Publications by authors named "Abbas Raisi"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Leech therapy (Hirudo medicinalis) attenuates testicular damages induced by testicular ischemia/reperfusion in an animal model.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jul 27;17(1):256. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Testicular torsion/detorsion triggers tissue ischemia/reperfusion, leading to reactive oxygen species overgeneration and apoptosis. The saliva of leeches is full of anti-inflammatory, anticoagulants, antioxidants, and antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the protective mechanism of leech therapy on testicular ischemia/reperfusion damage.

Methods: 18 adult male rats were randomly divided into three groups: 1-Sham-operated group (SO). 2-Torsion/detorsion (T.D) group: two hours of testicular torsion with two hours of testicular detorsion was performed. 3-Torsion/detorsion + Leech therapy (TDL) group. Sperm parameters (motility, vitality, morphology, and concentration), oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, CAT, GPx, and TAC), histopathological factors (Mean seminiferous tubular diameter, Germinal epithelial cell thickness, Testicular capsule thickness, Johnson's score, and Cosentino's score), and immunohistochemical markers for apoptosis detection (Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3) were measured.

Results: There was a significant difference for all sperm parameters in the T. D group compared to the sham group. Leech therapy significantly increased progressive motility and normal morphology and reduced non-progressive motility. In the TDL group, MDA concentration significantly reduced, and levels of GPx, TAC, and CAT remarkably increased. All evaluated histopathological parameters in the TDL group significantly increased compared to the T. D group except for the testicular capsule thickness. T. D notably increased the expression of Bax and Caspase-3, while the treatment group slowed the rate of apoptosis compared to the control group. Bcl-2 expression in the T. D group was significantly lower than that in the sham group. Leech therapy increased the Bcl-2 expression.

Conclusion: Leech therapy attenuates damages to testicular tissue following torsion/detorsion due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. Hence, it can be considered as an effective remedy for testicular ischemia/reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02951-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8314469PMC
July 2021

The effect of aqueous extract of Prunus dulcis on tibial bone healing in the rabbit.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Jun 7;16(1):362. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Bone fractures are medical emergencies that require prompt intervention to help return bone to its normal function. Various methods and treatments have been utilized to increase the speed and efficiency of bone repair. This study aimed to investigate the treatment effects of Prunus dulcis aqueous extract on tibial bone healing in rabbits.

Methods: All animals were distributed in five groups with six rats in each group, including the sham group, the control group in which tibial lesion was made and received distilled water, treatment groups with 150 mg kg, 300 mg kg doses of Prunus dulcis extract, and osteocare treated group. Biochemical blood factors including calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase (on days 0, 10, 30, and 50), biomarkers of oxidative stress such as GPx, CAT, and MDA (on days 10 and 30), radiological evaluation, histopathological parameters, and osteocalcin immunohistochemical expression were assessed.

Results: The data showed calcium levels in the treatment groups increased significantly from day 10 to day 50, respectively, and blood phosphorus levels decreased from day 10 to day 50 in the treatment groups. Alkaline phosphatase initially increased and then decreased in treatment groups. In the treatment groups, GPx and CAT levels significantly increased, and the serum amount of MDA reduced. The best antioxidant results were related to the extract-treated group with a higher dose. Radiographic score was significantly higher in the treatment groups than the control group on day 30. Based on the pathological findings, the healing occurred faster in the extract-treated group with a higher dose. Osteocalcin expression was significantly higher in the control group than that in the treatment groups.

Conclusions: Treatment with Prunus dulcis extract with a dosage of 300 mg/kg accelerated tibial bone healing in rabbits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02498-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183070PMC
June 2021

Salvia miltiorrhiza hydroalcoholic extract inhibits postoperative peritoneal adhesions in rats.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Apr 20;21(1):126. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: One of the most prevalent postoperative complications is believed to be intra-abdominal peritoneal adhesions, which is followed by several complications. Several adhesion prevention products have been examined, yet none of them were found to be completely effective. The current research is conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza hydroalcoholic extract in inhibiting postoperative peritoneal adhesions in rats.

Methods: Forty rats were randomly classified into five equal groups (n = 8): 1) the normal group did not undergo surgical operations, 2) the control group in which the adhesion was induced, and which did not receive any treatment, 3) distilled water group that received distilled water, and 4,5) treatment groups treated with 1 and 5% of Salvia miltiorrhiza hydroalcoholic extract. The rats were euthanized 14 days following the surgery and the macroscopic score, the microscopic score of granulomatous inflammation and granulation tissue formation, IHC markers (vimentin, CD31, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS), and oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, GPx, CAT, and TAC) were assessed in the experimental groups of the study.

Results: The difference between the control group and other groups for the adhesions macroscopic score, microscopic score, IHC markers, and oxidative stress biomarkers was significant (p < 0.05). Distilled water had no protective effect on the formation of peritoneal adhesions. Salvia miltiorrhiza treatment in two different doses significantly reduced macroscopic and microscopic scores, MDA concentration, Vimentin, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The levels of GPx, CAT, and TAC in the treatment groups increased significantly compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Our findings revealed that a higher dose of Salvia miltiorrhiza was more effective in reducing peritoneal adhesions, proinflammatory and mesenchymal cell markers, and oxidative stress.

Conclusions: Salvia miltiorrhiza extract, owing to its strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, could effectively reduce peritoneal adhesions. Therefore, Salvia miltiorrhiza is recommended to be used as an effective anti-peritoneal post-operative adhesive agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-021-03300-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056503PMC
April 2021

Co-administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza and verapamil inhibits detrimental effects of torsion/detorsion on testicular tissue in rats.

Andrologia 2021 Jul 17;53(6):e14049. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Testicular torsion/detorsion is one of the important emergencies that requires fast surgical intervention. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza hydroalcoholic extract combined with verapamil on testicular ischaemia/reperfusion damage in Wistar albino rats. All animals were distributed in 3 groups (n = 8), including the sham-operated group, torsion/detorsion (TD) group and torsion/detorsion + pretreatment with 200 mg/kg Salvia miltiorrhiza extract combined with 0.3 mg/kg verapamil (SMV) group. Oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, GPx, CAT and TAC) both in plasma and testicular tissue, sperm parameters (motility, vitality, concentration and morphology) and histopathological parameters (MSTD, GECT, Johnson's score, Cosentino's score and testicular cell thickness) were assessed in all groups. Ischaemia/reperfusion significantly increased MDA and decreased GPx, CAT and TAC levels (p < .05). Pretreatment with SMV significantly increased GPx, CAT and TAC levels (p < .05). SMV group increased progressive sperm motility and vitality and reduced non-progressive motility of spermatozoon (p < .05). Testicular torsion significantly decreased all histopathological parameters compared to the sham group (p < .05). SMV pretreatment remarkably increased MSTD, GECT and Cosentino's score in comparison with the TD group (p < .05). A combination of Salvia miltiorrhiza with verapamil could reduce damages triggered by testicular torsion detorsion and improve sperm functionality parameters and oxidative stress defence systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.14049DOI Listing
July 2021

Nitroglycerin ameliorates sperm parameters, oxidative stress and testicular injury following by testicular torsion/detorsion in male rats.

Exp Mol Pathol 2020 12 2;117:104563. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

Purpose: This study was designed to determine the probable protection mechanisms of nitroglycerin, a widely used medication for treatment of heart failure and angina, in amelioration of testicular ischemia/reperfusion damage.

Methods: 24 adult male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups; with eight rats in each group: Group 1 (Sham) was sham-operated. Group 2 (T_D): 2 h testicular torsion was induced, afterward detorsion was performed and maintained for 2 h. Group 3 (NG): Nitroglycerin was administered immediately after detorsion. Sperm quality parameters such as viability, motility, morphology, and concentration, levels of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)), and amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the blood plasma were examined in each group, thereafter histopathological parameters including germinal epithelial cell thickness (GECT), mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD), Johnson's score and Cosentino's score were assessed.

Results: Testicular T_D significantly reduced sperm viability, motility, and normal morphology, whereas the NG administration remarkably increased the percentage of live, motile, and normal spermatozoa (p < 0.05). Levels of GPx, CAT, and TAC significantly reduced and the MDA level significantly increased in the T_D group in comparison to the sham group (p < 0.05). The NG treated group demonstrated significantly reduced MDA concentrations as well as elevated levels of GPx and CAT compared to the T_D group (p < 0.05). Induction of testicular torsion significantly reduced Johnson's score, GESCT (μm), and MSTD (μm), and remarkably increased the Cosentino's score (P < 0.05), while NG injection significantly increased Johnson's score, GESCT (μm), and MSTD (μm) and reduced the Cosentino's score (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: According to the findings in this research, nitroglycerin was able to protect the testicular tissue from ischemia-reperfusion damage caused by induced torsion/detorsion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2020.104563DOI Listing
December 2020

Investigating the sperm parameters, oxidative stress and histopathological effects of salvia miltiorrhiza hydroalcoholic extract in the prevention of testicular ischemia reperfusion damage in rats.

Theriogenology 2020 Mar 3;144:98-106. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

Aims: One of the most common urologic emergencies is spermatic cord torsion, which can damage testicular tissue and reduce fertility. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) hydroalcoholic extract possess high antioxidant properties, and its efficacy in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury prevention has been demonstrated in cardiac, renal, and liver tissues. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the protective mechanism of SM extract on testicular I/R damage.

Main Methods: 18 mature male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 3 groups; with six rats in each group: Group 1 (Sham) was sham-operated. Group 2 (T-D): torsion was performed, and after 2 hours (h) detorsion was done. Group 3 (SM): (200 mg kg) SM was intraperitoneally injected thirty minutes before detorsion. Then testicular and epididymal weight and size alterations, sperm parameters (motility, livability, concentration, and morphology), both plasma and testicular tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evaluated. Also, histopathological changes included mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD), testicular capsule thickness (TCT), mean testicular biopsy scoring (MTBS), and germinal epithelial cell thickness (GECT) were examined.

Results: Testicular I/R significantly reduced sperm motility, viability, and normality, while SM extract administration remarkably increased sperm motility, and normality (P < 0.05). Induction of testicular T-D caused a significant increment in the level of MDA and notable decline in the levels of GPX, CAT, and TAC both in plasma and testis tissue, whereas administration of SM extract significantly decreased MDA level and increased GPX, CAT, and TAC levels in plasma and testicular tissue (P < 0.05). Histopathological parameters including MSTD, GECT, MTBS, and TCT were significantly lower in the T-D group, while pretreatment with SM extract remarkably increased MSTD, GECT, and MTBS amounts (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Since the SM extract increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, improved sperm parameters and reduced the damage to testicular tissue, therefore, its use as a potent antioxidant in reducing testicular I/R damage is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2020.01.002DOI Listing
March 2020

The effects of verapamil and heparin co-administration on sperm parameters and oxidative stress in prevention of testicular torsion/detorsion damage in rats.

Andrologia 2020 Mar 11;52(2):e13479. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

In this research, the impacts of combined administration of verapamil and heparin on testicular torsion damage were examined. In this experimental study, 30 sexually mature male Wistar albino rats were divided into five equal groups haphazardly (n = 6): Group 1 was the sham group. In group 2, a 2-hr testicular torsion was induced, and thereafter, detorsion was done. Rats in group 3 and group 4 experienced an identical surgical procedure like group 2, but verapamil and heparin were administered in 0.3 mg/kg and 800 IU/kg doses respectively, and in group 5, a combination of verapamil and heparin were administered. Intraperitoneal drug injection in all treatment groups was done 30 min before testicular detorsion. Testicular torsion significantly changed sperm parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers and Cosentino's histological score compared to the sham group (p < .05). All treatment groups reduced testicular damage by decreasing oxidative stress and improving sperm parameters, but heparin and co-administration of verapamil and heparin were significantly better than verapamil injection alone. However, heparin injected group was more effective than other treatment groups (p < .05). Overall, an anticoagulant like heparin is more effective than a calcium channel blocker such as verapamil, and it is more likely to reduce testicular torsion injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.13479DOI Listing
March 2020

Surgical treatment of a penetrated metallic foreign body in the oral cavity wall of a mare.

Vet Res Forum 2019 15;10(2):177-179. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

One of the reasons of weight loss and poor performance in horses is decrease in food intake. Oral cavity problems can cause malfunctions in prehension and deglutition resulting in dysphagia. There are few published reports about a metallic foreign body disorders in the oral cavity of horses due to an important role of their flexible lip and incisor teeth in food selection and prehension. This report describes the history, clinical, hematological and radiographic findings and surgical management of a left oral wall fistula formation due to a piece of wire penetration in a pregnant mare. The wire was removed through surgical intervention in a standing position of the horse under mild sedation and local anesthesia. One-month follow-up examination showed that the mare had regained her previous work performance with no post-operative complication. Precise oral examination and using an ancillary diagnostic device such as radiography can be suggested for oral cavity pathologies detection and accurate diagnosis in horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/VRF.2018.86620.2122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626640PMC
June 2019

Influence of tramadol on anesthesia times, analgesia and electrocardiogram associated with injection anesthesia in common buzzards ().

Vet Res Forum 2019 15;10(1):51-57. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Student of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran.

A balanced anesthesia protocol is called perfect when it has fast induction, excellent recovery, the least effect on the cardiopulmonary system and sufficient analgesia. Many of anesthetic combinations have an analgesic effect without opioids. However, at the end of anesthesia, analgesia decreases or is incomplete The purpose of this study was to evaluate anesthesia times, electrocardiogram (ECG) and analgesic effect of tramadol when administrated with ketamine, ketamine-diazepam, ketamine-midazolam, and ketamine-xylazine and selected a balanced anesthesia protocol in buzzards. Ten adult common buzzards () received seven different anesthetic protocols (with or without tramadol). In each protocol, anesthesia times, electrocardiograph parameters and analgesic effect were recorded. Excluding ketamine-tramadol, all protocols produced deep anesthesia in all buzzards. Among of all protocols, no significant differences regarding the amplitude and duration of waves (P, QRS and T) was found. By adding tramadol to anesthetic protocols, response duration to thermal sense increased up 3 hr after recovery. Tramadol did not make considerable effects on anesthesia times and ECG and made analgesic effect up to 3 hr when used with ketamine-benzodiazpins or ketamine-xylazine. Therefore, tramadol can be used with injectable anesthetics to make suitably balanced anesthesia in buzzards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2019.34308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522193PMC
March 2019

Effect of Local Administration of Verapamil Combined with Chitosan Based Hybrid Nanofiber Conduit on Transected Sciatic Nerve in Rat.

Bull Emerg Trauma 2019 Jan;7(1):28-34

Department of Surgery and Diagnostic Imaging, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Objective: To assess the effect of locally administered verapamil on transected peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery.

Methods: Sixty male healthy white Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups (n=15), randomly: In transected group (TC), left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In treatment group defect was bridged using chitosan tube (CHIT/Verapamil) filled with 10 µL verapamil (100ng/mL). In chitosan conduit group (CHIT), the tube was filled with phosphate-buffered saline alone. In sham-operated group (SHAM), sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. The repair trend was examined based on behavioral and performance tests as well as the variations of the gastrocnemius muscle, morphometric indices, and immunohistochemical indices.

Results: Sciatic nerve functional study, muscle mass and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in CHIT/Verapamil than CHIT group ( = 0.001). When loaded in a chitosan tube verapamil accelerated and improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the S-100 protein was vastly present in the transverse nerve sections and the myelin sheath. In the treatment group (chit/verapamil), the immunohistochemical susceptibility of the axons being repaired and the axons in the myelin sheath to S-100 protein was higher than the other groups.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that a single local application of verapamil could accelerate functional recovery after transection of sciatic nerve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29252/beat-070104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360005PMC
January 2019

Extract of Berula angustifolia (L.) Mertens Enhances Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

Wounds 2018 Aug 25;30(8):242-248. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Introduction: Diabetes-impaired wound healing and other tissue abnormalities are considered to be a major concern.

Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the wound healing activity of the methanolic extracts of Berula angustifolia leaves.

Materials And Methods: Seven- week-old male Wistar rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin injection were randomized into 5 groups of 6 rats based on allocated treatment. Wounds were created by an excision-based or incision-based wound model. For wound healing activity, the extracts were applied topically in the form of ointment and compared with the control groups. The healing of the wound was assessed based on excision, incision, hydroxyproline estimation, biomechanical, and biochemical studies.

Results: The healing rate of the extract-treated groups was significantly different compared with the control group (P < .05). Hydroxyproline contents increased significantly in the extract-treated groups (P < .05). There were significant differences in the extract-treated versus nonextract-treated groups, particularly in terms of cellular infiltration, acute hemorrhage, congestion, edema, collagen production and density, reepithelialization, and neovascularization.

Conclusions: The methanolic extract of B angustifolia enhances wound healing activity significantly in both studied wound models. From this animal study, enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content, improved mechanical indices, histological characteristics, and biochemical studies suggest the extract of B angustifolia leaves may have therapeutic benefits in diabetes-impaired wound healing.
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August 2018

Alpha-lipoic acid loaded in chitosan conduit enhances sciatic nerve regeneration in rat.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2015 Mar;18(3):228-33

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of topical administration of alpha-lipoic acid into chitosan conduit on peripheral nerve regeneration using a rat sciatic nerve transection model.

Materials And Methods: Forty five Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups randomly. A 10-mm gap of sciatic nerve was bridged with a chitosan conduit following surgical preparation and anesthesia. In treatment group, the conduit was filled with 30 µl alpha-lipoic acid (10 mg/kg/bw).It was filled with 30 µl phosphate buffered saline solution in control group. In Sham group sciatic nerve was just exposed.

Results: The recovery of nerve function was faster in treatment group than in control, at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery (P-value<0.05). Conduction velocity was better in treatment group than in control group at 4 and 12 weeks (P-value<0.05). Recovery index was higher in treatment group than the control group, 8 weeks after surgery (P-value <0.05). Greater nerve fiber diameter, axon diameter, and myelin sheath thickness were observed in treatment group compared to control group at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery (P-value<0.05). The immunoreactivity of regenerated axons and myelin sheath in treatment group were far more similar to sham group.

Conclusion: Alpha-lipoic acid when loaded in a chitosan conduit could improve transected sciatic nerve regeneration in rat.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4414987PMC
March 2015

Effects of local administration of ibuprofen on sciatic nerve regeneration and reinnervation after egg shell membrane conduit repair in rat.

J Neurosurg Sci 2019 Oct 24;63(5):531-540. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

Department of Surgery and Diagnostic Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Background: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of locally administered ibuprofen (IBU) on transected peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery.

Methods: Seventy-five male Wistar rats were divided into five experimental groups (N.=15), randomly: In authograft group (AUTO) a segment of sciatic nerve was transected and reimplanted reversely. In transected group (TC), left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In treatment group defect was bridged using an egg shell membrane conduit (ESM/IBU) filled with 10 µL ibuprofen (100 ng/mL). In ESM conduit group (ESM), the conduit was filled with phosphate-buffered saline alone. In sham-operated group (SHAM), sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibers were studied 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery.

Results: Behavioral testing, biomechanical studies, sciatic nerve functional study, electrophysiological, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in ESM/IBU than ESM group (P<0.05). In immunohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in ESM/IBU was clearly more positive than that in ESM group.

Conclusions: Ibuprofen accelerated and improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. This study is expected to set a stage for testing the ibuprofen in the human patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0390-5616.16.03217-XDOI Listing
October 2019

Pathological findings of slaughtered camels' (Camelus dromedaris) kidneys in Najaf-Abad, Iran.

Vet Res Forum 2014 ;5(3):231-5

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad, Iran.

The kidney of camel is known to play a vital role in water conservation through the production of highly concentrated urine that may predispose animal to varieties of renal dysfunction. In camels renal disorders have received lesser attention in comparison with other animals, thus there is shortage of information in this area. The present study was conducted on 100 slaughtered camels (Camelus dromedaris) (200 kidneys) in Najaf-Abad district (Iran) to evaluate the frequency and types of renal disorders. Results demonstrated varieties of gross abnormalities in 14.00% of kidneys that out of them, 9.00% were confirmed by microscopic examination. Renal capsular pigmentation, medullary hyperemia, subcapsular calcification, cortical and medullar discoloration, hemorrhage in renal pelvis, nephrolithiasis and hydatidosis were recorded in 3, 6, 5, 6, 3, 2 and 3 cases, respectively. In addition, capsular melanosis, acute tubular necrosis, chronic interstitial nephritis, caseous necrosis, calcification, medullary hyperemia, and hydatid cyst were confirmed by histopathological examination in 3, 5, 1, 3, 2, 2, and 2 cases, respectively. Our findings indicate the presence of many types of renal disorders which may relate to dehydration, bacteremia or nephrotoxicosis. In addition capsular melanosis in male camel was recorded for the first time and its etiology remains to be addressed.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4279641PMC
January 2015

The mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles enhance sciatic nerve regeneration in rat: a novel approach in peripheral nerve cell therapy.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2014 Apr;76(4):991-7

From the Departments of Clinical Sciences (A.R., S.A.), and Pathobiology (A.A.F.), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Cellular and Molecular Biotechnology (N.D.), Institute of Biotechnology, Urmia University; and Neurophysiology Research Center (B.H.), Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; and Department of Veterinary Pathology (K.A.), Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Background: The accomplishment for desired functional peripheral nerve regeneration is still challenging despite various materials and methods. The effects of local application of omental adipose mesenchymal stromal cell-derived microvesicles (MVs) on peripheral nerve regeneration were studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model.

Methods: A 10-mm gap of sciatic nerve was bridged with a chitosan conduit. The rats were divided into five experimental groups randomly as follows: cultured undifferentiated omental adipose-derived stromal cells, rest mesenchymal stem cell-derived MVs (c-MVs), anti-inflammatory mesenchymal stem cell-derived MVs (anti-MVs), proinflammatory mesenchymal stem cell-derived MVs (pro-MVs), and negative control (Chit).

Results: The functional assessment of nerve regeneration (walking track analyses), electrophysiologic measurements, muscle mass measurements, as well as histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical indices showed drastic improvement in nerve regeneration in c-MVs and anti-MVs animals compared with pro-MVs animals (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory stem cell-derived MVs can be used as an alternative for the improvement of rat sciatic nerve regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000000186DOI Listing
April 2014
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