spectrometry.

Food Chem 2015 Aug 20;181:72-7. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Furfural (Fu) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMFu) are extracted using a dodecylbenzenesulfonate-doped polypyrrole coating as a fiber for headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method in baby formula samples and detected using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Sample pH, salt effect, extraction time and temperature were investigated and optimized as effective parameters in HS-SPME. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 20-300 ng g(-1) (R(2)>0.99). Limits of detection for Fu and HMFu were 6 ng g(-1) and 5 ng g(-1), respectively. The RSD% of Fu and HMFu for five analyses was 4.4 and 4.9, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine of Fu and HMFu in the different baby formula samples with satisfactory result. The results were in agreement with those obtained using HPLC analysis. The HS-SPME-IMS is precise, selective and sensitive analytical method for determination of Fu and HMFu in baby formula samples, without any derivatization process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.02.069DOI Listing
August 2015

Ion pair-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography as a new method for determining five folate derivatives in foodstuffs.

Talanta 2015 May 15;137:31-7. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Science, Food Science and Technology/National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

A novel technique for simultaneous determination of five folate derivatives in various food matrices was developed by ion pair-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IP-DLLME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the proposed method, N-methyl-N,N-dioctyloctan-1-ammonium chloride (aliquat-336) was used as an ion-pair reagent. Effective variables of microextraction process were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the method yielded a linear calibration curve ranging from 1-200 ng g(-1) with correlation coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.98. The relative standard deviation for the seven analyses was 5.2-7.4%. Enrichment factors for the five folates ranged between 108-135. Limits of detection were 2-4.1 ng g(-1). A comparison of this method with other methods described that the new proposed method is rapid and accurate, and gives very good enrichment factors and detection limits for determining five folate derivatives. The newly developed method was successfully applied for the determination of five folate derivatives in wheat flour, egg yolk and orange juice samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2015.01.010DOI Listing
May 2015

Rapid determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled meat using microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Meat Sci 2015 May 8;103:61-7. Epub 2015 Jan 8.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran.

A simple and rapid analytical tech nique for the simultaneous determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in grilled meat was developed using microwave-assisted extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MAE-DLLME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effective parameters in DLLME process were optimized. Good linear relationships were obtained for 16 PAHs in a range of 1-200 ng g(-1), with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) higher than 0.98. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.15-0.3 ng g(-1) and 0.47-1 ng g(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD%) for seven analyses were less than 9%. The recoveries of those compounds in grilled meat were obtained from 85% to 104%. Low consumption of the solvent, high recovery, short extraction time, no matrix interference and good merit figures compared to other methods are advantages of the proposed method. The performance of the present method was evaluated for the determination of PAHs in various types of real grilled meat samples, and satisfactory results were obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.01.001DOI Listing
May 2015