Publications by authors named "Abdelmoneim Mansour"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy of a novel topical combination of esafoxolaner, eprinomectin and praziquantel for the prevention of heartworm disease in cats.

Parasite 2021 2;28:30. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, 14850 NY, USA.

NexGard Combo is a novel topical endectoparasiticide formulation for cats combining the insecticide/acaricide esafoxolaner, the nematodicide eprinomectin and the cestodicide praziquantel. The efficacy of this novel formulation for the prevention of heartworm disease in cats was tested in two experimental studies using an induced infection model and a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study design, and two USA isolates of Dirofilaria immitis. In each study, 20 naïve cats were each inoculated sub-cutaneously with 100 third-stage larvae of D. immitis 30 days before treatment. Following randomization to two treatment groups of ten cats, each cat was treated topically once, either with the minimum recommended dose of the novel formulation, or with an identical volume of placebo. Five months after treatment (6 months after infections), the cats were humanely euthanized for parasite recovery and count. Efficacy was calculated by comparison of the numbers of adult D. immitis recovered in the control and in the novel formulation groups. In the control groups of each study, D. immitis were recovered in seven and nine cats (respective worm counts ranges 1-7 and 1-16, respective geometric means 1.6 and 5.1). In both studies, none of the treated cats harbored any D. immitis at necropsy and the calculated efficacy of the novel formulation was 100%. There were no adverse reactions related to treatment with the novel formulation. The results of these two studies demonstrate that a topical NexGard Combo application at the minimum label dose is well-tolerated and efficacious in preventing heartworm disease in cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2021026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019556PMC
April 2021

Efficacy of a novel topical combination of esafoxolaner, eprinomectin and praziquantel against Amblyomma americanum in cats.

Parasite 2021 2;28:25. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Boehringer-Ingelheim Animal Health, 29 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007 Lyon, France.

Esafoxolaner, a purified enantiomer of afoxolaner with insecticidal and acaricidal properties, is combined with eprinomectin and praziquantel in NexGard Combo, a novel topical endectoparasiticide product for cats. The efficacy of this novel formulation was assessed in two experimental studies against induced infestations with Amblyomma americanum, a tick species of major importance, highly prevalent in a large southeastern quarter of the United States. In each study, 10 cats were randomly allocated to a placebo control group and 10 cats to a novel formulation treated group. Infested cats were treated topically once at the minimum recommended dose. Both studies were designed to test curative efficacy on existing infestation, 72 h after treatment, and to test preventive efficacy, 72 h after subsequent weekly (Study #1) or fortnightly (Study #2) infestations for one month. For each infestation, all cats were infested with 50 unfed adult A. americanum. At each tick count, in both studies, at least 8 in 10 placebo control cats were infested with 13 (26%) or more live ticks, demonstrating adequate infestation throughout the studies. Curative efficacy of the novel formulation was 99% in both studies; preventive efficacy was 92% and 100% for at least one month.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2021021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019551PMC
April 2021

Efficacy evaluation of anthelmintic products against an infection with the canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) isolate Worthy 4.1F3P in dogs.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2020 08 20;13:22-27. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

Ancylostoma caninum is the most prevalent intestinal nematode of dogs, and has a zoonotic potential. Multiple-drug resistance (MDR) has been confirmed in a number of A. caninum isolates, including isolate Worthy 4.1F3P, against all anthelmintic drug classes approved for hookworm treatment in dogs in the United States (US). The cyclooctadepsipeptide emodepside is not registered to use in dogs in the US, but in a number of other countries/regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of emodepside + praziquantel, as well as three commercial products that are commonly used in the US for treatment of hookworms, against a suspected (subsequently confirmed) MDR A. caninum isolate Worthy 4.1F3P. 40 dogs infected on study day (SD) 0 with 300 third-stage larvae, were randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups with eight dogs each: pyrantel pamoate (Nemex®-2), fenbendazole (Panacur® C), milbemycin oxime (Interceptor®), emodepside + praziquantel tablets and non-treated control. Fecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on SDs 19, 20, 22, 27, 31 and 34. All treatments were administered as per label requirements on SD 24 to dogs in Groups 1 through 4. Two additional treatments were administered on SDs 25 and 26 to dogs in Group 2 as per label requirements. Dogs were necropsied on SD 34 and the digestive tract was removed/processed for worm recovery and enumeration. The geometric mean (GM) worm counts for the control group was 97.4, and for the pyrantel pamoate, fenbendazole, milbemycin oxime, and emodepside + praziquantel groups were 74.8, 72.0, 88.9, and 0.4, respectively. These yielded efficacies of 23.2%, 26.1%, and 8.8%, and 99.6%, respectively. These data support previous findings of the MDR status of Worthy 4.1F3P as treatments with pyrantel pamoate, fenbendazole and milbemycin oxime lacked efficacy. In sharp contrast, Worthy 4.1F3P was highly susceptible to treatment with emodepside + praziquantel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpddr.2020.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214830PMC
August 2020

Macrofilaricidal Benzimidazole-Benzoxaborole Hybrids as an Approach to the Treatment of River Blindness: Part 1. Amide Linked Analogs.

ACS Infect Dis 2020 02 14;6(2):173-179. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Inc. , 1020 E. Meadow Circle , Palo Alto , California 94303 , United States.

A series of benzimidazole-benzoxaborole hybrid molecules linked via an amide linker are described that exhibit good activity against , a filarial nematode responsible for the disease onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness. The lead identified in this series,  (AN8799), was found to have acceptable pharmacokinetic properties to enable evaluation in animal models of human filariasis. Compound was effective in killing , , and worms present in Mongolian gerbils when dosed subcutaneously as a suspension at 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days but not when dosed orally at 100 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The measurement of plasma levels of at the end of the dosing period and at the time of sacrifice revealed an interesting dependence of activity on the extended exposure for both and the positive control, flubendazole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026885PMC
February 2020

Shifting the paradigm in Dirofilaria immitis prevention: blocking transmission from mosquitoes to dogs using repellents/insecticides and macrocyclic lactone prevention as part of a multimodal approach.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):525. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

TRS Labs, Inc., 215 Paradise Boulevard, Athens, GA, 30607, USA.

Background: This study assessed the influence of a topical ectoparasiticide (dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen, DPP, Vectra® 3D, Ceva Animal Health) combined with a macrocyclic lactone (milbemycin oxime, MBO, Interceptor®, Virbac) on transmission of heartworm L3 from mosquitoes to dogs and subsequent development of worms in treated dogs exposed to infected mosquitoes.

Methods: Thirty-two beagle dogs were allocated to four groups of eight: Group 1, untreated controls; Group 2, treated topically with DPP on Day 0; Group 3, treated orally with MBO on Day 51; and Group 4, treated with DPP on Day 0 and MBO on Day 51. Dogs were exposed under sedation for 1 h to Dirofilaria immitis (JYD-34)-infected Aedes aegypti on Days 21 and 28. At the end of each exposure, mosquitoes were classified as live, moribund, or dead and engorged or non-engorged. Live or moribund mosquitoes were incubated for daily survival assessment for 3 days. Mosquitoes were dissected before and after exposure to estimate the number of L3 transmitted to each dog. Dogs were necropsied 148 to 149 days postinfection.

Results: A total of 418 mosquitoes fed on the 16 dogs in Groups 1 and 3, while only 6 fed on the 16 DPP-treated dogs in Groups 2 and 4. Mosquito anti-feeding (repellency) effect in Groups 2 and 4 was 98.1 and 99.1%, respectively. The estimated numbers of L3 transmitted to controls, DPP-treated, MBO-treated and DPP + MBO-treated dogs were 76, 2, 78, and 1, respectively. No heartworms were detected in any of the DPP + MBO-treated dogs (100% efficacy), while 8 out of 8 were infected in the control group (range, 21-66 worms per dog), 8 out of 8 were infected in the MBO-treated group (58% efficacy), and 3 out of 8 were infected in the DPP-treated group (96% efficacy).

Conclusions: DPP repelled and killed most mosquitoes that were capable of transmitting heartworm L3 to dogs. The "Double Defense" protocol of DPP + MBO had better efficacy for protecting dogs against heartworm transmission and infection than MBO alone. This added DPP benefit is more pronounced when macrocyclic lactone-resistant strains of heartworms are involved or lack of compliance in macrocyclic lactone administration is known or suspected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2438-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688480PMC
November 2017

Evaluation of Dirofilaria immitis antigen detection comparing heated and unheated serum in dogs with experimental heartworm infections.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):486. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Statistical Consultant, Walton, KY, USA.

Background: To evaluate whether heated serum allows for earlier detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen, dogs with experimental D. immitis infections underwent weekly blood sampling to compare antigen results using both heated and unheated serum.

Methods: One of two isolates (JYD-34 or Big Head™) were used to infect naïve laboratory beagle dogs. Serum was collected from dogs weekly and divided into two aliquots, heated and unheated. The samples designated as heated were placed in a heat block at 104 °C for 10 min then centrifuged with collection of the resulting supernatant. Two commercial ELISAs, DiroCHEK® (Synbiotics Corporation, Zoetis) and PetChek® (IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.), were used to conduct D. immitis antigen testing on all serum samples.

Results: There was no statistical difference in the mean number of days from infection to positive D. immitis antigen status between the two commercial testing kits (DiroCHEK® versus PetChek®) with either heated or unheated serum. When unheated serum was utilized, very strong agreement between the two assays was demonstrated using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (R  = 0.98). However, when heated serum was compared, Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was only R  = 0.64, showing a lesser agreement. There was a statistical difference in the mean number of days from infection to a positive test result for unheated serum when compared to mean days to positive status with heated serum. For DiroCHEK® the heated serum yielded a positive result 126.9 ± 18.9 days postinfection while the unheated serum yielded a positive result 162.6 ± 23.0 days postinfection; this was a significant 35.7 ± 32.2 days longer, on average, compared with heated serum. With PetChek® the heated serum yielded a positive result 131.5 ± 11.7 days postinfection while the unheated serum yielded a positive result 162.8 ± 23.8 days postinfection; this was a significant 31.3 ± 25.5 days longer, on average, compared with heated serum. The detection of D. immitis antigen earlier using heated serum was consistent for both heartworm isolates.

Conclusion: Our results suggest heat treatment of serum may allow earlier detection of D. immitis antigen but with less consistency demonstrated across two testing platforms as compared with antigen detection using unheated serum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2445-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688511PMC
November 2017

Blocking the transmission of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) to mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) by weekly exposure for one month to microfilaremic dogs treated once topically with dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(Suppl 2):511. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

TRS Labs, 215 Paradise Boulevard, 30607, Athens, GA, USA.

Background: This study assessed the influence of a topical ectoparasiticide (dinotefuran-permethrin-pyriproxyfen, DPP, Vectra®3D, Ceva Animal Health) on the acquisition of heartworm microfilariae by mosquitoes exposed to microfilaremic dogs weekly for 1 month.

Methods: Six beagle dogs (9.2 ± 1.6 kg body weight) infected with Dirofilaria immitis were allocated to two groups of three dogs: an untreated control group and a DPP-treated group. Dogs were treated on Day 0 and exposed under sedation for 1 h to 80 ± 20 unfed Aedes aegypti. Each dog was exposed to mosquitoes released into mosquito-proof containers on Days -7 (pretreatment), 7, 14, 21 and 28. Up to 20 engorged mosquitoes were aspirated from the cage as soon as they were blood-fed. They were dissected and the blood from each midgut was stained for a microfilaria (MF) count. After each exposure, mosquitoes were classified as live, moribund or dead and engorged or nonengorged. The number of dead mosquitoes was recorded daily for 16 days, when the live mosquitoes were dissected to count the infective third-stage larvae (L3).

Results: Prior to treatment, 95% of the engorged mosquitoes in both groups had MF. After treatment, engorgement rates for the treated group were 0%, 2.3%, 2.7% and 2.2% for Days 7, 14, 21 and 28, respectively, with anti-feeding efficacy (repellency) of 100%, 98.0%, 95.8% and 97.0%, respectively. A total of 22 mosquitoes fed on treated dogs; most of them were dead within 24 h, and all were dead within 72 h. Only 2 unfed mosquitoes exposed to treated dogs survived the incubation period and no L3 were found in them. A total of 121 of the 132 (91.6%) surviving mosquitoes that had engorged on untreated dogs had an average of 12.3 L3 per mosquito (range, 0-39).

Conclusions: DPP was more than 95% effective in inhibiting blood-feeding and killing both engorged and nonengorged mosquitoes exposed weekly to microfilaremic dogs for 28 days after treatment. Treatment with DPP was completely effective in killing the few mosquitoes that fed on the treated dogs before they lived long enough for the microfilariae to develop to L3 and, consequently, was completely effective in blocking the transmission of L3 to other animals. DPP can break the life cycle of D. immitis and prevent infected dogs and infected mosquitoes from being effective reservoirs and can slow down the spread of heartworms, even those resistant to macrocyclic lactone preventives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2439-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688439PMC
November 2017

An In Vitro/In Vivo Model to Analyze the Effects of Flubendazole Exposure on Adult Female Brugia malayi.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 05 4;10(5):e0004698. Epub 2016 May 4.

Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.

Current control strategies for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) rely on prolonged yearly or twice-yearly mass administration of microfilaricidal drugs. Prospects for near-term elimination or eradication of these diseases would be improved by availability of a macrofilaricide that is highly effective in a short regimen. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic registered for control of human gastrointestinal nematode infections, is a potential candidate for this role. FLBZ has profound and potent macrofilaricidal effects in many experimental animal models of filariases and in one human trial for onchocerciasis after parental administration. Unfortunately, the marketed formulation of FLBZ provides very limited oral bioavailability and parenteral administration is required for macrofilaricidal efficacy. A new formulation that provided sufficient oral bioavailability could advance FLBZ as an effective treatment for onchocerciasis and LF. Short-term in vitro culture experiments in adult filariae have shown that FLBZ damages tissues required for reproduction and survival at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The current study characterized the long-term effects of FLBZ on adult Brugia malayi by maintaining parasites in jirds for up to eight weeks following brief drug exposure (6-24 hr) to pharmacologically relevant concentrations (100 nM-10 μM) in culture. Morphological damage following exposure to FLBZ was observed prominently in developing embryos and was accompanied by a decrease in microfilarial output at 4 weeks post-exposure. Although FLBZ exposure clearly damaged the parasites, exposed worms recovered and were viable 8 weeks after treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4856366PMC
May 2016
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