Publications by authors named "Abdelkareem A Ahmed"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Analysis of Serum Immune Markers in Seropositive and Seronegative Rheumatoid Arthritis Among Sudanese Patients and the Relation Between the Serotype and Joint Involvement: A Cohort Study.

Open Access Rheumatol 2021 30;13:325-332. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Medical and Cancer Research Institute, Nyala, Sudan.

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the synovial membrane. RA is classified as seropositive or seronegative, according to the absence or presence of primarily IgM RF, RF, and/or ACPA. The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between the serotype of rheumatoid arthritis and the level of ESR.

Methods And Materials: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study done in Omdurman military hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. Conducted with 60 patients with RA, data were collected through a designated questionnaire which included demographic, age, gender, duration of the disease, laboratory finding. All the patients in the study were treated with conventional DMARDs and diagnosed according to the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria; their disease activity status was assessed by DAS28/ESR. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.

Results: The study found that 91.7% of the patients were females, patients of age group between 36 and 50 years had the highest percentage at 38.3% followed by those between 51 and 70 years and the least age group between 20 and 35 years, 36.7% and 15%, respectively. Of all the patients 61.7% were found to be SPRA, while the remaining 38.3% were seronegative (SNRA). Altogether 55% of the patients had moderate disease activity, followed by 16.7% who had a remission, 15% had high disease activity and the remaining 13.3% had low disease activity. The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint was found to be the only joint that was significantly associated with DAS28 and its involvement was greater among seropositive patients. The most affected joints were found to be shoulders, knees, wrist, MCP, PIP and elbow, in that order.

Conclusion: Females, middle-age group and shoulder joint were the most affected. Most RA was found to be SPRA, and the seropositive group was found to be more associated with high disease activity, while the seronegative group was associated with remission and low disease activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OARRR.S339134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8643210PMC
November 2021

Systemic lupus erythematous as an unusual cause of intussusception in Sudanese woman: A case report.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Oct 8;9(10):e04939. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Clinical Medicine Medical and Cancer Research Institute Nyala Sudan.

Abdominal pain does have a wide differential diagnosis, however, gastrointestinal involvement is not unusual in SLE, and this report is to describe an unusual case of intussusception due to SLE in a Sudanese woman.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.4939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8499682PMC
October 2021

Recurrent Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report.

J Int Med Res 2020 Oct;48(10):300060520964348

Department of Medicine and Rheumatology, Omdurman Military Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic disease that affects many organs. A few patients with SLE develop Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), a life-threatening disease characterized by the appearance of a partial-thickness burn in the skin and mucous membranes. This report aims to increase awareness among clinicians about the relationship between SLE and SJS. An 18-year-old man was admitted to the rheumatology department of Omdurman Military Hospital with a skin rash that was preceded by symptoms of a short febrile illness. He had a maculopapular rash on his palms, soles, trunk, and mucous membranes. The patient had been diagnosed with SLE at 10 years of age and had had SJS three times since the diagnosis of SLE. Investigations to exclude other diagnoses were conducted, and a skin biopsy showed features consistent with early SJS. The patient received intravenous hydrocortisone, oral prednisolone, and oral acyclovir. The lesions resolved 3 weeks after treatment with acyclovir and he was discharged in good condition. A young patient with SLE and recurrent SJS with no immunodeficiency responded very well to the conventional SJS therapy after 3 weeks of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520964348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585900PMC
October 2020

injection corticosterone method for physiological and behavioral studies in chickens.

MethodsX 2020 11;7:100908. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of One Health, Medical and Cancer Research Institute, Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan.

The phenotype of organisms is not only influenced by genetic factors, but also by environmental factors that play a critical role in shaping their morphology, physiology, behavior and reproductive capacity. In avian species, maternal influences have aroused much attention after the discovery that avian eggs contain a variety of maternal derived steroid hormones. Precocial birds offer a useful animal model so as to solve the mother-offspring interference problem. By removing the maternal effect, scientists can evaluate the effect of glucocorticoid exposure during the embryonic development and its effects on later of phenotypic traits. However, the study of bird's aggressive behaviors using in ovo injection of hormone has not been reported. We used in ovo injection of corticosterone to study aggressive and fearfulness behaviors in chicken in their life later.•Fertilized chicken egg consider as pregnant mother•In ovo injection of corticosterone by pass mother-offspring interference problem•The method allow scientist to evaluate the influences of stress hormone on embryonic development and its later life consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2020.100908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243187PMC
May 2020

Potential of epigenetic events in human thyroid cancer.

Cancer Genet 2019 11 23;239:13-21. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Department of Cancer Research and Awareness, Medical and Cancer Research Institute, Nyala, Sudan.

Thyroid cancer remains the highest prevailing endocrine malignancy, and its incidence rate has progressively increased in the previous years. Above 95% of thyroid tumor are follicular cells types of carcinoma in which are considered invasive type of tumor. The pathogenesis and molecular mechanism of thyroid tumors are yet remains elucidated, in spite of activating RET, RAS and BRAF carcinogenesis have been well introduced. Nemours molecular alterations have been defined and have revealed promise for their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic capacity but still need further confirmation. Among different types of mechanisms, the current article reviews the importance of epigenetic modifications in thyroid cancer. Increasing data from previous reports demonstrate that acquired epigenetic abnormalities together with genetic changes plays an important role in alteration of gene expression patterns. Aberrant DNA methylation has been well known in the CpG regions and profile of microRNAs (mi-RNAs) expression also involved in cancer development. In addition, the gene expression through epigenetic control contribution to thyroid cancer is analyzed and it is semi considered in the clinic. However the epigenetic of the thyroid cancer is yet remains in its early stages, and it carries encouraging potential thyroid cancer detections in its early stages, assessment of prognosis and targeted cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2019.08.006DOI Listing
November 2019

Polyphenolic composition, enzyme inhibitory effects ex-vivo and in-vivo studies on two Brassicaceae of north-central Italy.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Nov 4;107:129-138. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Nyala, Sudan. Electronic address:

In this study, three different extracts (soxhlet, microwave and decoction) from two species of broccoli: Brassica oleracea L. convar. Italica botrytis (L.) Alef. var. cymosa Duch. (Broccolo Fiolaro) and Brassica oleracea acephala L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L. (Cavolo Nero), which are commonly spread in north-central Italy, were tested for their enzyme inhibitory effects. Enzyme inhibitory effects were investigated against cholinesterases, tyrosinase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The soxhlet extracts had the highest inhibitory AChE effects with 1.08 mgGALAE/g (in Cavolo Nero) and 0.90 mgGALAE/g (in Broccolo Fiolaro). The significant tyrosinase inhibitory effect was observed in the soxhlet extract of Cavolo Nero with 11.93 mgKAE/g. In addition, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of Broccolo Fiolaro and Cavolo Nero on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bladder, kidney and liver specimens, ex vivo. We observed a significant reduction of both nitrite and malondialdehyde (MDA) following treatment that indicates a significant inhibitory effect on oxidative/nitrosative stress and lipoperoxidation, respectively. Additionally, the blunting effect induced by extracts on LPS-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity further support a protective effect by both Broccolo Fiolaro and Cavolo Nero in bladder, kidney and liver. HPLC analysis revealed that catechin, epicatechin, vanillic and 3-hydroxy benzoic acids were the major components. The phenolic components may contribute to the observed enzyme inhibitory effects. in vivo tests also demonstrated that the extracts decreased the biochemical parameters in diabetic rats. Particularly, we observed the reduction of plasma glucose levels, urea and total cholesterol following oral administration, with the higher inhibitory effects exerted by Broccolo Fiolaro compared to Cavolo Nero. Overall, our results could provide new insights on the use of these Broccoli species not only as foods but also as functional and nutraceutical supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.07.169DOI Listing
November 2018

Gum Arabic extracts protect against hepatic oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

Pathophysiology 2015 Dec 24;22(4):189-94. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China.

Gum Arabic (GA) from Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal is a branched-chain polysaccharide which has strong antioxidant properties, and has been used to reduce the experimental toxicity. Yet, the effects of GA on oxidative stress in type I diabetic rats have not been reported. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of GA on oxidative stress in Alloxan induced diabetes in rats. The rats were divided into 3 groups (n=20 of each): control group, diabetic group injected with allaoxan, and diabetic group given 15% GA in drinking water for 8 weeks. Oxidative damage to liver tissue was evaluated by measurement of key hepatic enzymes, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and expression of oxidative stress genes. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in GA group compared to diabetic and control groups. Treatment of GA decreased liver malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased glutathione (GSH). In addition, GA was significantly (P<0.05) reduced the activities of key liver enzymes, including alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). SOD, GPx and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA were significantly increased in GA group compared to control and diabetic groups. Liver of all diabetic rats showed marked degeneration whereas slight degeneration was observed in GA treated rats compared to control. The results suggest that GA may protect liver by modulating the expression of oxidative stress genes, and thus can improve antioxidant status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2015.08.002DOI Listing
December 2015

Corticosterone in ovo modifies aggressive behaviors and reproductive performances through alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the chicken.

Anim Reprod Sci 2014 May 28;146(3-4):193-201. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address:

Exposure to excess glucocorticoids during embryonic development affects offspring reproduction and suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in mammals. However, whether corticosterone (CORT) causes similar effects in the chicken remains unclear. In the present study, we injected low (0.2μg) and high (1μg) doses of CORT in ovo before incubation and detected changes in aggressive behavior, tonic immobility (TI), reproductive performances, and HPG axis gene expression in posthatch chickens of different ages. High dose of CORT suppressed growth rate from 3 weeks of age, increased the frequency of aggressive behaviors, which was associated with elevated plasma CORT concentration. High-dose CORT significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated arginine vasotocin (AVT), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1), while significantly (P<0.05) up-regulated gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and 11β-HSD1 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20-HSD) mRNA levels were not affected by CORT treatment. High-dose CORT significantly (P<0.05) reduced egg production and egg quality, which was associated with decreased ovary and oviduct weight. Moreover, CORT exposure significantly decreased (P<0.05) luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor mRNA abundance in theca cells of ovarian follicles 1 (F1), F2 and F3. In addition, yolk CORT concentration was significantly higher in eggs laid by hens prenatally exposed to high-dose CORT. Our findings suggest that in ovo administration of CORT programs the aggressive behaviors and reproductive functions in the chicken through alterations of HPG axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2014.02.013DOI Listing
May 2014

Embryonic exposure to corticosterone modifies aggressive behavior through alterations of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and the serotonergic system in the chicken.

Horm Behav 2014 Feb 12;65(2):97-105. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address:

Exposure to excess glucocorticoids (GCs) during embryonic development influences offspring phenotypes and behaviors and induces epigenetic modifications of the genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and in the serotonergic system in mammals. Whether prenatal corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes similar effects in avian species is less clear. In this study, we injected low (0.2μg) and high (1μg) doses of CORT into developing embryos on day 11 of incubation (E11) and tested the changes in aggressive behavior and hypothalamic gene expression on posthatch chickens of different ages. In ovo administration of high dose CORT significantly suppressed the growth rate from 3weeks of age and increased the frequency of aggressive behaviors, and the dosage was associated with elevated plasma CORT concentrations and significantly downregulated hypothalamic expression of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). The hypothalamic content of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein was significantly decreased in the high dose group (p<0.05), whereas no changes were observed for GR mRNA. High dose CORT exposure significantly increased platelet serotonin (5-HT) uptake, decreased whole blood 5-HT concentration (p<0.05), downregulated hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) mRNA and upregulated 5-HT receptor 1A (5-HTR1A) and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) mRNA, but not monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). High dose CORT also significantly increased DNA methylation of the hypothalamic GR and CRH gene promoters (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that embryonic exposure to CORT programs aggressive behavior in the chicken through alterations of the HPA axis and the serotonergic system, which may involve modifications in DNA methylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2013.12.002DOI Listing
February 2014

Breed-dependent transcriptional regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, cytosolic form, expression in the liver of broiler chickens.

Poult Sci 2013 Oct;92(10):2737-44

Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P.R. China.

Hepatic gluconeogenesis is the main source of glucose during chicken embryonic development, and it plays a major role in glucose homeostasis for developing embryos. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of gluconeogenesis, yet how hepatic PEPCK expression is differentially regulated between chicken breeds remains elusive. In this study, fertile eggs from a slow-growing Chinese Yellow Feathered Chicken and a fast-growing White Recessive Rock Chicken were incubated under the same standard conditions, and serum and liver samples were collected on embryonic d 18 (18E). The fast-growing breed had a significantly higher fetal weight (P < 0.01) and serum glucose concentration (P < 0.05) compared with the slow-growing breed. The fast-growing breed also had significantly higher hepatic mRNA expression levels of the cystolic form of PEPCK (PEPCK-c; P < 0.05) and significantly higher hepatic mRNA and protein expression levels of cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB-1; P < 0.05). Moreover, the binding of phosphorylated CREB-1 to the PEPCK-c promoter tended to be higher in the fast-growing breed (P = 0.08). Breed-specific epigenetic modifications of the PEPCK-c promoter were also observed; the fast-growing breed demonstrated lower CpG methylation (P < 0.05) and histone H3 (P < 0.05) levels but more histone H3 acetylation (H3ac) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3; P < 0.05) compared with the slow-growing breed. Our results suggest that hepatic PEPCK-c expression is transcriptionally regulated in a breed-specific manner and that fast- and slow-growing broiler chicken fetuses exhibit different epigenetic modifications on their PEPCK-c promoter regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03189DOI Listing
October 2013

Differences in egg deposition of corticosterone and embryonic expression of corticosterone metabolic enzymes between slow and fast growing broiler chickens.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2013 Jan 14;164(1):200-6. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are vital for embryonic development and their bioactivity is regulated by the intracellular metabolism involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSDs) and 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20-HSD). Here we sought to reveal the differences in egg deposition of corticosterone and embryonic expression of corticosterone metabolic enzymes between slow and fast growing broiler chickens (Gallus gallus). Eggs of fast-growing breed contained significantly higher (P<0.05) corticosterone in the yolk and albumen, compared with that of a slow-growing breed. 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 were expressed in relatively higher abundance in the liver, kidney and intestine, following similar tissue-specific ontogenic patterns. In the liver, expression of both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 was upregulated (P<0.05) towards hatching, yet 20-HSD displayed distinct pattern showing a significant decrease (P<0.05) on posthatch day 1 (D1). Hepatic mRNA expression of 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 was significantly higher in fast-growing chicken embryos at all the embryonic stages investigated and so was the hepatic protein content on embryonic day of 14 (E14) for 11β-HSD1 and on E14 and D1 for 11β-HSD2. 20-HSD mRNA was higher in fast-growing chicken embryos only on E14. Our data provide the first evidence that egg deposition of corticosterone, as well as the hepatic expression of glucocorticoid metabolic enzymes, differs between fast-growing and slow-growing chickens, which may account, to some extent, for the breed disparities in embryonic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2012.09.004DOI Listing
January 2013
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