Publications by authors named "Abd El-Fatah Abomohra"

33 Publications

A novel bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzing reduction of acetyl-CoA to ethanol at temperatures up to 95 °C.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):1050. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Biofuels Institute, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, China.

Hyperthermophilic Thermotoga spp. are excellent candidates for the biosynthesis of cellulosic ethanol producing strains because they can grow optimally at 80 °C with ability to degrade and utilize cellulosic biomass. In T. neapolitana (Tne), a putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase was, for the first time, revealed to be a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (Fe-AAdh) that catalyzed both reactions from acetyl-coenzyme A (ac-CoA) to acetaldehyde (ac-ald), and from ac-ald to ethanol, while the putative aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh) exhibited only CoA-independent activity that oxidizes ac-ald to acetic acid. The biochemical properties of Fe-AAdh were characterized, and bioinformatics were analyzed. Fe-AAdh exhibited the highest activities for the reductions of ac-CoA and acetaldehyde at 80-85 °C, pH 7.54, and had a 1-h half-life at about 92 °C. The Fe-AAdh gene is highly conserved in Thermotoga spp., Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermococcus kodakarensis, indicating the existence of a fermentation pathway from ac-CoA to ethanol via acetaldehyde as the intermediate in hyperthermophiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80159-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806712PMC
January 2021

Enhancement of biodiesel yield and characteristics through in-situ solvo-thermal co-transesterification of wet microalgae with spent coffee grounds.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Mar 31;323:124640. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

College of Overseas Education, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610065, China.

This study evaluated in-situ co-transesterification of wet spent coffee ground (SCG)/microalgae mixture for enhanced biodiesel production. SCG and microalgae showed lipid contents of 16.0 and 23.6 wt%, respectively. A total of 27 transesterification runs were performed using wet SCG:algae (1:1, w/w) at different temperatures, times, and solvent ratios. Box-Behnken quadratic model suggested 198 °C, 6 mL solvent g biomass, and reaction time of 132 min as the optimum conditions for maximum biodiesel yield. At different SCG/microalgae blend ratios, pure microalgae showed the highest biodiesel yield of 20.15 wt%. Increase of SCG ratio resulted in significant reduction in the biodiesel yield, reaching the lowest value of 11.2 wt% using pure SCG. On the other hand, SCG showed better biodiesel characteristics than microalgae regarding iodine value, cetane number, and oxidation stability. The present results confirmed that SCG-algae blend results in dual effect of enhancing biodiesel yield and quality, comparing to the individual transesterification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124640DOI Listing
March 2021

A close-loop integrated approach for microalgae cultivation and efficient utilization of agar-free seaweed residues for enhanced biofuel recovery.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Dec 17;317:124027. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Biological Sciences Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh 21911, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of this work was to evaluate a novel integrated biorefinery route for enhanced energy recovery from seaweeds and microalgae. Agar extraction prior to anaerobic digestion recorded the highest biogas productivity of 32.57 L kg VS d. Supplementation of the microalgal growth medium with anaerobic digestate from agar-extracted biomass enhanced the microalgal growth, recording the highest dry weight of 4.57 g L at 20% digestate ratio. In addition, lipid content showed the highest value of 25.8 %dw. Due to enhancement of growth and lipid content, 20% digestate ratio showed the highest lipid productivity and FAMEs recovery (65.2 mg L d and 123.3 mg gdw, respectively), with enhanced biodiesel characteristics. The present study estimated annual revenue of 1252.7 US$ ton from the whole Gracilaria multipartita biomass conversion into biogas, while that through agar extraction deserved 36087.0 US$ ton, with enhanced annual biodiesel yield by 69.7% over the control medium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124027DOI Listing
December 2020

Study on the co-operative effect of kitchen wastewater for harvest and enhanced pyrolysis of microalgae.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Dec 9;317:123983. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, China; Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt.

Microalgae biofuels have received extensive attention as a new generation of renewable energy. However, the cost of cultivation and harvest limits the large-scale use of microalgae. An innovative method for harvesting microalgae through flocculation using kitchen wastewater (KWW) and further co-pyrolysis to enhance the crude bio-oil production was proposed. Flocculation efficiency of KWW for Scenedesmus obliquus showed the highest value of 94.09%. Compared with centrifugation and chemical flocculation (CF), the thermogravimetric curve of the sample after KWW flocculation showed different pattern. In addition, bio-oil yield of microalgae harvested through KWW flocculation was also the highest among the three studied harvest methods, reaching 55.59%. Gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of bio-oil showed that addition of KWW could promote the production of esters and hydrocarbons in comparison to the microalgae harvested by centrifugation or CF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123983DOI Listing
December 2020

Screening of seaweeds for sustainable biofuel recovery through sequential biodiesel and bioethanol production.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Sep 6;27(26):32481-32493. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, 31527, Egypt.

The present study evaluated the sequential biodiesel-bioethanol production from seaweeds. A total of 22 macroalgal species were collected at different seasons and screened based on lipid and carbohydrate contents as well as biomass production. The promising species was selected, based on the relative increase in energy compounds (REEC, %), for further energy conversion. Seasonal and annual biomass yields of the studied species showed significant variations. The rhodophyte Amphiroa compressa and the chlorophyte Ulva intestinalis showed the highest annual biomass yield of 75.2 and 61.5 g m year, respectively. However, the highest annual carbohydrate productivity (ACP) and annual lipid productivity (ALP) were recorded for Ulva fasciata and Ulva intestinalis (17.0 and 3.0 g m year, respectively). The later was selected for further studies because it showed 14.8% higher REEC value than Ulva fasciata. Saturated fatty acids (SAFs) showed 73.4%, with palmitic acid as a dominant fatty acid (43.8%). Therefore, biodiesel showed high saturation degree, with average degree of unsaturation (ADU) of 0.508. All the measured biodiesel characteristics complied the international standards. The first route of biodiesel production (R1) from Ulva intestinalis showed biodiesel recovery of 32.3 mg g dw. The hydrolysate obtained after saccharification of the whole biomass (R2) and lipid-free biomass (R3) contained 1.22 and 1.15 g L, respectively, reducing sugars. However, bioethanol yield from R3 was 0.081 g g dw, which represented 14.1% higher than that of R2. Therefore, application of sequential biofuel production using R3 resulted in gross energy output of 3.44 GJ ton dw, which was 170.9% and 82.0% higher than R1 and R2, respectively. The present study recommended the naturally-grown Ulva intestinalis as a potential feedstock for enhanced energy recovery through sequential biodiesel-bioethanol production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09534-1DOI Listing
September 2020

Evaluation of animal- and plant-based lipidic waste in anaerobic digestion: kinetics of long-chain fatty acids degradation.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2020 Sep 22;40(6):733-749. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China.

Recently, lipidic wastes have been reported to enhance biomethane production through anaerobic co-digestion (ACD). These lipidic wastes were of animal and plant origins. The comparison of animal and plant lipidic wastes with the microbial communities involved in lipid degradation have not been given adequate attention in pervious reviews. However, there is need to demonstrate the differences between these wastes in terms of their long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) composition, nature, and availability. This review discusses the characterization and comparison of animal and plant lipidic wastes as co-substrates, while summarizing the potential of biomethane production in the laboratory, as well as pilot and full-scale operations. The degradation kinetics of LCFAs existing in animal and plant lipidic wastes were also highlighted during the operation process, along with the challenges (such as inhibition by LCFAs, sludge washout, sludge flotation, and foaming). Discussion on the use of the next gene sequencing (NGS) for the microbial community in the ACD of lipidic wastes was considered to understand the interspecies interactions among various microbes. The economic feasibility of lipidic wastes in the ACD along with biogas yield has also been evaluated. The use of lipids (animal and plant based) in anaerobic digestion with the application of combined pretreatment or an acclimatized microbial consortium could be a potential approach for maximum energy recovery from the waste in terms of biomethane production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07388551.2020.1756215DOI Listing
September 2020

Tibet plateau probiotic mitigates chromate toxicity in mice by alleviating oxidative stress in gut microbiota.

Commun Biol 2020 05 15;3(1):242. Epub 2020 May 15.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, P. R. China.

Heavy metal contamination in food endangers human health. Probiotics can protect animals and human against heavy metals, but the detoxification mechanism has not been fully clarified. Here, mice were supplemented with Pediococcus acidilactici strain BT36 isolated from Tibetan plateau yogurt, with strong antioxidant activity but no chromate reduction ability for 20 days to ensure gut colonization. Strain BT36 decreased chromate accumulation, reduced oxidative stress, and attenuated histological damage in the liver of mice. 16S rRNA and metatranscriptome sequencing analysis of fecal microbiota showed that BT36 reversed Cr(VI)-induced changes in gut microbial composition and metabolic activity. Specifically, BT36 recovered the expressions of 788 genes, including 34 inherent Cr remediation-relevant genes. Functional analysis of 10 unannotated genes regulated by BT36 suggested the existence of a new Cr(VI)-reduction gene in the gut microbiota. Thus, BT36 can modulate the gut microbiota in response to Cr(VI) induced oxidative stress and protect against Cr toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-0968-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229148PMC
May 2020

Enhancement of biodiesel yield from a halophilic green microalga isolated under extreme hypersaline conditions through stepwise salinity adaptation strategy.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Aug 29;310:123462. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, China.

In the present study, a halophilic microalgal species was isolated from a hypersaline lagoon with salinity average of 45.3‰ and identified as Dunaliella salina KSA-HS022. It was further cultivated at a salinity range of 50-250‰, applied directly to batch cultures or through stepwise increase in a semi-continuous culture. The later showed the highest biomass productivity of 0.191 g L d at 125‰, which represented 45.8% higher than the corresponding batch culture (control). Oxidative markers in the control cultures were significantly higher than those of the adapted culture, confirming reduction of oxidative stress by adaptation. In addition, stepwise adaptation showed the highest lipid productivity of 56.5 mg L d at 150‰ (39.9% higher than the corresponding control), which resulted in the highest fatty acid methyl esters productivity. Moreover, stepwise increase of salinity up to 150‰ enhanced the biodiesel characteristics, offering a new route for enhanced biodiesel production at extraordinary salinity levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123462DOI Listing
August 2020

Enhancement of biogas production from rape straw using different co-pretreatment techniques and anaerobic co-digestion with cattle manure.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Aug 6;309:123311. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Shizishan Street, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, PR China; Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment in Mid-lower Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

The present study investigated the possibility of valorizing rape straw through anaerobic digestion and the possibility of improving biomethane yield by pretreatment with HSO, combined HSO with steam explosion (SE) and SE combined with superfine grinding (SFG). To evaluate the pretreatment method efficiency, several analytical techniques were applied. Additionally, the performance of co-digesting of cattle manure (CM) with pretreated rape straw (PRS) at different ratios was evaluated. The results showed that combined pretreatment could dissolve the lignocellulosic fiber structure, which positively stimulated methane yield. The highest cumulative CH yield (CMY) of 305.7 mLgVS was achieved by combined SE at 180 °C for 5 min with SFG, which was 77.84% higher than the untreated. The CMY was further improved by 11.4-59% higher than the control (CM) using co-digestion. This study confirmed that, under optimal parameters of AD, pretreatment with SEG180 could significantly boost the CMY from co-digestion of CM and PRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123311DOI Listing
August 2020

Biocomponent-based microalgal transformations into biofuels during the pretreatment and fermentation process.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Apr 15;302:122809. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Earth Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, South Korea. Electronic address:

Microalgal cell wall integrity and composition have a significant impact on the fermentation process and biofuel recovery. In this study, various biofuels (bioethanol, higher alcohols (C3-C5), and biodiesel) were produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates and proteins, and transesterification of lipids from three different microalgal strains (Pseudochlorella sp., Chlamydomonas mexicana, and Chlamydomonas pitschmannii), each possessing different proportions of bioconstituents (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids). Changes in the cell wall structure and thickness were observed before and after fermentation using transmission electron microscopy. Pseudochlorella sp. showed the highest yields of bioethanol (0.45 g-ethanol/g-carbohydrates), higher alcohols (0.44 g-higher alcohols/g-proteins), and biodiesel (0.55 g-biodiesel/g-lipids), which consequently revealed a maximum energy recovery (42%) from whole constituents. This study suggests that different physiological properties, including cell wall thickness and the proportion of bioconstituents in microalgae, could have a significant impact on the pretreatment and fermentation efficiencies for biofuels production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.122809DOI Listing
April 2020

Reducing residual antibiotic levels in animal feces using intestinal Escherichia coli with surface-displayed erythromycin esterase.

J Hazard Mater 2020 04 9;388:122032. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China. Electronic address:

Antibiotics are widely used in livestock and poultry industries, which results in large quantities of antibiotic residues in manure that influences subsequent treatments. In this study, an Escherichia coli strain was engineered to display erythromycin esterase on its cell surface. The engineered strain (E. coli ereA) efficiently degraded erythromycin by opening the macrocyclic 14-membered lactone ring in solution. Erythromycin (50 mg/L) was completely degraded in a solution by E. coli ereA (1 × 10 CFU/mL) within 24 h. E. coli ereA retained over 86.7 % of the initial enzyme activity after 40 days of storage at 25 °C, and 78.5 % of the initial activity after seven repeated batch reactions in solution at 25 °C. Mice were fed with E. coli ereA and real-time quantitative PCR data showed that E. coli ereA colonized in the mice large intestine. The mice group fed E. coli ereA exhibited 83.13 % decrease in erythromycin levels in their feces compared with the mice group not fed E. coli ereA. E. coli ereA eliminated antibiotics from the source preventing its release into the environment. The surface-engineered strain therefore is an effective alternative agent for treating recalcitrant antibiotics, and has the potential to be applied in livestock and poultry industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122032DOI Listing
April 2020

Influence of nutrient supplementation and starvation conditions on the biomass and lipid productivities of Micractinium reisseri grown in wastewater for biodiesel production.

J Environ Manage 2019 Nov 10;250:109529. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; Botany Department, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013, Zhenjiang, China.

Generation of biodiesel from microalgae grown in wastewater can offer a cost-effective approach, whilst wastewaters usually do not contain the optimum concentrations of the essential nutrients and carbon sources that result in lowering the productivities of biomass and lipid. This study aimed to overcome this limitation by manipulating wastewater with various concentrations of nutrients (NO, PO, Cl and SO) and three carbon sources either individually or in combination to cultivate Micractinium reisseri for biodiesel production. Initially, various dilutions of wastewater were tested and a concentration up to 75% of wastewater showed the highest biomass productivity (0.076 g L d) and lipid productivity (0.014 g L d). The optimum manipulating conditions for maximum lipid production and the highest productivity required 50% decrease in phosphorous from the concentration of the control medium and supplementation with 1.0 g L of glucose. Under this condition, biomass and lipid productivities increased by 1.7 and 4-folds, respectively, compared to those observed in the control. Furthermore, phosphorous starvation condition in the presence of glucose significantly improved fatty acid profile in the biomass and biodiesel quality related parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109529DOI Listing
November 2019

Sonochemical assisted fabrication of 3D hierarchical porous carbon for high-performance symmetric supercapacitor.

Ultrason Sonochem 2019 Nov 30;58:104617. Epub 2019 May 30.

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China; Key Laboratory of Zhenjiang, Institute for Energy Research, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China. Electronic address:

A scalable fabrication of 3D hierarchical porous carbon structure (3D-HPC) has been achieved via a simple sonochemical route at different pyrolysis temperatures. It is worth noting that all the 3D-HPC samples possess oxygen-functional groups after activation by KOH and self-doped by nitrogen, which are beneficial to improving their surface wettability as well as increasing the electro-active surface area between the electrode and the surrounding electrolyte, consequently enhancing their electrochemical performance. Remarkably, the resulting carbon sample pyrolyzed at 850 °C (AC-850) possesses a maximum doping level of 2.75 at% and a high surface area of 1376.19 m g, which exhibits high electrochemical performance with high capacitance up to 269.19 F g at a current density of 2 A g. Moreover remarkably, the AC-850-based symmetric supercapacitor delivers a high energy density of 21.4 Wh kg at a power density of 531.2 W kg with excellent rate performance and superior cycling stability (94.7% retention over 5000 cycles). The present approach is very suitable for large scale production of high-quality porous carbon materials at low cost, which can be used in different aspects, such as energy storage, gas storage, environmental remediation, and so on.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.104617DOI Listing
November 2019

Biomass briquetting reduces the energy loss during long-term ensiling and enhances anaerobic digestion: A case study on rice straw.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Nov 27;292:121912. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

New Energy Department, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Jiangsu, China; Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta, Egypt.

The present study evaluated the impact of briquetting prior to ensiling on rice straw characteristics and anaerobic digestion performance. Ensiling for 10 months significantly reduced cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin of the uncompressed straw by 50.3%, 61.6% and 34.6%, respectively. However, increase of briquetting ratio enhanced the cellulose and hemicellulose contents at different ensiling times. In addition, increasing of ensiling time significantly reduced the biogas yield, while the highest cumulative biogas yield of 313.8 L kg VS was obtained from rice straw ensiled for 7 days at 1:6 briquetting ratio. Interestingly, the maximum biogas productivity of 1:6 briquetted straw after 10 months ensiling was 17.7% higher than that of the uncompressed straw ensiled for 7 days. Thus, briquetting prior to ensiling is a favorable approach to reduce the mass loss for enhanced biogas yield and energy recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121912DOI Listing
November 2019

Night illumination using monochromatic light-emitting diodes for enhanced microalgal growth and biodiesel production.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Sep 19;288:121514. Epub 2019 May 19.

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Jiangsu, China.

The present study investigated the effect of monochromatic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the growth and biodiesel yield of the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Different LEDs were applied individually or in combination during the night period. Among different individual treatments, red and blue illumination showed the highest biomass and lipid productivity due to stimulation of pigmentation and photosystem II, respectively. Microalgal growth, lipid production and biodiesel recovery significantly increased under combined blue-red illumination. In addition, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids proportions increased in favor of polyunsaturated ones. Moreover, blue-red LEDs enhanced the net biodiesel energy output over the control. The total increase in net energy output represented 5.1, 3.8 and 10.8 MJ using red, blue and blue-red light, respectively. In conclusion, application of blue-red LEDs during the night period is an economical technology for microalgae cultivation, which might have a potential impact on the future of commercial biodiesel production from microalgae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121514DOI Listing
September 2019

Microalgae harvest influences the energy recovery: A case study on chemical flocculation of Scenedesmus obliquus for biodiesel and crude bio-oil production.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Aug 23;286:121371. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Jiangsu, China.

In the present study, centrifugation was used as a standard harvest method, while chemical flocculation was comparatively used as a cost-effective harvest method for microalgae. Lipid recovery from the centrifuged cells was 17.4%, which significantly increased by flocculation to 20.7%. Although both harvest methods showed similar thermal decomposition patterns, flocculated biomass showed 15.7% higher bio-char formation than the centrifuged cells, which resulted in significant reduction in the bio-oil yield by 18.5%. The estimated energy output of bio-oil using centrifugation and flocculation were 0.87 and 0.68 GJ per ton, respectively. For biodiesel production, the energy output using centrifugation and flocculation were 0.177 and 0.211 GJ per ton, respectively. Due to the higher biodiesel yield, better bio-oil quality and lower energy consumption, flocculation was suggested by the present study as a superior method over centrifugation for microalgae harvest from the economic point of view.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121371DOI Listing
August 2019

Applications of Non-destructive Technologies for Agricultural and Food Products Quality Inspection.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 18;19(4). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

New Energy Department, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

The quality and safety of food is an increasing concern for worldwide business. Non-destructive methods (NDM), as a means of assessment and instrumentation have created an esteemed value in sciences, especially in food industries. Currently, NDM are useful because they allow the simultaneous measurement of chemical and physical data from food without destruction of the substance. Additionally, NDM can obtain both quantitative and qualitative data at the same time without separate analyses. Recently, many studies on non-destructive detection measurements of agro-food products and final quality assessment of foods were reported. As a general statement, the future of using NDM for assessing the quality of food and agricultural products is bright; and it is possible to come up with interesting findings through development of more efficient and precise imaging systems like the machine vision technique. The present review aims to discuss the application of different non-destructive methods (NDM) for food quality and safety evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19040846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413199PMC
February 2019

Evaluation of Chlorella sorokiniana isolated from local municipal wastewater for dual application in nutrient removal and biodiesel production.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2019 Mar 21;42(3):425-433. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Drinking and Wastewater Company, Benha, Qalubia, Egypt.

The isolated microalga Chlorella sorokiniana BENHA721_ABO4 was grown in Bold's basal medium (BBM) as a control, municipal wastewater (WW), and wastewater enriched with BBM elements (WW+). Cultivation in WW+ showed the highest cell number which represented 25.3 and 47.3% over that grown in WW and BBM, respectively. However, rapid growth in WW+ was accompanied by significant reduction in lipid content. Due to lipid accumulation in WW, it showed the maximum significant lipid productivity of 16.2 mg L day. Microalgae cultivation in WW for 10 days showed 74.2, 83.3, and 78.0% removal efficiency for NO-N, NH-N and TP, respectively. In addition, growth in WW significantly reduced polyunsaturated fatty acids by 36.0% with respect to BBM in favor of monounsaturated fatty acids. The present results confirmed that C. sorokiniana isolate BENHA721_ABO4 grown in secondary effluent municipal wastewater offers real potential for future application in wastewater treatment and biodiesel production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-018-2046-5DOI Listing
March 2019

Biorefining of rice straw by sequential fermentation and anaerobic digestion for bioethanol and/or biomethane production: Comparison of structural properties and energy output.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Nov 29;268:183-189. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan, China.

Three routes; namely R1 representing direct anaerobic digestion (AD), R2 representing enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation, distillation, then AD, and R3 representing AD of fermentation broth without distillation; of alkali pretreated rice straw were investigated. Results showed that sequential fermentation and AD effectively enhanced fibers degradation with significant changes in the composition. Fermentation through R2 resulted in ethanol yield of 87.4 g kg dry straw. Maximum biogas yields of 286.9, 233.3 and 372.4 L kg VS were recorded by AD for R1, R2 and R3 after reaching the steady state at 36, 24 and 33 days, respectively. However, biogas produced through R3 showed the highest significant biomethane content (79.3%) which represented 15 and 8% higher than that of R1 and R2, respectively. Therefore, the highest bioenergy output and energy conversion efficiency of 10.58 GJ ton and 75.6%, respectively, were obtained through R3 demonstrating the positive effect of fermentation prior to AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.07.130DOI Listing
November 2018

Enhancement of Spirulina biomass production and cadmium biosorption using combined static magnetic field.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Oct 6;265:163-169. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta, Egypt; College of Life Science, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

The effect of static magnetic field (SMF) on Spirulina platensis growth and its influence on cadmium ions (Cd) removal efficiency were studied. Application of 6 h day SMF resulted in the highest significant biomass productivity of 0.198 g L day. However, 10 and 15 mg L of Cd resulted in significant reduction in biomass productivity by 8.8 and 12.5%, respectively, below the control. Combined SMF showed 30.1% significant increase in biomass productivity over the control. On the other hand, increase of initial Cd concentration resulted in significant reduction of Cd removal efficiency, representing 79.7% and 61.5% at 10 and 15 mg L, respectively, after 16 days. Interestingly, application of SMF for 6 h day enhanced Cd removal efficiency counted by 91.4% and 82.3% after 20 days for cultures with initial Cd concentration of 10 and 15 mg L, representing increase by 6.3 and 25.3%, respectively, over the SMF-untreated cultures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.06.009DOI Listing
October 2018

A comparative study on the quality of bio-oil derived from green macroalga Enteromorpha clathrata over metal modified ZSM-5 catalysts.

Bioresour Technol 2018 May 7;256:446-455. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300, China.

The green macroalga Enteromorpha clathrata was pyrolyzed with or without catalysts at the temperature of 550 °C for producing high-quality bio-oil. The ZSM-5 and 1,2,3 mmol Mg-Ce/ZSM-5 catalysts were introduced to investigate the yields and components distribution of bio-oil. Increase of bio-oil production was obtained with the use of ZSM-5 and 1,2,3 mmol Mg-Ce/ZSM-5 catalysts. The 1 mmol Mg-Ce/ZSM-5 catalyst exhibited more promising property for promoting the relative content of C-C compounds, and decreasing the relative content of acids in bio-oil. The results suggested that E. clathrata had potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for producing the high-quality bio-oil with large amounts of C-C compounds and low relative content of acids when the 1 mmol Mg-Ce/ZSM-5 catalyst was used. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of ZSM-5 and 1 mmol Mg-Ce/ZSM-5 catalysts were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.01.134DOI Listing
May 2018

Analysis of the Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Austrian and Belgian Wheat Germplasm within a Regional Context Based on DArT Markers.

Genes (Basel) 2018 Jan 22;9(1). Epub 2018 Jan 22.

UMR CNRS 8256 (B2A), Université Paris VI, 75005 Paris, France.

Analysis of crop genetic diversity and structure provides valuable information needed to broaden the narrow genetic base as well as to enhance the breeding and conservation strategies of crops. In this study, 95 Austrian and Belgian wheat cultivars maintained at the Centre for Genetic Resources (CGN) in the Netherlands were characterised using 1052 diversity array technology (DArT) markers to evaluate their genetic diversity, relationships and population structure. The rarefacted allelic richness recorded in the Austrian and Belgian breeding pools ( = 1.396 and 1.341, respectively) indicated that the Austrian germplasm contained a higher genetic diversity than the Belgian pool. The expected heterozygosity () values of the Austrian and Belgian pools were 0.411 and 0.375, respectively. Moreover, the values of the polymorphic information content (PIC) of the Austrian and Belgian pools were 0.337 and 0.298, respectively. Neighbour-joining tree divided each of the Austrian and Belgian germplasm pools into two genetically distinct groups. The structure analyses of the Austrian and Belgian pools were in a complete concordance with their neighbour-joining trees. Furthermore, the 95 cultivars were compared to 618 wheat genotypes from nine European countries based on a total of 141 common DArT markers in order to place the Austrian and Belgian wheat germplasm in a wider European context. The rarefacted allelic richness () varied from 1.224 (Denmark) to 1.397 (Austria). Cluster and principal coordinates (PCoA) analyses divided the wheat genotypes of the nine European countries into two main clusters. The first cluster comprised the Northern and Western European wheat genotypes, whereas the second included the Central European cultivars. The structure analysis of the 618 European wheat genotypes was in a complete concordance with the results of cluster and PCoA analyses. Interestingly, a highly significant difference was recorded between regions (26.53%). In conclusion, this is the first study to reveal the high diversity levels and structure of the uncharacterised Austrian and Belgian wheat germplasm maintained at the CGN as well as place them in a wider European context. The results should help plant breeders to utilise the most promising wheat genotypes of this study in future breeding programmes for enhancing wheat cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes9010047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5793198PMC
January 2018

Cloning and Functional Analysis of Phosphoethanolamine Methyltransferase Promoter from Maize (Zea mays L.).

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Jan 8;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Pakistan Science Foundation, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

Betaine, a non-toxic osmoprotectant, is believed to accumulate considerably in plants under stress conditions to maintain the osmotic pressure and promote a variety of processes involved in growth and development. Phosphoethanolamine -methyltransferase (PEAMT), a key enzyme for betaine synthesis, is reported to be regulated by its upstream promoter. In the present investigation, by using the transgenic approach, a 1048 bp long promoter region of gene from was cloned and functionally characterized in tobacco. Computational analysis affirmed the existence of abiotic stress responsive -elements like ABRE, MYC, HST, LST etc., as well as pathogen, wound and phytohormone responsive motifs. For transformation in tobacco, four 5'-deletion constructs of 826 bp (P2), 642 bp (P3), 428 bp (P4) and 245 bp (P5) were constructed from the 1048 bp (P1) promoter fragment. The transgenic plants generated through a single event exhibited a promising expression of GUS reporter protein in the leaf tissues of treated with salt, drought, oxidative and cold stress as well as control plants. The GUS expression level progressively reduced from P1 to P5 in the leaf tissues, whereas a maximal expression was observed with the P3 construct in the leaves of control plants. The expression of GUS was noted to be higher in the leaves of osmotically- or salt-treated transgenic plants than that in the untreated (control) plants. An effective expression of GUS in the transgenic plants manifests that this promoter can be employed for both stress-inducible and constitutive expression of gene(s). Due to this characteristic, this potential promoter can be effectively used for genetic engineering of several crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796140PMC
January 2018

Effect of lipid-free microalgal biomass and waste glycerol on growth and lipid production of Scenedesmus obliquus: Innovative waste recycling for extraordinary lipid production.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Feb 4;249:992-999. Epub 2017 Nov 4.

Department of Cell Biology and Phycology, University of Hamburg, Ohnhorststrasse 18, D-22609 Hamburg, Germany.

In the present work, a novel approach of using growth medium with different substitutions of lipid-free algal hydrolysate (LFAH, 0, 5, 10 and 15%) and/or waste glycerol (WG, 0, 5, 10 and 20 g L) for enhanced biodiesel production from Scenedesmus obliquus was studied. Combination of different concentrations of WG with 15% LFAH showed the maximum significant biomass productivity, which represented 27.4, 30.5 and 28.9% over the control at combined 5, 10 and 20 g L WG, respectively. The combinations of different LFAH with 20 g L WG showed the maximum significant lipid accumulation, where lipid productivity showed its maximum significant value of 59.66 mg L d using LFAH15-WG10. In addition, LFAH15-WG10 significantly enhanced total FAMEs yield by 21.2% over the control. Moreover, it reduced polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratio from 52.1% to 47.8% of total FAMEs, and increased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ratio from 26.6% to 31.3% of total FAMEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.10.102DOI Listing
February 2018

Potential of macroalgae for biodiesel production: Screening and evaluation studies.

J Biosci Bioeng 2018 Feb 13;125(2):231-237. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Biological Science Department, Science Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

Nowadays, biofuel production is a fast expanding industry and is facing a growing dilemma about a feedstock source capable of keeping up with demand. Recently, macroalgae have been attracting a wide attention as a source for biofuel. In the present study, ten macroalgae were collected and screened as biodiesel feedstocks. As a result of their high biomass production and relatively high lipid content, Ulva lactuca, Padina boryana and Ulva intestinalis showed the highest significant lipids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) areal productivities among the studied species. Saturated fatty acids (SAFs) showed insignificant differences in the selected species, with noticeably significant higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content in U. lactuca by 4.2 and 3 times, with respect to P. boryana and U. intestinalis, respectively. The recorded increase in PUFAs was attributed to higher content of C16:4n-3, C18:3n-3 and C18:4n-3. By lipid fractionation, P. boryana showed significant higher concentration of neutral lipids (37.7 mg g CDW, representing 46.7% of total fatty acids) in comparison to U. lactuca and U. intestinalis, which showed 16% and 17% lower neutral lipid fractions, respectively. In addition, biodiesel characteristics of the studied macroalgae complied with that of international standards. Furthermore, oil-free residual biomass can be readily converted into fermentable sugars or biogas due to its high carbohydrates content, which adds to the economics of macroalgae as biofuel feedstock. In conclusion, the present study confirmed that macroalgae represent an attractive alternative renewable feedstock for biodiesel and other biofuels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2017.08.020DOI Listing
February 2018

Effective bio-pretreatment of sawdust waste with a novel microbial consortium for enhanced biomethanation.

Bioresour Technol 2017 Aug 1;238:425-432. Epub 2017 Apr 1.

Biofuels Institute, School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang, China. Electronic address:

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is considered an efficient cost-effective technology for sustainable biogas production from lignocellulosic wastes. A novel lignocellulosic degradation microbial consortium (LCDC) was isolated from rotten sawdust, and further used for sawdust pretreatment prior to AD. Results showed that pretreatment of sawdust for 10days led to significant reduction in cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin contents by 37.5%, 39.6%, and 56.7%, respectively, with respect to the control. In addition, the pretreatment enhanced cumulative biogas yield, which reached its maximum value of 312.0LkgVS after 28days of AD (25.6% higher than the corresponding control). Moreover, the maximum significant cumulative methane yield was recorded after 28days of AD of the pretreated sawdust (155.2LkgVS), which represented 72.6% higher than the corresponding control. Significantly higher biomethane yield from sawdust pretreated with LCDC confirms that this process is more economical than the previous reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.03.187DOI Listing
August 2017

Macroalgal activity against multiple drug resistant Aeromonas hydrophila: A novel treatment study towards enhancement of fish growth performance.

Microb Pathog 2016 Dec 11;101:89-95. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, 32511 Sheben El-Kom, Egypt.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of macroalgal extracts as antibacterial agent against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria isolated from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as well as to enhance the fish growth performance by macroalgae diet application.

Methods: A total of 50 swabs were collected from the diseased organs of tilapia fish including gills, skin, spleen, intestine, liver, kidney and muscle. The isolated bacteria were identified and then confirmed by using VITEK 2. Eight macroalgal species were collected from Abu-Qir, Alexandria coast, Egypt. After determination of their biomass, three solvents were used to prepare algal extracts. The antibacterial activities of different macroalgal extracts were measured against MDR Aeromonas hydrophila 6 (MDRAH6) using well-diffusion method. The mechanism by which macroalgal extract affects MDR bacteria was conducted by using transmission electron microscope (TEM). To evaluate the safety of the promising algal extract, GC-MS was performed to detect the composition of S. vulgare extract. In addition, growth performance was measured as an application of algal extracts into fish feed.

Results: Between eight collected macroalgal species, Sargassum vulgare showed the highest biomass production (53.4 g m). In addition, its ethanolic extract showed the highest significant antibacterial activity with MIC value of 250 μg ml. TEM examination showed distinctive changes in the treated MDRAH6 cells including rupture of the cell wall, leakage of cytoplasmic contents, alterations in the cytoplasm density in addition to totally cell deformation. In addition, GC-MS analysis revealed eleven identified components in S. vulgare ethanolic extract, in which 9,12-octadecadienoyl chloride and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester were dominant (46.6 and 19.7 %, respectively). Furthermore, dietary replacement of fish meal with S. vulgare ethanolic extract significantly enhanced the growth performance and survival of Nile tilapia with a significant reduction in the total bacterial count.

Conclusion: Ethanol extract of the brown macroalga S. vulgare could be a promising antibacterial and a new active agent against MDR A. hydrophila, which could be a major causative agent of Nile tilapia fish diseases. In addition, this study recommended S. vulgare as a natural and effective source to enhance the growth performance of Nile tilapia. In fact, isolation and examination of the individual antibacterial active compounds of the S. vulgar ethanolic extract are under investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2016.10.026DOI Listing
December 2016

Enhancement of Lipid Production of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa Cultivated in Municipal Wastewater by Magnetic Treatment.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2016 Nov 4;180(6):1043-1055. Epub 2016 Jun 4.

Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, 518055, Shenzhen, China.

Despite the significant breakthroughs in research on microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel, its production cost is still much higher than that of fossil diesel. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to optimize algal growth and lipid production in wastewater. The present study examines the feasibility of using magnetic treatment for enhancement of algal lipid production and wastewater treatment in outdoor-cultivated Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Results confirmed that magnetic treatment significantly enhances biomass and lipid productivity of C. pyrenoidosa by 12 and 10 %, respectively. Application of magnetic field in a semi-continuous culture resulted in highly treated wastewater with total nitrogen maintained under 15 mg L, ammonia nitrogen below 5 mg L, total phosphorus less than 0.5 mg L, and COD less than 50 mg L. In addition, magnetic treatment resulted in a decrease of wastewater turbidity, an increase of bacterial numbers, and an increase of active oxygen in wastewater which might be attributed to the enhancement of growth and lipid production of C. pyrenoidosa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-016-2151-3DOI Listing
November 2016

Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2016 Jul 12;39(7):1073-9. Epub 2016 Mar 12.

Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Despite the significant breakthroughs in research on microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel, its production cost is still much higher than that of fossil diesel. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to optimize algal growth and lipid production in wastewater. The present study examines the optimization of pretreatment of municipal wastewater and aeration conditions in order to enhance the lipid productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus. Results showed that no significant differences were recorded in lipid productivity of S. obliquus grown in primary settled or sterilized municipal wastewater; however, ultrasound pretreatment of wastewater significantly decreased the lipid production. Whereas, aeration rates of 0.2 vvm significantly increased lipid content by 51 %, with respect to the non-aerated culture, which resulted in maximum lipid productivity (32.5 mg L(-1) day(-1)). Furthermore, aeration enrichment by 2 % CO2 resulted in increase of lipid productivity by 46 % over the CO2 non-enriched aerated culture. Fatty acid profile showed that optimized aeration significantly enhanced monounsaturated fatty acid production, composed mainly of C18:1, by 1.8 times over the non-aerated S. obliquus culture with insignificant changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion; suggesting better biodiesel characteristics for the optimized culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-016-1585-xDOI Listing
July 2016

Effect of static magnetic field on the oxygen production of Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in municipal wastewater.

Water Res 2015 Dec 23;86:132-8. Epub 2015 Jul 23.

Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen Graduate School, 518055 Shenzhen, China; Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta, Egypt.

Algal-bacterial symbiotic system, with biological synergism of physiological functions of both algae and bacteria, has been proposed for cultivation of microalgae in municipal wastewater for biomass production and wastewater treatment. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system can enhance dissolved oxygen production which enhances bacterial growth and catabolism of pollutants in wastewater. Therefore, the oxygen production efficiency of microalgae in algal-bacterial systems is considered as the key factor influencing the wastewater treatment efficiency. In the present study, we have proposed a novel approach which uses static magnetic field to enhance algal growth and oxygen production rate with low operational cost and non-toxic secondary pollution. The performance of oxygen production with the magnetic field was evaluated using Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater and was calculated based on the change in dissolved oxygen concentration. Results indicated that magnetic treatment stimulates both algal growth and oxygen production. Application of 1000 GS of magnetic field once at logarithmic growth phase for 0.5 h increased the chlorophyll-a content by 11.5% over the control after 6 days of growth. In addition, magnetization enhanced the oxygen production rate by 24.6% over the control. Results of the study confirmed that application of a proper magnetic field could reduce the energy consumption required for aeration during the degradation of organic matter in municipal wastewater in algal-bacterial symbiotic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.07.039DOI Listing
December 2015