Publications by authors named "Abbas Sedaghat"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Incidence of adverse reaction in blood donation: a systematic review.

Am J Blood Res 2020 15;10(5):145-150. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Medical Informatics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Mashhad, Iran.

There are a lot of reports related to adverse reactions post blood donation. The present study is designed to investigate the incidence of adverse reactions in blood donation around the world. This research was conducted through searching databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EmBase, Ovid, as well as the specialized journal of TRANSFUSION without any time limit by using the keywords including "Adverse Event", "Adverse Effect", "Adverse Reaction", "Complication", "Side Effect", "Vasovagal Reaction", "Local Reaction", "General Reaction", "Allergic Reaction", "Blood Donor", and "Blood Donation". In the initial search, 7054 documents were found, of which 2517 duplicates were excluded. After screening the remaining 4,537 documents, 97 one were reviewed for quality assessment, of which 30 with the appropriate quality were selected for the review process. The results of the study showed that the reactions caused by blood donation are very different. Most reactions were systemic, and ranged from 0.08 to 13 percent in different countries. The incidence of adverse reactions in blood donation differ across the countries which might be related to the donors' characteristics. The difference did even existed in studies conducted in the same country and the same year. This suggests that many factors can cause adverse reactions in blood donation, and that a wide range of them investigated in one study, most of which were systemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675132PMC
October 2020

Blood supply sufficiency and safety management in Iran during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Vox Sang 2021 Feb 30;116(2):175-180. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran.

Background: COVID-19 first appeared in Iran on 19 February 2020, and then spread rapidly over the country. In this article, we review the action plan of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization with respect to this disease.

Method And Materials: We collected data on blood donations and RBC inventory for the first 8 weeks of the outbreak. We also evaluated the trend of blood donations and RBC inventory and compared them with the data of the past year. We include a summary of actions taken by the National Committee on Management of COVID-19 outbreak.

Results: Blood donations decreased from 33 275 to 23 465 units during the first 2 weeks of the outbreak with a corresponding decrease in the RBC inventory. But after that, donations gradually increased from 23 465 to 29 665 units. RBC inventory levels improved at the same time. Then, the Iranian New Year's holiday resulted in another downward trend. After the holiday, blood donations revived, along with the RBC inventory.

Discussion: Although it appears that this virus cannot be transmitted through transfusion, changes in lifestyle had a significant impact on reducing blood supply. Following implemented measures, we saw an upward trend in blood donations and an adequate supply of RBC units in blood centres, helped by a reduction in demand by hospitals. Blood centres need to be more prepared to manage future viral disasters, especially in case of transfusion-transmissible infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.13012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7537134PMC
February 2021

The increasing trend of blood donation in Iran.

Blood Res 2019 Dec 20;54(4):269-273. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: This is the first study on the blood donation trend in Iran at a national level. We report different characteristics of blood donation such as demographic status, donor type, donation trend, and geographical distribution of blood donation in Iran between 2003 and 2017.

Methods: This study used data registered in the donor vigilance part of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and ArcMap GIS version 10.2 software. A -value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Based on the study results, blood donation in Iran reached >2 million units in 2017; moreover, it is predicted that Iran will achieve >29 donations per 1,000 population in 2022. The proportion of regular and repeated donors increased from 77% in 2013 to 87% in 2017. The average blood donation rate in seven provinces was higher than the national average, and the average growth rate of their blood donation per population was positive.

Conclusion: The results of the current study showed that there is a recent increasing trend toward blood donation in Iran. Furthermore, the largest share of donations is related to regular donors. The increasing proportion of regular and repeated donors has led to the improvement in the quality and consequently health level of donated blood.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5045/br.2019.54.4.269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942136PMC
December 2019

The Trends of Viral Hepatitis B and C and HIV Infections in Donated Bloods in Iran Between 2003 and 2017.

J Blood Med 2019 18;10:435-441. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: The rate of viral infections in donated bloods is one of the main indicators of blood safety which has to be monitored precisely. This paper provides a thorough study of blood safety indicators in the last 15 years in Iran.

Methods: The data of the transfusion organization in Iran from years 2003 to 2017 were used. The study focuses on the analysis of the frequency of viral hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in blood donations.

Results: Of 27,442,124 donated bloods, the relative frequencies were 4, 302, and 81 for HIV, HBV and HCV, respectively. This study also shows that the corresponding frequencies were significantly lower in recent years (2.5, 53, and 26 per 100,000 samples in 2017).

Conclusion: The presented study indicates an overall low infection rate and provides evidence for the effectiveness of modern safety measures in improving the level of blood safety in Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JBM.S229327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6927265PMC
December 2019

The HIV treatment cascade in people living with HIV in Iran in 2014: Mixed-method study to measure losses and reasons.

Int J STD AIDS 2019 11 27;30(13):1257-1264. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462419867573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008700PMC
November 2019

Underreporting in HIV-related high-risk behaviors: comparing the results of multiple data collection methods in a behavioral survey of prisoners in Iran.

Prison J 2018 Mar 24;98(2):213-228. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Regional Knowledge Hub, and WHO Collaborating Centre for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

We explored the potentials of using three indirect methods including crosswise, proxy respondent method, and network scale-up (NSU) in comparison to direct questioning in collecting sensitive and socially stigmatized HIV-related risk behaviors information from prisoners (N=265). Participants reported more sexual contact in prison for their friends than they did for themselves (10.6% vs. 3.8% in men, 13.7% vs. 0% in women). In men, NSU provided lower estimates than direct questioning, while in women NSU estimates were higher. Different data collection methods provide different estimates, and collectively offer a more comprehensive picture of HIV-related risk behaviors in prisons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0032885517753163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6075723PMC
March 2018

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding HIV and TB Among Homeless People in Tehran, Iran.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2018 06 1;7(6):549-555. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Homeless people are at high risk of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) infection due to living in poor sanitary conditions and practicing high-risk behavior. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of homeless people in Tehran regarding TB and HIV.

Methods: Using a convenience sampling, we performed a cross-sectional study on homeless people in Tehran from June to August 2012. Participants aged 18-60 years having at least 10 days of homelessness in the preceding month to the study period were included. All required data were collected through face-to-face interviews conducted using a researcherdesigned questionnaire. Each score in KAP of TB and HIV was separately divided by the maximum score and multiplied by 100 to attain percentage scores. The mean scores were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and student's t test. A Tukey test was used for post hoc analysis and two-by-two comparisons.

Results: In this study, 593 participants consisting of 513 men and 80 women were included. The mean age of the participants was 41.74 ± 0.45 years. Moreover, the total mean score of KAP toward HIV was 79.24 (95% CI: 77.36, 81.12), 57.13 (95% CI: 55.12, 59.14), and 21.14 (95% CI: 18.35, 23.93), respectively. The total mean score of knowledge and practice regarding TB was 62.04 (95% CI: 59.94, 64.14) and 42.57 (95% CI: 40.36, 44.78), respectively.

Conclusion: Although a relatively acceptable knowledge was detected in this high-risk population, practices regarding TB and HIV showed some weaknesses. Developing special programs to improve the healthy behavior of this population is highly recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2017.129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015517PMC
June 2018

Psychiatric disorders among people living with HIV/AIDS in IRAN: Prevalence, severity, service utilization and unmet mental health needs.

J Psychosom Res 2018 07 27;110:24-31. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: HIV and psychiatric disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by some similar risk factors.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess psychiatric comorbidity and health service utilization for mental problems among people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran.

Methods: A total of 250 cases were randomly selected from a large referral center for HIV treatment and care in Tehran, Iran. Psychiatric disorders in the past 12 months including mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders were assessed through face-to-face interview, using a validated Persian translation of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI v2.1). Severity of psychiatric disorders, social support, socio-economic status, service utilization and HIV-related indicators were assessed.

Results: Participants consisted of 147 men and 103 women. Psychiatric disorders were found in 50.2% (95% confidence interval: 43.8-56.6) of the participants. Major depressive disorder was the most prevalent diagnosis (32.1%), followed by substance use disorders (17.1%). In bivariate analysis, psychiatric disorders were significantly higher among male gender, single and unemployed individuals and those with lower social support. In multivariate regression analysis, only social support was independently associated with psychiatric disorders. Among those with a psychiatric diagnosis, 41.1% had used a health service for mental problems and 53% had received minimally adequate treatment.

Conclusion: The findings of the study highlight the importance of mental health services in the treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2018.04.012DOI Listing
July 2018

Prevalence of HAV Ab, HEV (IgG), HSV2 IgG, and Syphilis Among Sheltered Homeless Adults in Tehran, 2012.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2018 03 1;7(3):225-230. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: This study investigated the prevalence for hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) and syphilis among homeless in the city of Tehran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 596 homeless were recruited in Tehran. A researcher-designed questionnaire was used to study demographic data. Using enzyme-linked immunoassay, and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, we evaluated the seroprevalence of HAV anti-body, HEV IgG, herpes, HSV2 IgG, and syphilis among sheltered homeless in Tehran. The associations between the participant's characteristics and infections were evaluated using logistic regression and chi-square.

Results: A total of 569 homeless, 78 women (13.7%) and 491 men (86.3%) were enrolled into the study from June to August 2012. Their age mean was 42 years and meantime of being homeless was 24 months. Seroprevalence of syphilis, HEV IgG, HSV2 IgG and HAV Ab was 0.55%, 24.37%, 16.48%, and 94.34%, respectively. History of drug abuse was reported in 77.70%; 46.01% of them were using a drug during the study and 26.87% of them had history of intravenous drug abuse. Among people who had intravenous drug abuse, 48.25% had history of syringe sharing.

Conclusion: The prevalence of HAV, HEV and HSV2 were higher than the general population while low prevalence of syphilis was seen among homeless peoples who are at high risk of sexually transmitted infection (STD). Our findings highlighted that significant healthcare needs of sheltered homeless people in Tehran are unmet and much more attention needs to be paid for the health of homeless people.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2017.74DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5890067PMC
March 2018

Consistent Condom Use with Paying and Nonpaying Partners among Female Sex Workers in Iran: Findings of a National Biobehavioral Survey.

J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2017 Nov/Dec;16(6):572-578. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

1 HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Objectives: Little is known about the dynamics of condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Iran. We investigated the correlates of consistent condom use (CCU) among FSWs, using data from a national biobehavioral surveillance survey in 2010.

Methods: A total of 872 FSWs were recruited using a facility-based sampling strategy from 21 sites in 13 cities in Iran. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire.

Results: Overall, 33.6% and 17.3% of FSWs reported CCU with paying and nonpaying sex partners, respectively. Consistent condom use with paying partners was significantly associated with temporary marriage, accessing family planning services and history of working in brothels. Conversely, temporary marriage or married status, condom rupture/slippage, and HIV seropositivity remained independently significantly associated with CCU with nonpaying sex partners.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated the urgent need for scaling up condom promotion interventions catered toward FSWs and their sex partners to practice safe sex consistently.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325957417732834DOI Listing
September 2018

Injection drug use among female sex workers in Iran: Findings from a nationwide bio-behavioural survey.

Int J Drug Policy 2017 06 4;44:86-91. Epub 2017 May 4.

HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Globally, one in three women who inject drugs is involved in sex work which increases their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections including HIV. This study was conducted to improve our understanding of injection drug use practices among Iranian female sex workers (FSWs) and shed light on the high-risk profile of FSWs who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs).

Methods: This survey was conducted in 2010, by recruiting 872 FSWs through facility-based sampling from 21 sites in 13 cities in Iran. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and lifetime injection drug use was assessed through the responses to the question "Have you ever injected any illicit drugs?". Independent variables included a range of socio-demographic and risk characteristics. Logistic regression models were applied to investigate the correlates of lifetime history of injection drug use.

Results: Median (Q1, Q3) age of the participants was 30 (25, 37) and a total of 127 (14.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 12.3-17.1) had ever injected drugs. In the multivariable logistic regression model, older age (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=AOR=3.37, 95% CI: 1.64, 7.70; AOR=2.80, 95% CI: 1.11, 7.10), longer duration (>5 years) of involvement in sex work (AOR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.10), and history of drinking alcohol (AOR=4.42, 95% CI: 2.67, 7.32) were positively associated with lifetime history of drug injection and younger age at sex work debut (AOR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.96) was negatively associated with lifetime history of illicit drug injection among FSWs.

Conclusion: The prevalence of injection drug use among FSWs in Iran is concerning. Given the potential of this sub-population in bridging HIV into the general population, gender-sensitive and peer-led harm reduction programs should be further scaled up to meet the special needs of this vulnerable population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.03.011DOI Listing
June 2017

Lifetime Abortion of Female Sex Workers in Iran: Findings of a National Bio-Behavioural Survey In 2010.

PLoS One 2016 18;11(11):e0166042. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: Unintended pregnancies and abortion may be considered as occupational hazards for female sex workers (FSWs). As our understanding of contraceptive and abortion practices of Iranian FSWs is very limited, this study tries to assess the dynamics of contraception and abortion among this sub-population.

Methods: This survey was conducted in 2010, by recruiting 872 FSWs through facility-based sampling from 21 sites in 14 cities in Iran. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a pilot-tested standardized risk assessment questionnaire. We applied the logistic regression model to investigate the correlates of induced abortion among FSWs.

Results: Of the 863 participants with valid responses to the abortion variable, 35.3% (95% CI: 32.1-38.6) acknowledged ever induced abortion and the annual rate of abortion was estimated at 20.7 per 1000 women. Around 31.2% of FSWs reported no usual contraceptive use, 32.6% barrier method, 23.6% non-barrier modern contraception methods, and 12.5% dual protection. In our multivariable model, older age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.74, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.02, 2.96), group sex (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.35), history of travel for sex work (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.20), sexual violence (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.50), STIs in last year (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.14), and accessing family planning services (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.49) were significant predictors of lifetime abortion.

Conclusions: The reproductive health needs of Iranian FSWs are unmet and around one-third of FSWs reported induced abortion. Scaling-up comprehensive family planning services and empowering FSWs to have safer sex practices may help them to prevent unintended pregnancies and further risk of HIV transmission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0166042PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5115696PMC
June 2017

HIV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Young People in Iran: Findings of a National Population-Based Survey in 2013.

PLoS One 2016 14;11(9):e0161849. Epub 2016 Sep 14.

HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: The evidence is mixed on the HIV knowledge, attitude, and practices of youth in Iran. The aim of the current study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Iranian youth towards HIV through a national survey.

Materials And Methods: Through a cross-sectional study with multistage cluster sampling, we administered a pilot-tested standard questionnaire to assess the levels of HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices of individuals aged 15-29 years old. Participants were recruited from 13 provinces in Iran and consisted of 2456 men and 2412 women.

Results: Only 37.3% of the participants had a high knowledge score. Most participants knew the main routes of HIV transmission; however, misconceptions existed about the transmission of HIV through mosquito bites across all age groups (31.7% correct response). Positive levels of attitude wereobserved among 20.7% of the participants. Most participants believed that people living with HIV (PLHIV) should be supported (88.3%) while only 46.3% were ready to share a table with them. Among those aged 19-29 years old, the main source of HIV information was mass media (69.1%), only 13.1% had ever tested for HIV, around 20.8% had ever had extramarital sex (31.7% male vs. 9.6% female),1.8% ever injected drugs (2.9% male vs. and 0.7% female). Among sexually active subjects in this age group, only 21.8% (26.1% male vs. 7.1% female) were consistent condom users.

Conclusions: The findings showed that Iranian youth and young adults have relatively insufficient overall knowledge and negative attitudes about HIV and PLHIV. Novel strategies involving schools and youth's networks could be employed to deliver a culturally sensitive sexual health program.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161849PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5023173PMC
August 2017

Prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among street and labour children in Tehran, Iran.

Sex Transm Infect 2017 09 6;93(6):421-423. Epub 2016 Sep 6.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, The Islamic Republic of Iran.

Objectives: The existence of street and working children in Iran is undeniable. The precarious conditions of these children (including disrupted family, poverty, high prevalence of crime among relatives, family members and peers) cause social harm and high-risk behaviours, including drug addiction, selling sex or having sex with adolescents or peers. Here we explore the HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C status of street and working children in Tehran.

Methods: One thousand street and labour children, aged 10-18 years, were recruited by using the time-location sampling method, and semistructured questionnaires were used to find demographic information and information on HIV/AIDS-related high-risk sexual behaviours. Blood samples were collected from children, with use of the dried blood sampling method.

Results: 4.5% of children were HIV infected, 1.7% were infected with hepatitis B virus and 2.6% were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Having parents who used drug, infected with HCV and having experience in trading sex significantly increased the likelihood of getting HIV among the street children of Tehran.

Conclusion: HIV prevalence among street children is much higher than general population (<0.1%), and in fact ,the rate of positivity comes close to that among female sex workers in Iran. These findings must be an alarm for HIV policymakers to consider immediate and special interventions for this at-risk group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2016-052557DOI Listing
September 2017

HIV/AIDS policy agenda setting in Iran.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2016 3;30:392. Epub 2016 Jul 3.

Professor, Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: HIV/AIDS control are one of the most important goals of the health systems. The aim of this study was to determine how HIV/AIDS control was initiated among policy makers' agenda setting in Iran.

Methods: A qualitative research (semi-structured interview) was conducted using Kingdon's framework (problem, policy and politics streams, and policy windows and policy entrepreneurs) to analysis HIV/AIDS agenda setting in Iran. Thirty-two policy makers, managers, specialists, and researchers were interviewed. Also, 30 policy documents were analyzed. Framework analysis method was used for data analysis.

Results: the increase of HIV among Injecting drug users (IDUs) and Female Sex Workers (FSWs), lack of control of their high-risk behaviors, and exceeding the HIV into concentrated phase were examples of problem stream. Policy stream was evidence-based solutions that highlighted the need for changing strategies for dealing with such a problem and finding technically feasible and acceptable solutions. Iran's participation in United Nations General Assembly special sessions on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), the establishment of National AIDS Committee; highlighting AIDS control in Iran's five years development program and the support of the judiciary system of harm reduction policies were examples of politics stream. Policy entrepreneurs linking these streams put the HIV/AIDS on the national agenda (policy windows) and provide their solutions.

Conclusion: There were mutual interactions among these three streams and sometimes, they weakened or reinforced each other. Future studies are recommended to understand the interactions between these streams' parts and perhaps develop further Kingdon's framework, especially in the health sector.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004530PMC
August 2016

HIV, HCV, HBV, HSV, and syphilis prevalence among female sex workers in Tehran, Iran, by using respondent-driven sampling.

AIDS Care 2016 13;28(4):487-90. Epub 2015 Nov 13.

a Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

To find out the prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV, HSV, and syphilis infections among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tehran, a cross-sectional study by using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted. From December 2012 to April 2013 FSWs in Tehran were recruited. Inclusion criteria consisted of trading sex during the 12 months prior to this study and selling sex for at least 6 months in participants' lifetime. Among 161 consenting participants, 5% were infected with HIV. Moreover, 8.1% of FSWs were HCV positive, 37.9% were of HSV type1/type2, 1.2% of participants were infected with HBV, and none of the participants were infected with syphilis. HIV-positive participants were significantly more likely to be co-infected with HSV type1/type2, be younger, have more sexual partners and especially more clients during seven days prior to this study and report more history of having at least one of sexually transmitted infections symptoms in 12 months prior the study. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, being infected with HSV and also being under 25 years of age were found to be independently associated with HIV infection. Compared with the prevalence of HIV among general population of Tehran, relatively high prevalence of HIV and other viral infections among FSWs should be considered. All in all, it is critical to commence effective counter-measures for this high-risk group if the aim is to prevent spreading of these viruses to general population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2015.1109582DOI Listing
September 2016

Behaviors Influencing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in the Context of Positive Prevention among People Living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Iran: A Qualitative Study.

Int J Prev Med 2014 Aug;5(8):976-83

UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

Background: Identifying factors, which influence health behaviors is critical to designing appropriate and effective preventive programs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is highly related to people behaviors and understanding factors influencing healthy behaviors among Iranian people living with HIVs (PLHIVs)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is very important to tailor an effective response to HIV/AIDS epidemic.

Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative study by methods of focus group discussion and in-depth interview in six provinces of Iran with 64 PLHIVs to determine factors influence engagement in positive prevention.

Results: Knowledge and education, feelings of responsibility and positive prevention practices were identified as the primary domains of engagement. These domains were found to be influenced by feelings of ostracism and frustration, poverty, barriers to disclosure of HIV status, access to and utilization of drug abuse treatment services and antiretroviral therapy, adherence to treatment, age, religiousness, sex work, singleness, and incarceration.

Conclusions: Designing new interventions and updating current interventions directed toward the aforementioned factors should be addressed by responsible Iranian authorities in order to have a national effective response on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4258663PMC
August 2014

Vulnerability of homeless people in Tehran, Iran, to HIV, tuberculosis and viral hepatitis.

PLoS One 2014 4;9(6):e98742. Epub 2014 Jun 4.

Department of Epidemiology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; Regional Knowledge Hub, and WHO Collaborating Centre for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases (Akanlu), Pasteur Institute of Iran, Kabudar Ahang, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Homeless people are at risk of contracting communicable infectious diseases, as they indulge in risky behaviours and lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of the aforementioned infections and related risk behaviours among homeless people in Tehran.

Methods: In this study a convenience sample of 593 homeless individuals was studied. The ELISA method was used for the detection of HIV, HCV and HBV. Clinical symptoms, sputum cultures, acid fast bacilli smears, and chest X-rays were used to identify active pulmonary tuberculosis, and the Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) test was used to identify latent tuberculosis.

Results: The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and latent tuberculosis was 3.4%, 2.6%, 23.3% and 46.7%, respectively. Active pulmonary tuberculosis was found in 7 persons (1.2%). Injection drug use was an independent risk factor for HIV, HCV and HBV infections. Older people had a higher proportion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (OR: 2.6, 95%CI: 1.9, 3.7) and HCV positivity (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5).

Conclusion: Our findings highlighted that much more attention needs to be paid to the health of homeless people.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0098742PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4045893PMC
August 2015

HIV in Iran.

Lancet 2014 Mar;383(9922):1040

Regional Knowledge Hub and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60518-3DOI Listing
March 2014

HIV trend among Iranian prisoners in 1990s and 2000s; analysis of aggregated data from HIV sentinel sero-surveys.

Harm Reduct J 2013 Nov 20;10:32. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Regional Knowledge Hub, and WHO Collaborating Centre for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Using the aggregated data of all sentinel sero-surveys (1991 to 2007), this study aimed to report the HIV trend among Iranian prisoners.

Method: Overall, we analysed the aggregated data from 397 HIV sero-surveys conducted in 72 prisons (included 155,771 prisoners) from 1991 through 2007.

Results: The overall HIV prevalence was 2.8% (95% CI: 1.8%-4.3%). In 1998, HIV prevalence dramatically increased to 4.5% (95% CI: 1.1%-16.8%), which later became stable at level of 2.8%. Prisons were so heterogeneous regarding HIV prevalence (0% to 13.2%).

Conclusion: Since the outbreak, the ministry of health has acknowledged prisoners as one of the high-risk groups for HIV, increased the number of sentinel surveys and on-site harm reduction services to better monitor and response to the HIV epidemic. The downward trend of HIV prevalence after 2005 suggests the effectiveness of such interventions which need to be continued.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7517-10-32DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3842738PMC
November 2013

HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among people who inject drugs in Iran: the 2010 National Surveillance Survey.

Sex Transm Infect 2013 Nov 14;89 Suppl 3:iii29-32. Epub 2013 Sep 14.

Regional Knowledge Hub, and WHO Collaborating Centre for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, , Kerman, Iran.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of HIV and related risk behaviours among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran.

Methods: We conducted a national cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveillance survey between March and July 2010, interviewing male PWID from a geographically dispersed sample through a facility-based sampling method.

Results: We recruited 2480, and tested 2290 PWID. The overall prevalence of HIV was 15.2% (95% CI 9.7% to 23.1%). Among those who had injected drugs over the last month, 36.9% had used a non-sterile needle, and 12.6% had practiced shared injection. Over the past 12 months preceding the interview, 30.4% had sold sex for money, drugs, goods or a favour. In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of HIV had a positive association with age, while having above high school education, and permanent job were protective.

Conclusions: Unsafe injection, and sexual risk behaviours are still frequent and the prevalence of HIV among PWID remains high. Intensified efforts are needed to prevent the further spread of HIV among Iranian PWID and their sexual partners.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2013-051204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3841768PMC
November 2013

Post marketing surveillance on safety and efficacy of IMOD in Iranian patients with HIV/AIDS.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2013 Feb;13(1):71-4

Reproductive Biotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome is one of the world's serious health problems. Immune-based therapy is a new approach in the treatment of HIV infected patients. IMOD™ with the ability to correct immune deficiencies has been introduced for the management of HIV infection. In the phase IV trial study the main objectives were to assess the possible side effects, evaluate its effect on CD4⁺ T lymphocyte count and patients' and physicians' satisfactions for 600 HIV infected patients in 13 centers during 2007. The observed adverse events in patients included: headache and vertigo (1.2%), nausea (1.2%), gastritis (1.2%), phlebitis (1%) and mild rash (1%); serious adverse events were not observed in any of IMOD™ recipients. Therefore it was not needed to terminate the treatment in any of patient. The results of this study demonstrated that daily prescription of IMOD™ significantly increases T lymphocyte CD4⁺ and total lymphocyte count in HIV-positive patients. In addition, nearly 90% of the patients and 70% physicians are satisfied by IMOD™ treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/18715265112129990031DOI Listing
February 2013

Modeling of human immunodeficiency virus modes of transmission in Iran.

J Res Health Sci 2012 Dec 13;12(2):81-7. Epub 2012 Dec 13.

Regional Knowledge Hub for HIV/AIDS Surveillance, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Background: Main technique to control acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) infection is the effective preventive programs among high-risk groups. Modeling is one of the effective methods where there is inadequate data. We used the modes of transmission (MOT) model to predict the transmission of HIV infection in Iran.

Methods: We systematically searched published and grey literature to find values for the input parameters of MOT in 2010. The data were discussed by experts before being fed into the model. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, we computed the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the outputs of the MOT.

Results: The MOT estimates that 9136 new HIV infections would have occurred in Iran in 2010 (95% CI: 6831, 11757). About 56% (95% CI: 47.7%, 61.6%) of new infections were among intravenous drug users (IDUs) and 12% (95% CI: 9.5%, 15%) among their sexual partners. The major routes of direct and indirect HIV transmission in Iran are unsafe injection (68%) and unprotected sexual contact (34% unprotected heterosexual and 10% homosexual) respectively. If current coverage for safe injection among IDUs increases from 80% to 95%, new HIV infections in this group would decrease around 75%.

Conclusion: IDUs remain at highest risk of HIV infection in Iran, so the preventive program coverage for IDUs and their spouses needs to be increased. As the sexual transmission of HIV contributes increasingly to the pool of new infections, serious measures such as harm reduction program are required to reduce sexual transmission of HIV among the relevant key populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
December 2012

Assessing the prevalence of HIV among Afghan immigrants in Iran through rapid HIV testing in the field.

Acta Med Iran 2011 ;49(7):478-9

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Throughout the world, many migrant and mobile populations are at elevated risk for HIV. Iran has a large immigrant population from neighboring Afghanistan; however, few data exist on the prevalence of HIV in this community. In 2008, we conducted a study to assess the presence of HIV infection among 477 immigrants in a town to the northeast of Tehran using a rapid test in the field. HIV prevalence was 0.2% (95% CI 0.005-1.2) with one person HIV-positive. We recommend periodic HIV sero-surveillance with detailed behavioral measures for this population in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2012

Frequency of HIV Infection among Sailors in South of Iran by Rapid HIV Test.

AIDS Res Treat 2011 10;2011:612475. Epub 2011 Apr 10.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Information on the prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection among sailors is scarce. The aim of this seroprevalence study was to evaluate the frequency of HIV infection among sailors in south of Iran using rapid HIV test. The study included 400 consecutive participants in Lengeh, Shahid Rajaie, and Shahid Bahonar ports in south of Iran in May 2010. We observed only one case (0.25%) of HIV infection in this sample of sailors. While prevalence appears low at present, we recommend periodic HIV serosurveillance with detailed behavioral measures for this population in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/612475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3085304PMC
July 2011

Lack of HIV infection among truck drivers in Iran using rapid HIV test.

J Res Med Sci 2010 Sep;15(5):287-9

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HIV infection in Iranian long distance truck drivers using rapid HIV test.

Methods: The study included 400 consecutive participants in Bazargan city, north-west of Iran in the late 2008 and the early 2009.

Results: No HIV infection was observed among these long distance truck drivers.

Conclusions: Although results of this study is plausible compared to other similar studies, repeated surveys are necessary to know the trend of HIV infection in truckers in Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3082827PMC
September 2010

Prevalence of HIV/HCV/HBV infections and drug-related risk behaviours amongst IDUs recruited through peer-driven sampling in Iran.

Int J Drug Policy 2010 Nov 18;21(6):493-500. Epub 2010 May 18.

Department of Global Health and Socio-epidemiology, Kyoto University School of Public Health, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

Background: The control of blood-borne infections including HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) amongst injecting drug users (IDUs) is a challenge for health authorities in Iran. Hence, more reliable estimates of the levels of blood-borne infections and their associated factors are critically needed.

Methods: Active IDUs were recruited using peer-driven sampling in a bio-behavioural survey in 2008. Over 8 weeks, data were collected from adults living in a city in Isfahan Province who had injected drugs in the past month. Participants provided a whole blood sample and answered questions on sexual and drug-related risk characteristics. Participants were provided post-test counselling and a non-monetary incentive for their participation. Excluding two inactive cases, the initial recruits resulted in 2-8 waves of recruitment.

Results: Overall, 118 IDUs including three females participated. The estimated population proportions of HIV, hepatitis B, and HCV infections were 0.7% (95% CI, 0.6-2.3), 0.7% (95% CI, 0.1-2.1), and 59.4% (95% CI, 47.4-68.7), respectively. Responses indicated that 31% (95% CI, 20-44.5) of the IDUs ever shared a needle/syringe for drug injection, and 77% (95% CI, 65-84) had ever injected an addictive solution marketed widely as Temgesic. Multivariate analyses revealed that the high prevalence of HCV infection amongst IDUs is associated with the lifetime duration of drug injection (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34) and with having injected Temgesic (AOR, 4.73; 95% CI, 1.52-14.69).

Conclusion: Our experience in Iran indicates that IDUs can be recruited effectively in a bio-behavioural survey through peer-driven sampling and using only a single primary incentive. The high prevalence of HCV associated with injecting Temgesic is important evidence for harm-reduction policies in Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2010.04.006DOI Listing
November 2010