Publications by authors named "Abbas Rahdar"

41 Publications

Environmentally Safe Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Plant Water Extracts.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Aug 10;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 7618411764, Iran.

Due to their simplicity of synthesis, stability, and functionalization, low toxicity, and ease of detection, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a natural choice for biomedical applications. AuNPs' unique optoelectronic features have subsequently been investigated and used in high-tech applications such as organic photovoltaics, sensory probes, therapeutic agents, the administration of drugs in biological and medical applications, electronic devices, catalysis, etc. Researchers have demonstrated the biosynthesis of AuNPs using plants. The present study evaluates 109 plant species used in the traditional medicine of Middle East countries as new sources of AuNPs in a wide variety of laboratory environments. In this study, dried samples of bark, bulb, flower, fruit, gum, leaf, petiole, rhizome, root, seed, stamen, and above-ground parts were evaluated in water extracts. About 117 plant parts were screened from 109 species in 54 plant families, with 102 extracts demonstrating a bioreduction of Au to Au, revealing 37 new plant species in this regard. The color change of biosynthesized AuNPs to gray, violet, or red was confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopy, TEM, FSEM, DLS, and EDAX of six plants. In this study, AuNPs of various sizes were measured from 27 to 107 nm. This study also includes an evaluation of the potency of traditional East Asian medicinal plants used in this biosynthesis of AuNPs. An environmentally safe procedure such as this could act as a foundation for cosmetic industries whose quality assessment systems give a high priority to non-chemically synthesized products. It is crucial that future optimizations are adequately documented to scale up the described process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11082033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400837PMC
August 2021

A spotlight on underlying the mechanism of AMPK in diabetes complications.

Inflamm Res 2021 Sep 28;70(9):939-957. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

Objective: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the centenarian metabolic disorders and is considered as a stellar and leading health issue worldwide. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Diabetes Atlas and National Diabetes Statistics, the number of diabetic patients will increase at an exponential rate from 463 to 700 million by the year 2045. Thus, there is a great need for therapies targeting functions that can help in maintaining the homeostasis of glucose levels and improving insulin sensitivity. 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, by various direct and indirect factors, might help to overcome the hurdles (like insulin resistance) associated with the conventional approach.

Materials And Results: A thorough review and analysis was conducted using various database including MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, with Google scholar using various keywords. This extensive review concluded that various drugs (plant-based, synthetic indirect/direct activators) are available, showing tremendous potential in maintaining the homeostasis of glucose and lipid metabolism, without causing insulin resistance, and improving insulin sensitivity. Moreover, these drugs have an effect against diabetes and are therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of diabetes-associated complications (neuropathy and nephropathy) via mechanism involving inhibition of nuclear translocation of SMAD4 (SMAD family member) expression and association with peripheral nociceptive neurons mediated by AMPK.

Conclusion: From the available information, it may be concluded that various indirect/direct activators show tremendous potential in maintaining the homeostasis of glucose and lipid metabolism, without resulting in insulin resistance, and may improve insulin sensitivity, as well. Therefore, in a nut shell, it may be concluded that the regulation of APMK functions by various direct/indirect activators may bring promising results. These activators may emerge as a novel therapy in diabetes and its associated complications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-021-01488-5DOI Listing
September 2021

Sawdust for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Water: A Review.

Molecules 2021 Jul 16;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, 65404 Kavala, Greece.

The threat of the accumulation of heavy metals in wastewater is increasing, due to their abilities to inflict damage to human health, especially in the past decade. The world's environmental agencies are trying to issue several regulations that allow the management and control of random disposals of heavy metals. Scientific studies have heavily focused on finding suitable materials and techniques for the purification of wastewaters, but most solutions have been rejected due to cost-related issues. Several potential materials for this objective have been found and have been compared to determine the most suitable material for the purification process. Sawdust, among all the materials investigated, shows high potential and very promising results. Sawdust has been shown to have a good structure suitable for water purification processes. Parameters affecting the adsorption mechanism of heavy metals into sawdust have been studied and it has been shown that pH, contact time and several other parameters could play a major role in improving the adsorption process. The adsorption was found to follow the Langmuir or Freundlich isotherm and a pseudo second-order kinetic model, meaning that the type of adsorption was a chemisorption. Sawdust has major advantages to be considered and is one of the most promising materials to solve the wastewater problem.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304724PMC
July 2021

DNA Based and Stimuli-Responsive Smart Nanocarrier for Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer: Applications and Challenges.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 6;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

The rapid development of multidrug co-delivery and nano-medicines has made spontaneous progress in tumor treatment and diagnosis. DNA is a unique biological molecule that can be tailored and molded into various nanostructures. The addition of ligands or stimuli-responsive elements enables DNA nanostructures to mediate highly targeted drug delivery to the cancer cells. Smart DNA nanostructures, owing to their various shapes, sizes, geometry, sequences, and characteristics, have various modes of cellular internalization and final disposition. On the other hand, functionalized DNA nanocarriers have specific receptor-mediated uptake, and most of these ligand anchored nanostructures able to escape lysosomal degradation. DNA-based and stimuli responsive nano-carrier systems are the latest advancement in cancer targeting. The data exploration from various studies demonstrated that the DNA nanostructure and stimuli responsive drug delivery systems are perfect tools to overcome the problems existing in the cancer treatment including toxicity and compromised drug efficacy. In this light, the review summarized the insights about various types of DNA nanostructures and stimuli responsive nanocarrier systems applications for diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13143396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307033PMC
July 2021

Nanomaterials for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Head and Neck Cancers: A Review.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 2;14(13). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a category of cancers that typically arise from the nose-, mouth-, and throat-lining squamous cells. The later stage of HNC diagnosis significantly affects the patient's survival rate. This makes it mandatory to diagnose this cancer with a suitable biomarker and imaging techniques at the earlier stages of growth. There are limitations to traditional technologies for early detection of HNC. Furthermore, the use of nanocarriers for delivering chemo-, radio-, and phototherapeutic drugs represents a promising approach for improving the outcome of HNC treatments. Several studies with nanostructures focus on the development of a targeted and sustained release of anticancer molecules with reduced side effects. Besides, nanovehicles could allow co-delivering of anticancer drugs for synergistic activity to counteract chemo- or radioresistance. Additionally, a new generation of smart nanomaterials with stimuli-responsive properties have been developed to distinguish between unique tumor conditions and healthy tissue. In this light, the present article reviews the mechanisms used by different nanostructures (metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, quantum dots, liposomes, nanomicelles, etc.) to improve cancer diagnosis and treatment, provides an up-to-date picture of the state of the art in this field, and highlights the major challenges for future improvements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14133706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269895PMC
July 2021

Application of Nanotechnology for Sensitive Detection of Low-Abundance Single-Nucleotide Variations in Genomic DNA: A Review.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 May 24;11(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University Medical Center, D-66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany.

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the simplest and most common type of DNA variations in the human genome. This class of attractive genetic markers, along with point mutations, have been associated with the risk of developing a wide range of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Several existing methods to detect SNPs and mutations in body fluids have faced limitations. Therefore, there is a need to focus on developing noninvasive future polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-free tools to detect low-abundant SNPs in such specimens. The detection of small concentrations of SNPs in the presence of a large background of wild-type genes is the biggest hurdle. Hence, the screening and detection of SNPs need efficient and straightforward strategies. Suitable amplification methods are being explored to avoid high-throughput settings and laborious efforts. Therefore, currently, DNA sensing methods are being explored for the ultrasensitive detection of SNPs based on the concept of nanotechnology. Owing to their small size and improved surface area, nanomaterials hold the extensive capacity to be used as biosensors in the genotyping and highly sensitive recognition of single-base mismatch in the presence of incomparable wild-type DNA fragments. Different nanomaterials have been combined with imaging and sensing techniques and amplification methods to facilitate the less time-consuming and easy detection of SNPs in different diseases. This review aims to highlight some of the most recent findings on the aspects of nanotechnology-based SNP sensing methods used for the specific and ultrasensitive detection of low-concentration SNPs and rare mutations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11061384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225127PMC
May 2021

Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing the Therapeutic Activity of ZnO Nanoparticles Biosynthesized from .

Biomimetics (Basel) 2021 May 27;6(2). Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy.

In this study, the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using (A/ZnO-NPs) is described. These particles have been characterized by UV-Vis spectrum analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. To use this biosynthesized nanoparticle as an antiproliferative and antimicrobial agent, the IC value against the breast cancer cell line and inhibition zone against were used to optimize the effect of two processing factors including dose of filtrate fungi cell and temperature. The biosynthesized A/ZnO-NPs had an absorbance band at 320 nm and spherical shapes. The mean particles size was 35 nm. RSM (response surface methodology) was utilized to investigate the outcome responses. The Model F-value of 12.21 and 7.29 implies that the model was significant for both responses. The contour plot against inhibition zone for temperature and dose showed that if the dose increases from 3.8 to 17.2 µg/mL, the inhibition zone increases up to 35 mm. As an alternative to chemical and/or physical methods, biosynthesizing zinc oxide NPs through fungi extracts can serve as a more facile and eco-friendly strategy. Additionally, for optimization of the processes, the outcome responses in the biomedical available test can be used in the synthesis of ZnO-NPs that are utilized for large-scale production in various medical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167739PMC
May 2021

Nanotechnology in Bladder Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 5;13(9). Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

Bladder cancer (BC) is the second most common cancer of the urinary tract in men and the fourth most common cancer in women, and its incidence rises with age. There are many conventional methods for diagnosis and treatment of BC. There are some current biomarkers and clinical tests for the diagnosis and treatment of BC. For example, radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy and surgical, but residual tumor cells mostly cause tumor recurrence. In addition, chemotherapy after transurethral resection causes high side effects, and lack of selectivity, and low sensitivity in sensing. Therefore, it is essential to improve new procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of BC. Nanotechnology has recently sparked an interest in a variety of areas, including medicine, chemistry, physics, and biology. Nanoparticles (NP) have been used in tumor therapies as appropriate tools for enhancing drug delivery efficacy and enabling therapeutic performance. It is noteworthy, nanomaterial could be reduced the limitation of conventional cancer diagnosis and treatments. Since, the major disadvantages of therapeutic drugs are their insolubility in an aqueous solvent, for instance, paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the important therapeutic agents utilized to treating BC, due to its ability to prevent cancer cell growth. However, its major problem is the poor solubility, which has confirmed to be a challenge when improving stable formulations for BC treatment. In order to reduce this challenge, anti-cancer drugs can be loaded into NPs that can improve water solubility. In our review, we state several nanosystem, which can effective and useful for the diagnosis, treatment of BC. We investigate the function of metal NPs, polymeric NPs, liposomes, and exosomes accompanied therapeutic agents for BC Therapy, and then focused on the potential of nanotechnology to improve conventional approaches in sensing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125468PMC
May 2021

A Hyaluronic Acid Functionalized Self-Nano-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) for Enhancement in Ciprofloxacin Targeted Delivery against Intracellular Infection.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan 38541, Gyeongbuk, Korea.

Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a potent anti-bacterial agent of the fluroquinolone family, shows poor solubility and permeability, thus leading to the development of intracellular pathogens induced multi-drug resistance and biofilms formation. To synergistically improve the biopharmaceutical parameters of CIP, a hyaluronic acid (FDA approved biocompatible polymer) functionalized self-nano emulsifying drug delivery system (HA-CIP-SNEDDS) was designed in the present study. SNEDDS formulations were tested via solubility, droplet size, zeta potential, a polydispersity index, thermodynamic stability, surface morphology, solid-state characterization, drug loading/release, cellular uptake, and biocompatibility. The final (HA-CIP-SNEDDS) formulation exhibited a mean droplet size of 50 nm with the 0.3 poly dispersity index and negative zeta potential (-11.4 mV). HA-based SNEDDS containing CIP showed an improved ability to permeate goat intestinal mucus. After 4 h, CIP-SNEDDS showed a 2-fold and HA-CIP-SNEDDS showed a 4-fold permeation enhancement as compared to the free CIP. Moreover, 80% drug release of HA-CIP-SNEDDS was demonstrated to be superior and sustained for 72 h in comparison to free CIP. However, anti-biofilm activity of HA-CIP-SNEDDS against was higher than CIP-SNEDDS and free CIP. HA-CIP-SNEDDS exhibited increased biocompatibility and improved oral pharmacokinetics as compared to free CIP. Taken together, HA-CIP-SNEDDS formulation seems to be a promising agent against with a strong targeting potential.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11051086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146397PMC
April 2021

Barium/[email protected] Glycol Nanocomposites for Dye Removal from Aqueous Solutions.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 5;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, 65404 Kavala, Greece.

Dyes are known as one of the most dangerous industrial pollutants which can cause skin diseases, allergy, and provoke cancer and mutation in humans. Therefore, one of the important environmental issues is the effective removal of dyes from industrial wastewater. In the current work, BaFeO/[email protected] glycol (abbreviated as BFO/[email protected]) nanocomposite was synthesized and evaluated regarding its capacity for adsorptive removal of a model dye Acid Blue 92 (denoted as AB92) from aqueous solutions. The characteristics of the prepared nanocomposite was determined by tests such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibration sample magnetization (VSM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of conditional parameters including pH (2-12), initial concentration of dye (20-100 mg/L), adsorbent dosage (0.02-0.1 g/L) and contact time (0-180 min) on the adsorption of dye were investigated and then optimized. The results indicated that with the increase of the adsorbent dosage from 0.02 to 0.1 g/L, the removal efficiency increased from 74.1% to 78.6%, and the adsorbed amount decreased from 148.25 to 31.44 mg/g. The maximum removal efficiency (77.54%) and adsorption capacity (31.02 mg/g) were observed at pH 2. Therefore, the general optimization conditions revealed that the maximum adsorption efficiency of dye was obtained in condition of initial concentration of 20 mg/L, contact time of 1 h and pH of solution equal 2. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic data were evaluated using a series of models. The pseudo-second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model show the best fitting with experimental data with R∼0.999.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13071161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038570PMC
April 2021

Multi-Functionalized Nanomaterials and Nanoparticles for Diagnosis and Treatment of Retinoblastoma.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

Retinoblastoma is a rare type of cancer, and its treatment, as well as diagnosis, is challenging, owing to mutations in the tumor-suppressor genes and lack of targeted, efficient, cost-effective therapy, exhibiting a significant need for novel approaches to address these concerns. For this purpose, nanotechnology has revolutionized the field of medicine with versatile potential capabilities for both the diagnosis, as well as the treatment, of retinoblastoma via the targeted and controlled delivery of anticancer drugs via binding to the overexpressed retinoblastoma gene. Nanotechnology has also generated massive advancements in the treatment of retinoblastoma based on the use of surface-tailored multi-functionalized nanocarriers; overexpressed receptor-based nanocarriers ligands (folate, galactose, and hyaluronic acid); lipid-based nanocarriers; and metallic nanocarriers. These nanocarriers seem to benchmark in mitigating a plethora of malignant retinoblastoma via targeted delivery at a specified site, resulting in programmed apoptosis in cancer cells. The effectiveness of these nanoplatforms in diagnosing and treating intraocular cancers such as retinoblastoma has not been properly discussed, despite the increasing significance of nanomedicine in cancer management. This article reviewed the recent milestones and future development areas in the field of intraocular drug delivery and diagnostic platforms focused on nanotechnology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios11040097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066896PMC
March 2021

Plant-Based Gums and Mucilages Applications in Pharmacology and Nanomedicine: A Review.

Molecules 2021 Mar 22;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, 65404 Kavala, Greece.

Gums are carbohydrate biomolecules that have the potential to bind water and form gels. Gums are regularly linked with proteins and minerals in their construction. Gums have several forms, such as mucilage gums, seed gums, exudate gums, etc. Plant gums are one of the most important gums because of their bioavailability. Plant-derived gums have been used by humans since ancient times for numerous applications. The main features that make them appropriate for use in different applications are high stabilization, viscosity, adhesive property, emulsification action, and surface-active activity. In many pharmaceutical formulations, plant-based gums and mucilages are the key ingredients due to their bioavailability, widespread accessibility, non-toxicity, and reasonable prices. These compete with many polymeric materials for use as different pharmaceuticals in today's time and have created a significant achievement from being an excipient to innovative drug carriers. In particular, scientists and pharmacy industries around the world have been drawn to uncover the secret potential of plant-based gums and mucilages through a deeper understanding of their physicochemical characteristics and the development of safety profile information. This innovative unique class of drug products, useful in advanced drug delivery applications, gene therapy, and biosynthesis, has been developed by modification of plant-based gums and mucilages. In this review, both fundamental and novel medicinal aspects of plant-based gums and mucilages, along with their capacity for pharmacology and nanomedicine, were demonstrated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004199PMC
March 2021

Biochemical, Ameliorative and Cytotoxic Effects of Newly Synthesized Curcumin Microemulsions: Evidence from In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 23;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Chemistry, University of Zabol, P.O. Box. 98613-35856, Zabol, PIran.

Curcumin is known to exhibit antioxidant and tissue-healing properties and has recently attracted the attention of the biomedical community for potential use in advanced therapies. This work reports the formulation and characterization of oil-in-water F127 microemulsions to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin Microemulsions showed a high encapsulation efficiency and prolonged release. To investigate the interactions of curcumin with one unit of the polymeric chain of surfactant F127, ethyl butyrate, and sodium octanoate, as well as the interaction between ethyl butyrate and one unit of the F127 polymer chain, the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the M06-2X level of theory, were performed in water solution. The MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of free and encapsulated curcumin on non-malignant and malignant cell lines. Combination effects were calculated according to Chou-Talalay's principles. Results of in vitro studies indicated that MCF7 and HepG2 cells were more sensitive to curcumin microemulsions. Moreover, a synergistic relationship was observed between curcumin microemulsions and cisplatin in all affected fractions of MCF7 and HepG2 cells (CI < 0.9). For in vivo investigation, thioacetamide-intoxicated rats received thioacetamide (100 mg/kg Sc) followed by curcumin microemulsions (30 mg/kg Ip). Thioacetamide-intoxicated rats showed elevated serum liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels, and a significant reduction in liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities ( < 0.05). Curcumin microemulsions reduced liver enzymes and serum creatinine and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in thioacetamide-treated rats in comparison to the untreated thioacetamide-intoxicated group. Histopathological investigations confirmed the biochemical findings. Overall, the current results showed the desirable hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and anti-cancer effects of curcumin microemulsions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11030817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004644PMC
March 2021

Nanomaterials for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Inflammatory Arthritis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 18;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University Medical Center, D-66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany.

Nanomaterials have received increasing attention due to their unique chemical and physical properties for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common complex multifactorial joint-associated autoimmune inflammatory disorder. RA is characterized by an inflammation of the synovium with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) and by the destruction of the articular cartilage and bone, and it is associated with the development of cardiovascular disorders such as heart attack and stroke. While a number of imaging tools allow for the monitoring and diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis, and despite ongoing work to enhance their sensitivity and precision, the proper assessment of RA remains difficult particularly in the early stages of the disease. Our goal here is to describe the benefits of applying various nanomaterials as next-generation RA imaging and detection tools using contrast agents and nanosensors and as improved drug delivery systems for the effective treatment of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002885PMC
March 2021

Nanomaterials in Cementitious Composites: An Update.

Molecules 2021 Mar 6;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, GR-654 04 Kavala, Greece.

This review is an update about the addition of nanomaterials in cementitious composites in order to improve their performance. The most common used nanomaterials for cementitious materials are carbon nanotubes, nanocellulose, nanographene, graphene oxide, nanosilica and nanoTiO. All these nanomaterials can improve the physical, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of cementitious composites, for example increase their compressive and tensile strength, accelerate hydration, decrease porosity and enhance fire resistance. Cement based materials have a very complex nanostructure consisting of hydration products, crystals, unhydrated cement particles and nanoporosity where traditional reinforcement, which is at the macro and micro scale, is not effective. Nanomaterials can reinforce the nanoscale, which wasn't possible heretofore, enhancing the performance of the cementitious matrix.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961426PMC
March 2021

Quercetin-loaded F127 nanomicelles: Antioxidant activity and protection against renal injury induced by gentamicin in rats.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 27;276:119420. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, Kavala, Greece. Electronic address:

Quercetin (Q) is formulated into oil-in-water F127 microemulsions to improve its bioavailability. The size of the Q-loaded microemulsions system was about 8 nm by dynamic light scattering analysis. To compare antioxidant activity of bulk solution and microemulsion of Q, free radical scavenging activity was evaluated against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The IC50 values were 56.77 and 187.68 μM, respectively. The drug in the bulk form released 16.34 times faster than microemulsion form. Although gentamicin (GM) has potent efficacy against gram-negative bacteria, it induces renal toxicity. Poor solubility and low bioavailability of Q as a bioflavonoid with potent antioxidant activity, limit its therapeutic application. We aimed to compare the effect of free Q and nanoencapsulated (NEQ) against GM-induced renal damage in Wistar rats. Forty-two animals were divided into six groups. Control and GM groups received apo-nanomicelles and GM (100 mg/kg) for 10 days. Two groups received Q (50 mg/kg, i.g.) and NEQ (50 mg/kg, i.g.) respectively for 10 days. Remaining two groups received Q and NEQ (50 mg/kg, i.g.) plus GM (100 mg/kg, i.p.) simultaneously for 10 days. After the experiments, serum and kidneys were used for biochemical, molecular and histological examinations. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to explore kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) expression as a specific protein biomarker of renal injury. Our findings indicated oxidative stress and altered histological features in renal tissue with deviated serum renal biomarkers in GM-treated rats. Although Q treatment in GM group tried to protect against GM-induced nephrotoxicity, but there were still differences compared to control rats. However, NEQ administration corrected elevations in the levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid and decrements in serum total proteins of GM group. Meanwhile, NEQ restored renal oxidative injury in GM rats through attenuation of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of antioxidant defense systems, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase. NEQ could also normalize GM-induced abnormal renal histology features including fibrosis. Furthermore, the result of immunohistochemistry study confirmed these findings by undetecting KIM-1 expression in NEQ treated GM group, meanwhile showing this renal biomarker in GM and Q treated GM groups. Therefore, NEQ seems to be useful in protecting against renal oxidative stress and kidney damage in a rat model of GM nephrotoxicity which deserve further evaluations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119420DOI Listing
July 2021

Recent Advances in Nanotechnology-Based Diagnosis and Treatments of Human Osteosarcoma.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 20;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Yeungnam University, 280 Daehak-Ro, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.

Osteosarcoma (OSA) is a type of bone cancer that begins in the cells that form bones.OSA is a rare mesenchymal bone neoplasm derived from mesenchymal stem cells. Genome disorganization, chromosomal modifications, deregulation of tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair defects are the factors most responsible for OSA development. Despite significant advances in the diagnosing and treatment of OSA, patients' overall survival has not improved within the last twenty years. Lately, advances in modern nanotechnology have spurred development in OSA management and offered several advantages to overcome the drawbacks of conventional therapies. This technology has allowed the practical design of nanoscale devices combined with numerous functional molecules, including tumor-specific ligands, antibodies, anti-cancer drugs, and imaging probes. Thanks to their small sizes, desirable drug encapsulation efficiency, and good bioavailability, functionalized nanomaterials have found wide-spread applications for combating OSA progression. This review invokes the possible utility of engineered nanomaterials in OSA diagnosis and treatment, motivating the researchers to seek new strategies for tackling the challenges associated with it.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios11020055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924594PMC
February 2021

Nanomaterials for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Feb 22;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University Medical Center, Kirrbergerstr. Bldg. 37, D-66421 Homburg, Germany.

The diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain challenging due to the lack of convenient assessment techniques and to the resistance to conventional antimicrobial therapy, showing the need for novel approaches to address such problems. In this regard, nanotechnology has a strong potential for both the diagnosis and therapy of UTIs via controlled delivery of antimicrobials upon stable, effective and sustained drug release. On one side, nanoscience allowed the production of various nanomaterial-based evaluation tools as precise, effective, and rapid procedures for the identification of UTIs. On the other side, nanotechnology brought tremendous breakthroughs for the treatment of UTIs based on the use of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) for instance, owing to the antimicrobial properties of metals, or of surface-tailored nanocarriers, allowing to overcome multidrug-resistance and prevent biofilm formation via targeted drug delivery to desired sites of action and preventing the development of cytotoxic processes in healthy cells. The goal of the current study is therefore to present the newest developments for the diagnosis and treatment of UTIs based on nanotechnology procedures in relation to the currently available techniques.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11020546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926703PMC
February 2021

Lignin-Stabilized Doxorubicin Microemulsions: Synthesis, Physical Characterization, and In Vitro Assessments.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 21;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Centro de Física de Materiales, CSIC-UPV/EHU, Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 5, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain.

Encapsulation of the chemotherapy agents within colloidal systems usually improves drug efficiency and decreases its toxicity. In this study, lignin (LGN) (the second most abundant biopolymer next to cellulose on earth) was employed to prepare novel doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsions with the aim of enhancing the bioavailability of DOX. The droplet size of DOX-loaded microemulsion was obtained as ≈ 7.5 nm by dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. The entrapment efficiency (EE) % of LGN/DOX microemulsions was calculated to be about 82%. In addition, a slow and sustainable release rate of DOX (68%) was observed after 24 h for these microemulsions. The cytotoxic effects of standard DOX and LGN/DOX microemulsions on non-malignant (HUVEC) and malignant (MCF7 and C152) cell lines were assessed by application of a tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. Disruption of cell membrane integrity was investigated by measuring intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. experiments showed that LGN/DOX microemulsions induced noticeable morphological alterations and a greater cell-killing effect than standard DOX. Moreover, LGN/DOX microemulsions significantly disrupted the membrane integrity of C152 cells. These results demonstrate that encapsulation and slow release of DOX improved the cytotoxic efficacy of this anthracycline agent against cancer cells but did not improve its safety towards normal human cells. Overall, this study provides a scientific basis for future studies on the encapsulation efficiency of microemulsions as a promising drug carrier for overcoming pharmacokinetic limitations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13040641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926373PMC
February 2021

Assessment of SnFeO Nanoparticles for Potential Application in Theranostics: Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro, and In Vivo Toxicity.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Feb 9;14(4). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy.

In this research, tin ferrite (SnFeO) NPs were synthesized via hydrothermal route using ferric chloride and tin chloride as precursors and were then characterized in terms of morphology and structure using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray power diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The obtained UV-Vis spectra was used to measure band gap energy of as-prepared SnFeO NPs. XRD confirmed the spinel structure of NPs, while SEM and TEM analyses disclosed the size of NPs in the range of 15-50 nm and revealed the spherical shape of NPs. Moreover, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and BET analysis was carried out to estimate elemental composition and specific surface area, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity of the synthesized NPs were studied on normal (HUVEC, HEK293) and cancerous (A549) human cell lines. HUVEC cells were resistant to SnFeO NPs; while a significant decrease in the viability of HEK293 cells was observed when treated with higher concentrations of SnFeO NPs. Furthermore, SnFeO NPs induced dramatic cytotoxicity against A549 cells. For in vivo study, rats received SnFeO NPs at dosages of 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg. The 10 mg/kg dose increased serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to the controls (P < 0.05). The pathology showed necrosis in the liver, heart, and lungs, and the greatest damages were related to the kidneys. Overall, the in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that SnFeO NPs at high doses had toxic effects on lung, liver and kidney cells without inducing toxicity to HUVECs. Further studies are warranted to fully elucidate the side effects of SnFeO NPs for their application in theranostics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14040825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915467PMC
February 2021

Biochemical effects of deferasirox and deferasirox-loaded nanomicellesin iron-intoxicated rats.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 2;270:119146. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, Kavala, Greece. Electronic address:

Deferasirox (DFX) was formulated into oil-in-water microemulsions in the presence of pluronicto improve its oral bioavailability. The size of the DFX-loadedmicroemulsions system measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) was about 9 nm. The anti-proliferative and anti-lipid peroxidation effects of DFX and DFX-loaded microemulsions were assessed on Human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells. Our in vitro results showed that HUVEC cells are more susceptible to free DFX as compared to DFX-loaded microemulsions. Although both free and encapsulated DFX attenuated FeCl-induced lipid peroxidation, after 6 and 12 h treatment, DFX-loaded microemulsions did not appear a better ameliorator than DFX. To compare the in vivo efficacy of free DFX and DFX-loaded microemulsions in iron- intoxicated rats, the animals were orally administered with 25 mg/kg DFX, or 25 mg/kg DFX microemulsions, respectively. In vivo gavage handling of free DFX significantly increased serum biochemical parameters. There was also a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in rats who received free DFX compared to those in the control rats. Treatment with DFX-loaded microemulsions restored the elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, and creatinine levels and also reduced liver MDA content. Histopathological analysis of renal and hepatic tissues was in line with the biochemical results. In conclusion, DFX-loaded microemulsions induce less toxicity than free DFX and appear a more desirable and safer drug carrier in combating the iron-overload complications. Theoretical simulations are performed to get better insight regarding interactions between DFX and surfactant F127.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119146DOI Listing
April 2021

Progress in the Application of Nanoparticles and Graphene as Drug Carriers and on the Diagnosis of Brain Infections.

Molecules 2021 Jan 2;26(1). Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, 65404 Kavala, Greece.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the protective sheath around the brain that protects the sensitive microenvironments of the brain. However, certain pathogens, viruses, and bacteria disrupt the endothelial barrier and cause infection and hence inflammation in meninges. Macromolecular therapeutics are unable to cross the tight junctions, thereby limiting their bioavailability in the brain. Recently, nanotechnology has brought a revolution in the field of drug delivery in brain infections. The nanostructures have high targeting accuracy and specificity to the receptors in the case of active targeting, which have made them the ideal cargoes to permeate across the BBB. In addition, nanomaterials with biomimetic functions have been introduced to efficiently cross the BBB to be engulfed by the pathogens. This review focuses on the nanotechnology-based drug delivery approaches for exploration in brain infections, including meningitis. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, or, rarely, protozoa or parasites may be the cause of brain infections. Moreover, inflammation of the meninges, called meningitis, is presently diagnosed using laboratory and imaging tests. Despite attempts to improve diagnostic instruments for brain infections and meningitis, due to its complicated and multidimensional nature and lack of successful diagnosis, meningitis appears almost untreatable. Potential for overcoming the difficulties and limitations related to conventional diagnostics has been shown by nanoparticles (NPs). Nanomedicine now offers new methods and perspectives to improve our knowledge of meningitis and can potentially give meningitis patients new hope. Here, we review traditional diagnosis tools and key nanoparticles (Au-NPs, graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), QDs, etc.) for early diagnosis of brain infections and meningitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795866PMC
January 2021

Investigation on the Linear and Nonlinear Properties of Morin in Presence of Reverse Micelle and Different Oil Content in Reverse Micelle.

J Fluoresc 2021 Mar 4;31(2):373-383. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

School of Physics, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Burla, Odisha, 768019, India.

We investigate the linear and nonlinear optical property of Morin (MN) at different concentration (1 × 10-6 and 5 × 10-6 M) within AOT reversed micelle prepared by water-in-decane microemulsion having a constant molar ratio of water-to-surfactant molecules of 40 (W = [H2O]/[AOT] = 40) as well as the function of mass fraction of nano-droplet (MFD) values of 0.01,0.04, 0.07, and 0.1 by using UV-Visible, Fluorescence, FTIR, and Z-scan techniques. The steady-state measurement indicates that the presence of microenvironment can greatly affect the tautomeric structure of morin and also Morin property in microenvironment depends upon the amount of oil and Morin concentration. The increase in dipole moment from the ground state to excited state in microenvironment indicate the change in the molecular structure on morin. Morin does not show any nonlinear absorption property but the nonlinear refractive index is observed as a function of Morin concentration as well as MFD values which are due to the thermal agitation of formed dimers. Morin nonlinearity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10895-020-02665-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Nanotechnology in ovarian cancer: Diagnosis and treatment.

Life Sci 2021 Feb 16;266:118914. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, Kavala, Greece. Electronic address:

To overcome the drawbacks of conventional delivery, this review spotlights a number of nanoscale drug delivery systems, including nanoparticles, liposomes, nano micelles, branched dendrimers, nanocapsules, and nanostructured lipid formulations for the targeted therapy of ovarian cancer. These nanoformulations offer numerous advantages to promote therapeutic drug delivery such as nontoxicity, biocompatibility, good biodegradability, increased therapeutic impact than free drugs, and non-inflammatory effects. Importantly, the development of specific ligands functionalized nanoformulations enable preferential targeting of ovarian tumors and eventually amplify the therapeutic potential compared to nonfunctionalized counterparts. Ovarian cancer is typically identified by biomarker assessment such as CA125, HE4, Mucin 1, and prostatic. There is, nevertheless, a tremendous demand for less costly, faster, and compact medical tools, both for timely detection and ovarian cancer control. This paper explored multiple types of tumor marker-based on nanomaterial biosensors. Initially, we mention different forms of ovarian cancer biomarkers involving CA125, human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), mucin 1 (MUC1), and prostate. It is accompanied by a brief description of new nanotechnology methods for diagnosis. Nanobiosensors for evaluating ovarian cancer biomarkers can be categorized based on electrochemical, optical, paper-based, giant magnetoresistive, and lab-on-a-chip devices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118914DOI Listing
February 2021

Nanotreatment and Nanodiagnosis of Prostate Cancer: Recent Updates.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Aug 28;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, 65404 Kavala, Greece.

The fabrication and development of nanomaterials for the treatment of prostate cancer have gained significant appraisal in recent years. Advancements in synthesis of organic and inorganic nanomaterials with charge, particle size, specified geometry, ligand attachment etc have resulted in greater biocompatibility and active targeting at cancer site. Despite all of the advances made over the years in discovering drugs, methods, and new biomarkers for cancer of the prostate (PCa), PCa remains one of the most troubling cancers among people. Early on, effective diagnosis is an essential part of treating prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or serum prostate-specific antigen is the best serum marker widely accessible for diagnosis of PCa. Numerous efforts have been made over the past decade to design new biosensor-based strategies for biomolecules detection and PSA miniaturization biomarkers. The growing nanotechnology is expected to have a significant effect in the immediate future on scientific research and healthcare. Nanotechnology is thus predicted to find a way to solve one of the most and long-standing problem, "early cancer detection". For early diagnosis of PCa biomarkers, different nanoparticles with different approaches have been used. In this review, we provide a brief description of the latest achievements and advances in the use of nanoparticles for PCa biomarker diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10091696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7559844PMC
August 2020

Detecting Mercury (II) and Thiocyanate Using "Turn-on" Fluorescence of Graphene Quantum Dots.

J Fluoresc 2020 Sep 20;30(5):1181-1187. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4, Canada.

In this work, 1.8 nm graphene quantum dots (GQDs), exhibiting bright blue fluorescence, were prepared using a bottom-up synthesis from citric acid. The fluorescence of the GQDs could be almost completely quenched (about 96%) by adding Hg. Quenching was far less efficient with other similar heavy metals, Tl, Pb and Bi. Fluorescence could be near quantitatively restored through the introduction of thiocyanate. This "turn-on" fluorescence can thus be used to detect both or either environmental and physiological contaminants mercury and thiocyanate and could prove useful for the development of simple point-of-care diagnostics in the future. Graphical Abstract.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10895-020-02586-zDOI Listing
September 2020

Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery, Imaging, and Theragnosis.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Jun 22;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, 65404 Kavala, Greece.

In the past few decades, polymeric nanocarriers have been recognized as promising tools and have gained attention from researchers for their potential to efficiently deliver bioactive compounds, including drugs, proteins, genes, nucleic acids, etc., in pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Remarkably, these polymeric nanocarriers could be further modified as stimuli-responsive systems based on the mechanism of triggered release, i.e., response to a specific stimulus, either endogenous (pH, enzymes, temperature, redox values, hypoxia, glucose levels) or exogenous (light, magnetism, ultrasound, electrical pulses) for the effective biodistribution and controlled release of drugs or genes at specific sites. Various nanoparticles (NPs) have been functionalized and used as templates for imaging systems in the form of metallic NPs, dendrimers, polymeric NPs, quantum dots, and liposomes. The use of polymeric nanocarriers for imaging and to deliver active compounds has attracted considerable interest in various cancer therapy fields. So-called smart nanopolymer systems are built to respond to certain stimuli such as temperature, pH, light intensity and wavelength, and electrical, magnetic and ultrasonic fields. Many imaging techniques have been explored including optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear imaging, ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). This review reports on the most recent developments in imaging methods by analyzing examples of smart nanopolymers that can be imaged using one or more imaging techniques. Unique features, including nontoxicity, water solubility, biocompatibility, and the presence of multiple functional groups, designate polymeric nanocues as attractive nanomedicine candidates. In this context, we summarize various classes of multifunctional, polymeric, nano-sized formulations such as liposomes, micelles, nanogels, and dendrimers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12061397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362228PMC
June 2020

Polystyrene Magnetic Nanocomposites as Antibiotic Adsorbents.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Jun 9;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, Kavala 65404, Greece.

There are different ways for antibiotics to enter the aquatic environment, with wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) considered to be one of the main points of entrance. Even treated wastewater effluent can contain antibiotics, since WWTP cannot eliminate the presence of antibiotics. Therefore, adsorption can be a sustainable option, compared to other tertiary treatments. In this direction, a versatile synthesis of poly(styrene-block-acrylic acid) diblock copolymer/FeO magnetic nanocomposite (abbreviated as P(St--AAc)/FeO)) was achieved for environmental applications, and particularly for the removal of antibiotic compounds. For this reason, the synthesis of the P(St--AAc) diblock copolymer was conducted with a reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) method. Monodisperse superparamagnetic nanocomposite with carboxylic acid groups of acrylic acid was adsorbed on the surface of FeO nanoparticles. The nanocomposites were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. Then, the nanoparticles were applied to remove ciprofloxacin (antibiotic drug compound) from aqueous solutions. The effects of various parameters, such as initial drug concentration, solution pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time on the process were extensively studied. Operational parameters and their efficacy in the removal of Ciprofloxacin were studied. Kinetic and adsorption isothermal studies were also carried out. The maximum removal efficiency of ciprofloxacin (97.5%) was found at an initial concentration of 5 mg/L, pH 7, adsorbent's dosage 2 mg/L, contact time equal to 37.5 min. The initial concentration of antibiotic and the dose of the adsorbent presented the highest impact on efficiency. The adsorption of ciprofloxacin was better fitted to Langmuir isotherm (R = 0.9995), while the kinetics were better fitted to second-order kinetic equation (R = 0.9973).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12061313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362001PMC
June 2020

Nanomaterials in Cosmetics: Recent Updates.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 May 20;10(5). Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Chemistry, International Hellenic University, 65404 Kavala, Greece.

This review paper collects the recent updates regarding the use of nanomaterials in cosmetics. Special focus is given to the applications of nanomaterials in the cosmetic industry, their unique features, as well as the advantages of nanoscale ingredients compared to non-nanoscale products. The state-of-the-art practices for physicochemical and toxicological characterization of nanomaterials are also reviewed. Moreover, special focus is given to the current regulations and safety assessments that are currently in place regarding the use of nanomaterials in cosmetics-the new 2019 European guidance for the safety assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics, together with the new proposed methodologies for the toxicity evaluation of nanomaterials. Concerns over health risks have limited the further incorporation of nanomaterials in cosmetics, and since new nanomaterials may be used in the future by the cosmetic industry, a detailed characterization and risk assessment are needed to fulfill the standard safety requirements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10050979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279536PMC
May 2020

Overview of the anticancer activity of withaferin A, an active constituent of the Indian ginseng Withania somnifera.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 13;27(21):26025-26035. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy,, University of Oradea, 410028, Oradea, Romania.

Cancer is still considered a "hopeless case", besides all of the advancements in oncology research. On the other hand, the natural products, as effective lead molecules, have gained significant interest for research due to the absence of toxic and harmful side effects usually associated with conventional treatment methods. Medicinal properties of herbal plants are strongly evidenced in traditional medicine from ancient times. In the context above, withaferin A (WA) was identified as the active principle of the plant Withania somnifera, its molecule being reported to have excellent anticancer and tumour inhibition activities in various cell lines. Furthermore, the in silico approaches in the medicinal chemistry of WA revealed the biological targets and gave momentum for the research that leads to many amazing pharmacological activities of WA which are not yet explored. This includes a broad spectrum of anticancer actions manifested in different organs (breast, pancreas, colon), melanoma and B cell lymphoma, etc. This review is an extensive survey of the most recent anticancer studies reported for WA, along with its mechanism of action and details about its in vitro and/or in vivo behaviour.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09028-0DOI Listing
July 2020
-->