Publications by authors named "Abd Elkhalek Hamed"

7 Publications

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Arabic Association for the Study of Diabetes and Metabolism (AASD) endorsing the MAFLD definition of fatty liver disease.

J Hepatol 2021 Dec 4. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Arabic Association for the Study of Diabetes and Metabolism, Cairo, Egypt; Department of Internal Medicine, Hepatology, and Diabetes, Egyptian Military Medical Academy, Cairo, Egypt.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2021.11.027DOI Listing
December 2021

Nomenclature and definition of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease: a consensus from the Middle East and north Africa.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 01 9;6(1):57-64. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Egyptian Liver Research Institute and Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt; Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt.

With the increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease associated with metabolic dysfunction is a global health problem, especially because it is one of the earliest consequences of obesity and it precedes diabetes development. Fatty liver disease associated with metabolic dysfunction is of particular concern in the Middle East and north Africa, where its prevalence is greater than that in the rest of the world. Despite the magnitude of the problem, no regional guidelines have been developed to address this disease. This Review describes suggestions of redefining fatty liver disease associated with metabolic dysfunction, including its terminology and criteria for diagnosis. Experts have raised serious concerns on the current nomenclature, which labels the disease as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and its diagnostic criteria. The panel reached a consensus that the disease should be renamed as metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and that the disease should be diagnosed by positive criteria. The aim is now to work with authorities across the region to implement these proposed changes and reflect them in health-care policy and to improve health care for patients in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30213-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Redefining fatty liver disease: an international patient perspective.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 01 5;6(1):73-79. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Storr Liver Centre, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead Hospital and University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Despite its increased recognition as a major health threat, fatty liver disease associated with metabolic dysfunction remains largely underdiagnosed and undertreated. An international consensus panel has called for the disease to be renamed from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and has suggested how the disease should be diagnosed. This Viewpoint explores the call from the perspective of patient advocacy groups. Patients are well aware of the negative consequences of the NAFLD acronym. This advocacy group enthusiastically endorses the call to reframe the disease, which we believe will ultimately have a positive effect on patient care and quality of life and, through this effect, will reduce the burden on health-care systems. For patients, policy makers, health planners, donors, and non-hepatologists, the new acronym MAFLD is clear, squarely placing the disease as a manifestation of metabolic dysfunction and improving understanding at a public health and patient level. The authors from representative patient groups are supportive of this change, particularly as the new acronym is meaningful to all citizens as well as governments and policy makers, and, above all, is devoid of any stigma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30294-6DOI Listing
January 2021

Diabetes Association with Liver Diseases: An Overview for Clinicians.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2019 ;19(3):274-280

Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: There is a strong association between liver diseases and diabetes (DM) which is higher than expected by a correlation between two very common diseases. Liver diseases may occur as a result of diabetes, and the reverse is true as well.

Aim: To review the etiology of this association between liver diseases and diabetes and how to diagnose it.

Methods: Studies that identified this association between liver diseases and diabetes and how to diagnose it was reviewed.

Results: This association can be divided into the following categories: liver disease related to diabetes (Diabetic hepatopathy), hepatogenous diabetes (HD), and liver diseases that occur in conjunction with Diabetes mellitus. Two hours after glucose loading is the best screening test for HD. HbA1c may neither be suitable for diagnosis nor monitoring of diabetes that links liver disease.

Conclusion: NAFLD, hepatogenous diabetes, glycogenic hepatopathy and diabetic hepatosclerosis are the most important association between liver diseases and diabetes. The criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes associating liver disease are the same for primary diabetes. Two hours post glucose load is the best screening test for HD due to the fact that fasting glucose can be normal early in the disease. The tool used for diabetes monitoring depends on stage and severity of liver condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530318666181116111945DOI Listing
August 2019

Managing diabetes and liver disease association.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2018 Dec 9;19(4):166-179. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Kasr Al Aini, Egypt.

There is strong association between liver diseases and diabetes (DM) which is higher than expected by a chance association of two very common disorders. It can be classified into three categories: Liver disease related to diabetes, hepatogenous diabetes (HD), and liver disease occurring coincidentally with DM. The criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes associating liver disease are the same for primary diabetes. Two hours post glucose load is a better screening test for HD. HbA1c may not be suitable for diagnosis or monitoring of diabetes associating advanced liver disease. Apart from the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 DM (T2 DM) and NAFLD, the cardiovascular and retinopathy risk is low in HD. Patients with metabolic derangement should be screened for NAFLD which in turn may predict T2 DM development. Similarly, patients with established T2 DM should also be screened for NAFLD which further contributes to diabetes worsening. Diabetes is a significant risk factor for progression of the chronic liver disease. It is associated with poor patient survival. Treatment of diabetes associating liver disease appears beneficial. Metformin, if tolerated and not contraindicated, is recommended as a first-line therapy for patients with diabetes and chronic liver disease (CLD). If the hepatic disease is severe, insulin secretagogues should be avoided because of the increased risk of hypoglycaemia. Pioglitazone may be useful in patients with fatty liver disease. DPP-4 inhibitors showed effectiveness and safety for the treatment of T2 DM in CLD patients up to those with child B stage. GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors exhibit positive effects on weight and are associated with minimal risk of hypoglycaemia. Insulin must be used with caution, as hypoglycaemia may be a problem. Insulin analogues are preferred in the context of hypoglycaemia Statins can be used to treat dyslipidaemia in NAFLD, also the use of angiotensin II receptor antagonist for hypertension is safe and beneficial Given the clear association between diabetes mellitus and hepatocellular carcinoma, the strict control of glycaemia with insulin sensitizers can be essential in its prevention. The addition of DM to the currently used scores (Child-Pugh and MELD scores) may enhance the sensitivity and the specificity for prediction of morbidity and mortality rates in cirrhotic patients. In the new era of directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for HCV treatment, it is recommended to follow up lipid profile and blood sugar levels following SVR in order to adjust doses of medications used in diabetic (SVR is associated with reduction in insulin requirements) and dyslipidaemic patients (rebound increase in the lipid profile after clearing the virus may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)). The issues of post liver transplant diabetes and relation between DM and chronic HBV are highlighted. This narrative review and Consensus-based practice guidance (under revision and criticism) are based on a formal review and analysis of the recently published world literature on the topic (Medline search up to September 2017); and the experience of the authors and independent reviewers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2018.08.003DOI Listing
December 2018

The association between diabetes and liver disease: the need for a consensus.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2014 Sep-Dec;15(3-4):166-8. Epub 2014 Oct 22.

Egyptian Military Medical Academy - Internal Medicine Department, Hepatology and Diabetes, Egypt. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajg.2014.09.002DOI Listing
January 2016
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