Publications by authors named "Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh"

12 Publications

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The burden of preventable hospitalizations before and after implementation of the health transformation plan in a hospital in west of Iran.

Prim Health Care Res Dev 2019 07 1;20:e87. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Assistant Professor in Health Policy, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

Background: Increased number of preventable hospitalizations (PHs) for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) represents less efficiency and low access to outpatient and primary health care, leading to waste of health system resources.

Aim: The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of outpatient and primary health care using the rate of PHs for ACSCs and to estimate the economic burden of ASCS before and after the implementation of the health transformation plan (HTP) in Iran.

Methods: This research was a before-after quasi-experimental study. The study population included all patients hospitalized in the largest general hospital of Kurdistan province with five diseases such as asthma, diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2014 (before the implementation of the HTP) and 2015 (after the implementation of the HTP). Data were analyzed by SPSS v.20 using Chi-square test.

Findings: Total number of hospitalizations before and after the implementation of the HTP was 1501 and 1405, respectively. Moreover, the proportion of PHs in all types of the hospital admissions before and after the implementation of the HTP was 47% and 49%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the number of PHs before and after the HTP. In total, PHs imposed 885 798 US$ and 9920 bed-days on health system before and after the implementation of the HTP.

Conclusion: Despite the previous expectations of policy makers for improving quality, efficiency, and access to primary health care through implementation of the HTP, proportion of PHs is considerable and it imposes a lot of costs and bed-days on the health system both before and after the HTP.
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July 2019

Psychometric Properties Of The Persian Version Of The Memory Impact Questionnaire In Older Adults.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2019 14;15:3197-3204. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background And Aim: Memory impairment in the elderly has a high prevalence and can affect their performance, interactions and quality of life. A valid and reliable questionnaire is required to investigate the changes in the memory of the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Memory Impact Questionnaire (MIQ) in the elderly.

Methods: In this methodological study, 361 elderly people (181 people for exploratory factor analysis and 180 people for confirmatory factor analysis) were selected via convenience sampling. This questionnaire was translated based on the World Health Organization's (WHO) guidelines. Construct validities were assessed through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Its reliability was also assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient.

Results: In the exploratory factor analysis, three factors of lifestyle restrictions, positive coping, and negative emotion were extracted that were able to explain 54.04% of the total variance of the impact of memory change in the elderly. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the goodness of fit of the three-factor model of MIQ (RMSEA: 0.083; GFI: 0.97; NFI: 0.94; IFI: 0.97; PNFI: 0.86; AGFI: 0.75). The reliability of the "lifestyle restrictions", "negative emotion" and "positive coping" factors was found to be 0.89, 0.74, and 0.67, respectively, using Cronbach's alpha coefficient.

Conclusion: The Persian version of the MIQ is simple and practical and has acceptable reliability and validity that can be used to measure memory changes in the Iranian elderly.
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November 2019

Risk factors of knee osteoarthritis: A case-control study.

Pak J Med Sci 2019 ;35(3):636-640

Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh (MD, MPH). Associate Professor of Community Medicine, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background And Objective: Knee osteoarthritis is one of the most common rheumatologic problems. To investigate risk factors related to the knee osteoarthritis a case-control study was performed using cases diagnosed in the Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) study, stage I.

Methods: Using data from the 2012 COPCORD study, stage-I that was conducted in Sanandaj, northwestern of Iran, we runned a case-control study in 2014-2015. Cases were 700 knee osteoarthritis using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, frequency matched with 700 healthy controls that were randomly selected from the general population.

Results: In multivariate analysis, statistical significant relation was observed between knee OA and some studied factors such as body mass index (P <0.001), lodging (living in highland vs. plain) (P <0.001), type of used toilet (regular vs. toilet) (P <0.001), history of using high-heeled shoes (>3 cm) (P = 0.005), history of knee Injury (P = 0.04), history of lower limb fracture (P = 0.02), Number of pregnancies (P <0.001) and history of pain and swelling (lasting for one months) (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Living in highland area, using regular toilet, having knee injury and lower limb fracture in the past were most significant associated factors with occurrence of knee osteoarthritis.
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January 2019

Hypomagnesaemia and other electrolytes imbalances in open and closed pediatrics cardiac surgery.

Pak J Med Sci 2019 Mar-Apr;35(2):353-359

Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh, Associate Professor of Community Medicine, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Objective And Background: During the past decade, many researchers have indicated that open cardiac surgery, using cardiopulmonary bypass, could be an essential factor to induce post-operative electrolyte imbalances which may be followed by life threatening complications such as arrhythmia. Nevertheless, by this time there may be a few researches about comparing of hypomagnesaemia and other electrolyte imbalances between open, on pump, and closed, off pump, heart operation.

Methods: In this cohort study conducted at Rajaie Heart Center in Tehran from December 2014 to August 2015, we evaluated hypomagnesaemia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia and hyponatremia in 205 children aged under 15 years who underwent open (101 children) and closed (104 children) cardiac surgery. Repeated measures ANOVA, paired t test and Chi-square/Fisher exact test were used for analysis the data in SPSS version 21.

Results: According to our study the frequency of electrolyte imbalances including hypomagnesaemia after pediatric heart surgery is relatively high (28.7% hypomagnesaemia at the second day) with more occurrence in closed cardiac operations. There was no significant relationship between hypomagnesaemia and pump time duration (P>0.05). On the other hand, this research indicated that there is significant relationship between post-operative hypomagnesaemia and some other variables including cyanotic heart disease (P=0.01) and concurrent electrolyte imbalance such as hypocalcaemia and hypokalemia (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Early evaluation and correction of hypomagnesaemia should be considered after both closed and open heart operation.
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May 2019

Dentists' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding Hepatitis B and C and HIV/AIDS in Sanandaj, Iran.

BMC Oral Health 2018 12 18;18(1):220. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Vice Chancellor for Educational and Research, Kowsar Hospital, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: Healthcare workers including physicians, dentists, nurses and laboratory workers are considered to be among the groups at the risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) of dentists regarding infection control and basic principles.

Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 106 dentists in Sanandaj, Iran. The dentists' KAP regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV/AIDS were evaluated. Chi-square test, student's t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used to assess differences between the groups. Data were analyzed in Stata 12.

Results: The results showed that the majority of the subjects in the study population (53.8%) were female. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) for age and work experience was 39.6 ± 9.80 and 10.6 ± 8.7 years, respectively. The mean ± SD for knowledge, attitude and practices of participants was 37.3 ± 3.01, 22.9 ± 4.80 and 24.07 ± 5.06, respectively. The results also indicated that dentists' higher level of knowledge about HBV, HCV and HIV/AIDS was significantly influenced by work experience (≥10 years; P < 0.001) and graduation year (after 2006: P < 0.001). Positive attitude towards HBV, HCV and HIV/AIDS was considerably influenced by age group (< 30 years: P = 0.021), work experience (≥10 years: P < 0.001), and workplace (dental office: P = 0.016).

Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated a satisfactory level of knowledge and attitude of dentists about HBV, HCV and HIV/AIDS infections, but some gaps were observed, suggesting that higher knowledge level of dentists plays a very important role in forming the attitudes and practices regarding patients with HBV, HCV and HIV/AIDS.
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December 2018

Hypercalciuria and febrile convulsion in children under 5 years old.

Korean J Pediatr 2018 Apr 23;61(4):129-131. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Purpose: The association between hypercalciuria and febrile convulsion is controversial. The present study aimed to investigate the statistical association between hypercalciuria and childhood febrile convulsions.

Methods: Overall, 160 children aged 6 months to 5 years, including 80 children with febrile convulsion and 80 febrile children without convulsion (comparison group), were recruited. All laboratory tests, including 24-hour urine calcium, were undertaken in an academic clinical laboratory.

Results: Forty-five children of the febrile convulsion group (60%) and 30 of the comparison group (40%) had hypercalciuria. There was a significant difference between the 2 groups (=0.02).

Conclusion: Our results indicated that there is a statistical association between convulsion and hypercalciuria in children. Since we found this association with a cross-sectional assessment, further studies, especially prospective and controlled designs, are needed.
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April 2018

Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiovascular complications after birth asphyxia in term neonates.

Pak J Med Sci 2017 Sep-Oct;33(5):1220-1224

Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh, Associate Professor of Community Medicine, Dept. of Community Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Objectives: After birth asphyxia, a variety of hemodynamic disorders may be noted in the neonatal intensive care unit; these require appropriate recognition and management. The present study was designed to demonstrate the prevalence of heart complications amongst asphyxiated newborns.

Methods: Through a cohort study, 29 asphyxiated term neonates were followed since birth until amelioration of pulmonary hypertension and compared with 31 well born neonates. Both groups were evaluated for their heart anatomy and hemodynamic with meticulous assessment through echocardiography. This study was conducted in Besat Medical Center since August 2010 until February 2012.

Results: Hemodynamic and anatomic disorders including myocardial dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension and patent arterial duct (PDA) were strongly associated with birth asphyxia (P< 0.05).

Conclusion: Birth asphyxia was associated with systolic and diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension which demands precise evaluation, early recognition and appropriate management.
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November 2017

Neonatal blood stream infections in tertiary referral hospitals in Kurdistan, Iran.

Ital J Pediatr 2015 Jun 9;41:43. Epub 2015 Jun 9.

Department of Community Medicine & Kurdistan Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of the present study was to determine bacterial agents and their susceptibility patterns to antibiotics and to investigate the risk factors associated with BSI.

Methods: This was a nested case-control study carried out from September 2009 to June 2010 in the NICU wards in Sanandaj hospitals western Iran. Cases were patients with BSI and controls were other patients who had negative blood culture. Bacteriologic diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was performed based on the Edward & Ewings and the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory (NCCL) Standards.

Results: Of 472 patients who hospitalized in NICU, 6.4% had BSI (n = 30) including 17girls (56.7%) and 13 boys (43.3%). Enterobacter SPP was the predominant isolated bacteria from blood culture (36.7%). The maximum antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were observed by Tetracycline and Ciprofloxacin respectively. Risk factors associated with BSI were age ≤ 7 days (p = 0.001), previous antibiotic consumption (p = 0.013), and low birth weight (LBW), (p = 0.001).

Conclusions: Gram negative bacteria and Entrobacter in particular are the most common pathogens. Improving prenatal health care, standards of infection control and choosing accurate antibiotics are recommended to avoid BSI in neonatal intensive care units.
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June 2015

Risk factors for acquisition of ventilator-associated pneumonia in adult intensive care units.

Pak J Med Sci 2013 Sep;29(5):1105-7

Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh, MD, MPH, Assistant Professor of Community Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan Research Center for Social Determinants of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Objective: Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) has an imperative place amongst nosocomial infections leading to increase morbidity and mortality rates. The present study aimed to determine risk factors for acquisition of ventilator- associated pneumonia in an intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: A nested case-control study was carried out from September 2007 to June 2008. All 183 patients hospitalized at the adult ICU ward in Be'sat Hospital, Sanandaj city western Iran over a 48 hour period were included. Bacteriologic diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility patterns were performed based on Edward & Ewing's methods and CLSI system guidelines. Results : Of the 149 samples which were taken from endotracheal tubes of 183 patients, 48 cases were diagnosed for VAP with an incidence rate of 26.2%. Mean duration of hospitalization was 23.4±10.2 days. The maximum and minimum antibiotic resistance for the gram negative bacteria was 93.3% for Cefalotin and 50% for Amikacin. The main risk factors for acquisition of ventilator- associated pneumonia were mechanical ventilation (Adjusted OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.37-1.74), history of antibiotic consumption (AOR: 8.92, CI: 1.16- 66.66) and fever (AOR: 3.11, CI: 1.22- 7.93).

Conclusions: VAP is significantly related to ICU hospitalization, mechanical ventilation and history of antibiotics consumption. Cefalotin and Amikacin showed the highest and lowest antibiotic resistance against gram negative bacteria respectively.
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September 2013

Surveillance, control and management of infections in intensive care units in Southern Europe, Turkey and Iran--a prospective multicenter point prevalence study.

J Infect 2014 Feb 20;68(2):131-40. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Objective: We aimed to compare the features of intensive care units (ICUs), their antimicrobial resistance patterns, infection control policies, and distribution of infectious diseases from central Europe to Mid-West Asia.

Methods: A cross-sectional point prevalence study was performed in 88 ICUs from 12 countries. Characteristics of ICUs, patient and antibiotic therapy data were collected with a standard form by infectious diseases specialists.

Results: Out of 749, 305 patients at least with one infectious disease were assessed and 254 patients were reported to have coexistent medical problems. When primary infectious diseases diagnoses of the patients were evaluated, 69 had community-acquired, 61 had healthcare-associated, and 176 had hospital-acquired infections. Pneumonia was the most frequent ICU infection seen in half of the patients. Distribution of frequent pathogens was as follows: Enteric Gram-negatives (n = 62, 28.8%), Acinetobacter spp. (n = 47, 21.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 29, 13.5%). Multidrug resistance profiles of the infecting microorganisms seem to have a uniform pattern throughout Southern Europe and Turkey. On the other hand, active and device-associated infection surveillance was performed in Turkey more than Iran and Southeastern Europe (p < 0.05). However, designing antibiotic treatment according to culture results was highest in Southeastern Europe (p < 0.05). The most frequently used antibiotics were carbapenems (n = 92, 30.2%), followed by anti-gram positive agents (vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline; n = 79, 25.9%), beta-lactam/beta lactamase inhibitors (n = 78, 25.6%), and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (n = 73, 23.9%).

Conclusion: ICU features appears to have similar characteristics from the infectious diseases perspective, although variability seems to exist in this large geographical area.
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February 2014

The status of diabetes control in Kurdistan province, west of Iran.

J Res Health Sci 2013 Sep 17;13(2):194-200. Epub 2013 Sep 17.

Kurdistan Research Center for Social Determinants of Health (KRCSDH), Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: Based on some estimation more than two million peoples in Iran are affected by Type 2 diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the status of diabetes control among Type 2 diabetes patients in Kurdistan, west of Iran and its associated factors.

Methods: In our cross sectional study conducted in 2010, 411 Type 2 diabetes patients were randomly recruited from Sanandaj, Capital of Kurdistan. Chi square test was used in univariate analysis to address the association between HgAlc and FBS status and other variables. The significant results from Univariate analysis were entered in multivariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression model.

Results: In 38% of patients, FBS was in normal range (70-130) and in 47% HgA1c was <7% which is normal range for HgA1c. In univariate analysis, FBS level was associated with educational levels (P=0.001), referral style (P=0.001), referral time (P=0.009), and insulin injection (P=0.016). In addition, HgA1c had a relationship with sex (P=0.023), age (P=0.035), education (P=0.001), referral style (P=0.001), and insulin injection (P=0.008). After using multinomial logistic regression for significant results of univariate analysis, it was found that FBS was significantly associated with referral style. In addition HgA1c was significantly associated with referral style and Insulin injection.

Conclusions: Although some of patients were under the coverage of specialized cares, but their diabetes were not properly controlled.
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September 2013

Socioeconomic, psychiatric and materiality determinants and risk of postpartum depression in border city of ilam, Western iran.

Depress Res Treat 2013 24;2013:653471. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

Department of Anesthesiology, Gilan University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 41938-93345, Rasht, Iran.

Background. Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered as one of the mood disturbances occurring during 2-3 months after delivery. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of PPD and its associated risk factors in border city of Ilam, western Iran. Methods. Through a descriptive cross-sectional study in 2011, overall, 197 women who attended Obstetrics & Gynecology clinics postpartumly in the border city of Ilam, western Iran, were randomly recruited. A standard questionnaire that was completed by a trained midwife through face to face interviews was used for data gathering. Results. Mean age ± standard deviations was 27.9 ± 5.2 years. Prevalence of PPD was estimated to be 34.8% (95% CI: 27.7-41.7). A significant difference was observed among depression scores before and after delivery (P ≤ 0.001). Type of delivery (P = 0.044), low socioeconomic status (P = 0.011), and women having low educational level (P = 0.009) were the most important significant risk factors associated with PPD. The regression analysis showed that employed mothers compared to housekeepers were more at risk for PPD (adjusted OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-2.28, P = 0.003). Conclusions. Prevalence of PPD in western Iran was slightly higher than the corresponding rate from either national or international reports.
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August 2013