Publications by authors named "Abbas Norouzian Baghani"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in raw and treated wastewater in 3 cities of Iran: Tehran, Qom and Anzali during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2021 Feb 24:1-12. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to identifying the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in raw and treated wastewater during the COVID-19 outbreak in Tehran, Qom and Anzali cities (Iran). From three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), 28 treated and untreated wastewater composite samples were collected from April 4 to May 2, 2020. In this study, polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used through one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for identification of RNA viruses. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was elicited from wastewater composite samples in all inlet samples taken from the three above mentioned cities. The results of outlet samples were as follows: 1) Results from Qom and East Anzali outlets showed no trace of SARS-CoV-2 RNA despite the difference in treatment disinfection method used (chlorine vs. ultraviolet (UV) disinfection). 2. In Tehran, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in any of the outlet samples taken from the modules disinfected by UV. Out of the four samples taken from the modules disinfected by chlorine, two were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 RNA which could have been caused by deficiencies in operation and maintenance. It can be concluded that meeting the standards of operation and maintenance (O&M) in WWTPs can considerably ensure that wastewater does not act as one of the roots of transmission for the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-021-00629-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903026PMC
February 2021

Municipal solid waste recycling: Impacts on energy savings and air pollution.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2021 Mar 2:1-17. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

In recent years, recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been recognized as one of the most efficient methods of waste management in terms of environmental benefits. This study investigates the energy savings and other environmental benefits of recycling of dry MSW collected in Shiraz, Iran (2018). The impact of different recycling rates (current = 15%, desirable = 50%, ideal = 80%) on environmental benefits and energy savings were assessed. The annual quantity of recycled components were defined as glass (735 tons), plastic carrier bags (555 tons), cardboard (3,874 tons), paper (3,806 tons), disposable plastic containers (287 tons), other types of metals (785 tons), disposable metallic containers (aluminum) (171 tons), other types of plastics (812 tons) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (887 tons). The results confirmed that recycling of paper and glass in three different scenarios resulted in a reduction of 1.01, 2.14, and 3.43 million tons of air pollutant emissions, respectively. By improving the recycling rates from 15 to 80%, overall energy savings can improve by between a factor of 3.5 to 5.5. Also, a reduction of approximately 2-3.5% in air pollutant emissions can be achieved by upgrading the current recycling program (15% recycling rate) to favorable and ideal conditions.: In recent years, recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been recognized as one of the most efficient methods of waste management in terms of environmental benefits. This study investigates the energy savings and other environmental benefits of recycling of dry MSW collected in Shiraz, Iran (2018). According to available data, there has been little effort for recycling in developing countries, and waste landfilling is recognized as the most favorable option in MSW management. The aim of this study was to characterize MSW components in Shiraz, Iran, and to quantify the environmental benefits and energy savings as result of paper, glass, and aluminum recycling. This work is novel in that there are no reports to our knowledge of the environmental benefits and energy savings resulting from different recycling scenarios including current (15%), desirable (50%), and ideal (80%) recycling for aluminum, paper, and glass. The results of this work have broad implications both for other regions owing to the pervasiveness of recycling facilities and also for developing countries that can strive towards the infrastructure needed to reach improved recycling scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2021.1883770DOI Listing
March 2021

Modes of Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Factors Influencing on the Airborne Transmission: A Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 6;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The multiple modes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission including airborne, droplet, contact, and fecal-oral transmissions that cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) contribute to a public threat to the lives of people worldwide. Herein, different databases are reviewed to evaluate modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and study the effects of negative pressure ventilation, air conditioning system, and related protection approaches of this virus. Droplet transmission was commonly reported to occur in particles with diameter >5 µm that can quickly settle gravitationally on surfaces (1-2 m). Instead, fine and ultrafine particles (airborne transmission) can stay suspended for an extended period of time (≥2 h) and be transported further, e.g., up to 8 m through simple diffusion and convection mechanisms. Droplet and airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can be limited indoors with adequate ventilation of rooms, by routine disinfection of toilets, using negative pressure rooms, using face masks, and maintaining social distancing. Other preventive measures recommended include increasing the number of screening tests of suspected carriers of SARS-CoV-2, reducing the number of persons in a room to minimize sharing indoor air, and monitoring people's temperature before accessing a building. The work reviews a body of literature supporting the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through air, causing COVID-19 disease, which requires coordinated worldwide strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825517PMC
January 2021

Gamma radiation in the mineral hot springs of Ardabil, Iran: Assessment of Environmental Dose Rate and health risk for swimmers.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 Jun 15;192(7):431. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The main aim of this study was to evaluate gamma radiation level in the mineral hot springs of Ardabil province in Iran. In addition, the cancer risk of gamma radiation was assessed for swimmers. Natural gamma radiation was measured using Ion Chamber Survey Meter 451B in 22 springs throughout the province. Gamma was measured at 20 cm and 100 cm above the ground level in 15 locations of each spring. Excess lifetime cancer risk was calculated to investigate the risk of exposure to gamma radiation. The highest and lowest annual absorbed dose rate of gamma were found to be 1.17(10) and 1.99(10) Sv/y at the height of 20 cm above the ground level and 5.26(10) and 1.52(10) Sv/y at the height of 100 cm above the ground level, respectively. Excess lifetime cancer risk ranged from 4.57(10) to 7.76(10) at the height of 20 cm and from 2.06(10) to 5.94(10) at the height of 100 cm which are lower than global average of 1.45(10) declared by the United Nations. Although the risk level in this study is lower than the global average, protective and preventive measures should be considered by individuals and authorities in these areas to reduce the effects of gamma radiation on the health of the swimmers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08402-2DOI Listing
June 2020

Dataset on specifications, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of volatile organic compounds during recycling paper and cardboard.

Data Brief 2020 Apr 17;29:105296. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were studied during paper and cardboard recycling from a paper and cardboard solid waste recycling factory (PCSWRF). Data are summarized in this article for the following quantities for a PCSWRF during the winter in Tehran, Iran: VOC concentrations (μg m), the percentage of detected VOCs, exposure indices (E) of individual and total VOCs (TVOCs), inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) of VOCs, the hazard quotient (HQ) of VOCs, sensitivity analysis (SA) for VOC exposure in different age groups (birth to <81), and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r) between VOC concentrations and meteorological parameters. For more insight please see "Characteristics and Health Effects of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions during Paper and Cardboard Recycling"[1], https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2019.102005.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056630PMC
April 2020

Characteristics and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with dust in household evaporative coolers.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jan 16;256:113379. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study reports a characterization of indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with dust (dust-PAHs) in household evaporative coolers and their associated health effects. Extensive analysis showed that the indoor dust-PAHs stemmed mostly from pyrogenic sources (vehicular emissions) with mean total concentrations limited between 131 and 429 ng g. The distribution pattern of PAHs based on number of rings exhibited the following order of decreasing relative abundance: 4 > 3 > 5 > 6 > 2 rings. Results indicate that the mutagenicity of dust-PAHs exceeded their carcinogenicity, but that the potential carcinogenic effects are still significant. The mean lifetime cancer risk for different age groups for three pathways based on Model 2 (dermal (1.39 × 10 to 1.91 × 10), ingestion (2.13 × 10 to 8.08 × 10) and inhalation (1.62 × 10 to 4.06 × 10)) was 7.4-146 times higher than values predicted by Model 1 (dermal (5.13 × 10 to 3.03 × 10), ingestion (9.34 × 10 to 1.31 × 10) and inhalation (7.13 × 10 to 1.68 × 10)). Hence, exposure to dust-PAHs in household evaporative coolers lead to high risk, especially for children (less than 11 years) (HQ = 2.71 × 10 to 54.8 and LTCRs = 7.13 × 10 to 1.39 × 10). Strategies should be considered to eliminate such pollutants to protect people, especially children, from the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects by changing household evaporative coolers with other cooling systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113379DOI Listing
January 2020

Changing face of Candida colonization pattern in pediatric patients with hematological malignancy during repeated hospitalizations, results of a prospective observational study (2016-2017) in shiraz, Iran.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Aug 30;19(1):759. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Surveillance of current changes in the epidemiology of Invasive Fungal Diseases (IFDs) as an important component of the antifungal stewardship programs (ASP), requires careful regular monitoring, especially in high-risk settings such as oncology centers. This study aimed to examine Candida colonization status and corresponding current changes in children with malignancy during repeated admissions and also investigate the possible epidemiological shifts after the implementation of ASP.

Methods: In this prospective observational study, all eligible patients younger than 18 years were recruited during 2016-2017 at Amir Medical Oncology Center (AMOC) in Shiraz, Iran. Totally, 136 patients were enrolled and 482 samples were collected from different sites (oral/nasal discharges, urine and stool). Weekly regular sampling was carried out during hospitalization. Candida colonization status and epidemiological changes were monitored during repeated admissions. Samples were cultivated on Sabouraud Dextrose agar medium and identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction -Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

Results: Estimated Candida colonization incidence was 59.9% (82/136) in our patients. Candida colonization was found to be higher in oral cavity and rectum than that in nasal cavity. Among those long-term follow ups and repetitive hospitalizations, a significant number of patients exhibited changes in their colonization patterns (37.7%). Candida colonization did not reveal any significant relationship with age, sex, oncologic diseases and degree of neutropenia. C. albicans (72.0%) was found as the most common Candida species in colonized patients, followed by C. krusei, C. kefyr, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis.

Conclusion: Given the high incidence of Candida infections in children with cancers, close monitoring of epidemiologic changes is essential for judicious management, based on local surveillance data and improvement of overall quality of care in high risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4372-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717378PMC
August 2019

Bioaerosols in the waterpipe cafés: genera, levels, and factors influencing their concentrations.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jul 16;26(20):20297-20307. Epub 2019 May 16.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study was conducted in order to assess the exposure to bacterial and fungal bioaerosols in the air of waterpipe cafés (AWPCs), in the hose of waterpipe (HWP), and in the water bowl of the waterpipe (WBWP) and to investigate the factors influence increasing the contamination levels in waterpipe cafés in Ardabil. From all the 50 cafés studied, the samples were taken from air and from water contained in water bowl and hose for bacterial and fungal analyses. The results demonstrated that the mean numbers of bacteria and fungi in the indoor air of café, hose, and water bowl were 33.90 ± 14.86 and 25.24 ± 1.99 CFU/m, 72.16 ± 29.55 and 72.78 ± 42.45 CFU/plate, 53.7 ± 25.46 and 25.26 ± 13.94 CFU/ml, respectively. The predominant bacterial genera in waterpipe cafés were Pseudomonas and Bacillus in air, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas in the hose, and Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas in the water bowl, respectively. The predominant fungal species in waterpipe cafés were Penicillium and Cladosporium in air, yeast and Fusarium in the hose, and Paecilomyces and yeast in the water bowl, respectively. The results of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between the mean concentrations of bacterial aerosol and qualitative variables such as type of heating system, materials of wall and ceiling, traditional restaurants, interior supermarkets, moisturized walls, the number of people, area of cafés, and temperature. But there was no significant relationship between these variables and the mean concentration of fungal aerosols. The results also showed that the levels of bioaerosols were high in the air, hose, and water bowl of the waterpipe. Therefore, cafés can be a potential source for the transmission of pathogenic agents and increase the risk of respiratory diseases among waterpipe smoking individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05413-6DOI Listing
July 2019

A case study of BTEX characteristics and health effects by major point sources of pollution during winter in Iran.

Environ Pollut 2019 Apr 24;247:607-617. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study characterized spatio-temporal variations in the concentration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds in the vicinity of gas and compressed natural gas (CNG) stations in Tehran, Iran. Health risk assessment (HRA) was computed using Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) for evaluating inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR), the hazard quotient (HQ), and sensitivity analysis (SA) for BTEX exposure in different age groups (birth to <81) and as a function of distance (0-250 m) from the center of the stations. For all monitoring stations, the average values of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in winter were 466.09 ± 132.25, 873.13 ± 233.51, 493.05 ± 141.22, and 910.57 ± 145.40 μg m, respectively. The mean wintertime ratios of T/B for the 12 stations ranged from 1.69 to 2.04. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between the concentration of BTEX with either the specific month or distance from the center of stations (p > 0.05). Factors promoting BTEX formation in the study region were fuel evaporation and gas/CNG station emissions. The LTCRs for the target compounds in the winter for different age groups and distances from the center of stations was limited to 2.11 × 10 to 1.82 × 10 and 2.30 × 10 to 2.01 × 10, respectively, which exceeded proposed values by U.S. EPA. Moreover, the HQs for BTEX for three age groups and distances were limited to between 2.89 × 10 and 9.33 × 10, which were lower than the acceptable limit (HQs < 1). The results of this work are applicable to similar areas that are heavily populated with vehicular traffic. This study motivates a closer look at mitigation strategies to limit the health effects of carcinogenic emissions such as benzene and ethylbenzene from gas/CNG stations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.01.070DOI Listing
April 2019

Characteristics and health effects of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in an urban area in Iran.

Environ Pollut 2018 Nov 17;242(Pt A):938-951. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran.

This study reports a spatiotemporal characterization of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the summer and winter of 2017 in the urban area of Shiraz, Iran. Sampling was fulfilled according to EPA Method TO-11 A. The inverse distance weighting (IDW) procedure was used for spatial mapping. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate carcinogenic and non-cancer risk owing to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure in 11 age groups. The average concentrations of formaldehyde/acetaldehyde in the summer and winter were 15.07/8.40 μg m and 8.57/3.52 μg m, respectively. The formaldehyde to acetaldehyde ratios in the summer and winter were 1.80 and 2.43, respectively. The main sources of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were photochemical generation, vehicular traffic, and biogenic emissions (e.g., coniferous and deciduous trees). The mean inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) values according to the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in summer and winter ranged between 7.55 × 10 and 9.25 × 10, which exceed the recommended value by US EPA. The average LTCR according to the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in summer and winter were between 4.82 × 10 and 2.58 × 10, which exceeds recommended values for five different age groups (Birth to <1, 1 to <2, 2 to <3, 3 to <6, and 6 to <11 years). Hazard quotients (HQs) of formaldehyde ranged between 0.04 and 4.18 for both seasons, while the HQs for acetaldehyde were limited between 0.42 and 0.97.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.07.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6221454PMC
November 2018

Concentration and type of bioaerosols before and after conventional disinfection and sterilization procedures inside hospital operating rooms.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 17;164:277-282. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Operating rooms (ORs) in hospitals are sensitive wards because patients can get infections. This work aimed to characterize the type and concentration of bioaerosols in nine ORs of an educational hospital before and after sterilization and disinfection. During 2017, fungal samples were incubated at 25-28 °C for 3-7 days and bacterial samples at 37 °C for 24-48 h. The study results showed that the concentrations of fungi before cleaning procedures (for both of disinfection and sterilization) were limited from 4.83 to 18.40 CFU/m and after cleaning procedures ranged from 1.90 to 8.90 CFU/m. In addition, the concentrations of bacteria before cleaning procedures were limited 14.65-167.40 CFU/m and after cleaning procedures ranged from 9.50 to 38.40 CFU/m. The difference between the mean concentrations of airborne bioaerosols before and after sterilization was significantly different than the suggested value of 30 CFU/m (p ≤ 0.05). The bacterial concentration was higher than the recommended value (30 CFU/m) in 41% of the ORs. The main fungal species identified in the indoor air of ORs (before vs. after sterilization) were A. fumigatus (25.6 vs. 18.3%), A. Niger (11.6 vs. 5.8%), Penicillium spp. (5.5 vs. 3.3%), Alternaria spp. (2.8 vs. 0.7%), Fusarium spp. (9.7 vs. 3.7%), Mucor spp. (15 vs. 12.7%), Cephalotrichum spp. (1.7 vs. 0.8%), A. Flavus (24.6 vs. 18.5%), Cladosporium spp. (2.6 vs. 0.8%), and Trichoderma spp. (0 vs. 0.9%). The growth of biological species even after sterilization and disinfection likely resulted from factors including poor ventilation, sweeping of OR floors, inadequate HVAC filtration, high humidity, and also lack of optimum management of infectious waste after surgery. Designing well-constructed ventilation and air-conditioning systems, replacing HEPA filters, implementing more stringent, frequent, and comprehensive disinfection procedures, and controlling temperature and humidity can help decrease bioaerosols in ORs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.08.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151147PMC
November 2018

Corrigendum to "BTEX in indoor air of beauty salons: Risk assessment, levels and factors influencing their concentrations"[Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 159 (2018) 102-108].

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 11 1;163:685. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.07.105DOI Listing
November 2018

Corrigendum to "Characteristics and health effects of BTEX in a hot spot for urban pollution" [Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 155 (2018) 133-143].

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 11 31;163:686. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.07.095DOI Listing
November 2018

BTEX in indoor air of beauty salons: Risk assessment, levels and factors influencing their concentrations.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Sep 3;159:102-108. Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) were investigated in indoor air quality of 50 beauty salons in Ardabil, Iran (2017). Ten liters of air samples were collected from each salons regarding the recommended method and analyzed by GC-FID for BTEX concentration. Also, structural and operational conditions of the salons were studied with a self-designed questioner. The results of this study show that the mean concentration of benzene (32.40 ± 26.38) higher than the recommended levels by Health Canada, ANSES and HKSAR. Among the BTEX, ethylbenzene (62.38 ± 32.37) has the most concentrations in the salons. Subsequently, the cancer risk values in different age groups of birth to <6, 6 to <21, and 21 to <81 for benzene (1.83 × 10, 2.76 × 10 and 1.50 × 10, respectively) and ethylbenzene (4.9 × 10, 7.30 × 10 and 3.52 × 10, respectively) for long time exposure were drastically higher than the recommended levels. The results showed that the benzene concentration is significantly influenced by the structural and operational conditions of type of ventilation system, area of the salons, the number of people in the salon, number of services in the salons, and while doing of bridal makeup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.04.044DOI Listing
September 2018

Characteristics and health effects of BTEX in a hot spot for urban pollution.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Jul 3;155:133-143. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

This study reports a spatiotemporal characterization of toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes concentrations (BTEX) in an urban hot spot in Iran, specifically at an bus terminal region in Shiraz. Sampling was carried out according to NIOSH Compendium Method 1501. The inverse distance weighting (IDW) method was applied for spatial mapping. The Monte Carlo simulation technique was applied to evaluate carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk owing to BTEX exposure. The highest average BTEX concentrations were observed for benzene in the morning (at 7:00-9:00 A.M. local time) (26.15 ± 17.65 µg/m) and evening (at 6:00-8:00 P.M. local time) (34.44 ± 15.63 µg/m). The benzene to toluene ratios in the morning and evening were 2.02 and 3.07, respectively. The main sources of BTEX were gas stations and a municipal solid waste transfer station. The inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) for benzene in the morning and evening were 1.96 × 10 and 2.49 × 10, respectively, which exceeds the recommended value by US EPA and WHO. The hazard quotient (HQ) of all these pollutants was less than 1. The results of this work have implications for public health near 'hot spots' such as IKBT where large populations are exposed to carcinogenic emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.02.065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916771PMC
July 2018

Method development for determination of migrated phthalate acid esters from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) packaging into traditional Iranian drinking beverage (Doogh) samples: a novel approach of MSPE-GC/MS technique.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 May 22;25(13):12728-12738. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Department of Food Safety and Hygiene, School of Public Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

In the current study, a novel magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) technique combined with a gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) was developed to determine the phthalate ester content of bottled Doogh samples. Doogh is a yogurt-based drinking beverage, which is frequently consumed in Middle East and Balkans. It is produced by stirring yogurt in Chern separation machine and consists of substances such as water, yogurt, and salt in addition to aqueous extracts of native herbs. The magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-FeO) were used as adsorbents of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) due to a superior adsorption capability of hydrophobic compounds. In this context, the quantity of the extractable migrated phthalate esters (dibutyl phthalate (DBP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-N-octyl phthalate (DNOP), and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into Doogh samples was measured. The correlation between the concentration of migrated PAEs and some factors such as the type of Doogh (gaseous and without gas), difference in brand (five brands), volume (1500 and 300 mL), and the storage time also was investigated. The migration level into Doogh samples was increased by incorporating of gas as well as increasing the volume of PET bottles. Also, with elaborating of storage time, the migration of some phthalates such as DEHP (the mean from 2419.85 ng L in the first week to 2716.15 ng L in the second month), DEP, and total phthalate was increased. However, no significant difference in concentrations of migrated phthalate esters among different examined brands was noted. Finally, the concentration of migrated PAEs from bottle into all the examined Doogh samples was below the defined standards by EPA; 6 μg/L for DEHP in drinking water. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1471-yDOI Listing
May 2018

Exposure to Cooking Fumes and Acute Reversible Decrement in Lung Functional Capacity.

Int J Occup Environ Med 2017 10;8(4):207-216

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Being exposed to cooking fumes, kitchen workers are occupationally at risk of multiple respiratory hazards. No conclusive evidence exists as to whether occupational exposure to these fumes is associated with acute and chronic pulmonary effects and symptoms of respiratory diseases.

Objective: To quantify the exposure levels and evaluate possible chronic and acute pulmonary effects associated with exposure to cooking fumes.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 kitchen workers exposed to cooking fumes and 60 unexposed employees were investigated. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among these groups was determined through completion of a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function parameters were also measured before and after participants' work shift. Moreover, air samples were collected and analyzed to quantify their aldehyde, particle, and volatile organic contents.

Results: The mean airborne concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein was 0.45 (SD 0.41), 0.13 (0.1), and 1.56 (0.41) mg/m, respectively. The mean atmospheric concentrations of PM, PM, PM, PM, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was 3.31 (2.6), 12.21 (5.9), 44.16 (16.6), 57 (21.55) μg/m, and 1.31 (1.11) mg/m, respectively. All respiratory symptoms were significantly (p<0.05) more prevalent in exposed group. No significant difference was noted between the pre-shift mean of spirometry parameters of exposed and unexposed group. However, exposed workers showed cross-shift decrease in most spirometry parameters, significantly lower than the pre-shift values and those of the comparison group.

Conclusion: Exposure to cooking fumes is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as well as acute reversible decrease in lung functional capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijoem.2017.1100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6679607PMC
October 2017

One-Pot synthesis, characterization and adsorption studies of amine-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles for removal of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ions from aqueous solution: kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2016 26;14:11. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Environmental Health Department, School of Public Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Discharge of heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and nickel (Ni (II)) into aquatic ecosystems is a matter of concern in wastewater treatment due to their harmful effects on humans. In this paper, removal of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ions from aqueous solution was investigated using an amino-functionalized magnetic Nano-adsorbent (Fe3O4-NH2).

Methods: An amino-functionalized magnetic Nano-adsorbent (Fe3O4-NH2) was synthesized by compositing Fe3O4 with 1, 6-hexanediamine for removal of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ions from aqueous solution. The adsorbent was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM). Also, the effects of various operational parameters were studied.

Results: According to our finding, Fe3O4-NH2 could be simply separated from aqueous solution with an external magnetic field at 30 s. The experimental data for the adsorption of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ions revealed that the process followed the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity was 232.51 mg g(-1) for Cr (VI) at pH = 3 and 222.12 mg g(-1) and for Ni(II) at pH = 6 at 298 °K. Besides, the kinetic data indicated that the results fitted with the pseudo-second-order model (R(2): 0.9871 and 0.9947 % for Cr (VI) and Ni (II), respectively. The results of thermodynamic study indicated that: standard free energy changes (ΔG(ɵ)), standard enthalpy change (ΔH(ɵ)), and standard entropy change (ΔS(ɵ)) were respectively -3.28, 137.1, and 26.91 kJ mol(-1) for Cr (VI) and -6.8433, 116.7, and 31.02 kJ mol(-1) for Ni (II). The adsorption/desorption cycles of Fe3O4-NH2 indicated that it could be used for five times.

Conclusions: The selected metals' sorption was achieved mainly via electrostatic attraction and coordination interactions. In fact, Fe3O4-NH2 could be removed more than 96 % for both Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ions from aqueous solution and actual wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-016-0252-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4960820PMC
July 2016