Publications by authors named "Abbas Hadjiakhoondi"

47 Publications

Possible potential of genus in development of anticancer drugs.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2021 Jan-Feb;11(1):11-21

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Many pharmaceutical factories have dramatically improved the quality of herbal remedies in cancer treatment. The results of somestudies have shown anticancer effect of genus Therefore, the aim of this article was to review the chemical ingredients and biological effects of genus especially from the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae).

Materials And Methods: Online databases ScienceDirect, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched using the keywords , Apiaceae, Biologic, Phytochemistry, and Benzodioxole to retrieve studies published between 1970 and 2020.

Results: The genus has two species, (Boiss.) Drude and (L.) Drude. In this genus, 5 new biologically active phytochemicals with benzodioxole structure were introduced and their biological effects were assessed.

Conclusion: Since many of the most commonly used anticancer drugs such as etoposide, teniposide, podophyllotoxin and sanguinarine have benzodioxole structureand according to the results of biological tests, it seems that more researchwith these perspectives should be done on this genus.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885008PMC
February 2021

Diterpenoids from Zhumeria majdae roots as potential heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) modulators.

Phytochemistry 2021 May 16;185:112685. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084, Fisciano (SA), Italy. Electronic address:

Four undescribed and 17 known diterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Zhumeria majdae Rech.f. & Wendelbo. Using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, ECD spectroscopy, and HRESIMS data analysis, the structures of the undescribed compounds were elucidated. The anti-proliferative activity of isolated compounds was evaluated against HeLa and MCF7 cancer cell lines. The binding affinity of all compounds to HSP90, one of the targets for the modern anticancer therapy, was investigated using surface plasmon resonance. The results demonstrated that lanugon Q interacted with the chaperone. To explain its mechanism of action, experimental and computational tests were also conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112685DOI Listing
May 2021

Free Radical Scavenging Principles of Boiss. Aerial Parts.

Iran J Pharm Res 2020 ;19(2):283-290

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Boiss. is an aromatic perennial plant traditionally used for its anxiolytic and sedative properties. In the present study, various fractions and essential oil of aerial parts were investigated to find its free radical scavenging principles. Hydroalcoholic fraction with IC value of 112.6 ±3.2 μg mL in DPPH assay demonstrated the highest free radical scavenging activity and was selected to further phytochemical investigation. RP-18 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography of the hydroalcoholic fraction resulted in the isolation and structural elucidation of four phenolic derivatives, including apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (), rosmarinic acid (), and luteolin (). Isolated compounds showed potent free radical scavenging activities (5.1-34.2 μg mL), compared with BHT (21.30 ± 1.9 μg mL). Twenty four compounds were also identified in GC-MS analysis of the plant essential oil, of which benzyl benzoate (26.64%), -hexyl benzoate (22.99%) and -hexyl isovalerate (6.04%) were the main compounds. The results of the present study introduced as a valuable source of natural phenolic antioxidants which can be utilized in prevention of oxidative stress related diseases. Moreover, interesting composition of essential oil, dominated by non-terpenes compounds (76.17%) especially aromatic derivatives, make it an appropriate candidate for more detailed studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2020.1101055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7667560PMC
January 2020

Antiprotozoal activity of diterpenoids isolated from Zhumeria majdae- absolute configuration by circular dichroism.

Daru 2020 Dec 11;28(2):455-462. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Zhumeria majdae, a unique species of the Zhumeria genus, is an endemic Iranian plant in the Lamiaceae family. Phytochemical investigation and biological activity of this plant are rarely reported. The current study aimed to find new antiprotozoal compounds from the roots of Z. majdae and to determine the absolute configuration of isolated compounds by circular dichroism.

Methods: The extraction process from roots and aerial parts of Z. majdae was carried out by hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol followed by testing their antiprotozoal effects against Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi, and Plasmodium falciparum, respectively. Structure elucidation was done using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS spectrometry. In addition, experimental and theoretical circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to establish absolute configuration.

Results: In comparison with aerial parts, the hexane extract from roots showed superior activity against T. b. rhodesiense, L. donovani and P. falciparum with IC values of 5.4, 1.6 and 2.1 μg/ml, respectively. From eight abietane-type diterpenoids identified in roots, six were reported for the first time in the genus Zhumeria. 11,14-dihydroxy-8,11,13-abietatrien-7-one (6) exhibited a promising biological activity against P. falciparum (IC 8.65 μM), with a selectivity index (SI) of 4.6, and lanugon Q (8) showed an IC value of 0.13 μM and SI of 15.4 against T. b. rhodesiense.

Conclusion: Altogether, according to the results, of 8 isolated compounds, dihydroxy-8,11,13-abietatrien-7-one (6) and lanugon Q (8) exhibited a promising activity against T. b. rhodesiense and P. falciparum. In conclusion, these compounds could be potential candidates for further analysis and may serve as lead compounds for the synthesis of antiprotozoal agents. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40199-020-00345-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7704868PMC
December 2020

Effects of Monoterpenes of on the Viability of Spermatogonia Stem Cells In Vitro.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Mar 9;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1417614411 Tehran, Iran.

(Apiaceae) plants have several medicinal and condimentary applications and are considered an aphrodisiac agent in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of oil from Iranian plants on the viability of spermatogonial stem cells in vitro. The essential oil of fruits was extracted by hydrodistillation, and the amount of thymol was calculated by a gas-chromatography method. Spermatogonial stem cells were isolated from the testes of mice using enzyme digestion. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to assess the gene expressions of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (), DNA-binding protein inhibitor (), tyrosine-protein kinase (), B-cell lymphoma 2 () and Bcl2-associated X protein (). The number and diameter of colonies were also measured in the treated cells. The amount of thymol in the oil was 130.7 ± 7.6 µg/mL. Flow cytometry analysis showed that 92.8% of all cells expressed stimulated by retinoic acid 8 (), a spermatogonial stem cell marker. Expression of and ID-4 genes significantly increased in the treatment groups, while and decreased, and increased in the presence of essential oil. The numbers and diameters of cells were also improved by the application of the plant oil. These data indicated that monoterpenes from the oil of improved the quality and viability of spermatogonia cells in the cell culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9030343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7154887PMC
March 2020

Strong insecticidal potential of methanol extract of Ferulago trifida fruits against Anopheles stephensi as malaria vector.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Mar 22;26(8):7711-7717. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Many researchers have focused on controlling pest insects and vectors by natural products because of their low environmental pollution. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and larvicidal activities of chloroform and methanol extracts of the leaves, fruits, roots, and isolated coumarin compounds (prantschimgin, oxypeucedanin, and 6-hydroxymethylherniarin) of Ferulago trifida from the Apiaceae family against Anopheles stephensi as one of the main malaria vectors. For insecticidal evaluation, A. stephensi larvae were exposed to different concentrations of the extracts and pure compounds (0.625-1280 ppm) according to the WHO protocol. The mortality percentages were measured 24 h after treatment and lethal concentration values were calculated. In addition, radical scavenging activities of the mentioned extracts and compounds were measured by the DPPH method. The methanol extract of fruits showed potent insecticidal properties with LC and LC values of 2.94 and 18.12 ppm, respectively. The chloroform extracts of the fruits and leaves were the second and third extracts with larvicidal effects. Among pure compounds, only oxypeucedanin showed moderate toxicity against A. stephensi with LC and LC values of 116.54 and 346.41 ppm, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the methanol extracts of leaves and fruits were stronger than other extracts with IC values of 155.83 and 159.32 ppm, respectively. In conclusion, the methanol extract of F. trifida fruits can be used as a potent bio-insecticide in green control programs of mosquitoes, especially A. stephensi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04149-7DOI Listing
March 2019

Biological Evaluation of the Isolated Compounds from Methanol Fraction of Mozaff.

Iran J Pharm Res 2018 ;17(4):1386-1391

Department of Pharmacognosy, Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Mozaff. That belongs to Apiaceae family is an endemic species distributed in the west of Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and acetylcholinestrase (AChE) inhibition of the crude extract, fractions, and isolated compounds from methanol fraction of Five compounds were detected from methanol fraction; three phenolic compounds as p-coumric acid, caffeic acid, salicylic acid and also, two flavonoids as quercetin and astragalin. These structures were identified by spectroscopic techniques such as H-NMR, C-NMR, and UV. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the free radical scavenging assay using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl- hydrazyl (DPPH) method. Ellman colorimetric method was used to determine acetylcholinestrase (AChE) inhibition. In the DPPH assay, Quercetin exerted the highest antioxidant activity (IC = 10.24 ± 1.3 µg/mL). Caffeic acid inhibited AChE with IC = 12.06 ± 2.01µg/mL which were comparable to Galanthamine as positive control (IC = 62.44 ± 2.2µg/mL). In conclusion, methanol extract of contains bioactive components with antioxidant and AChE inhibitory effects.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269587PMC
January 2018

Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oil and Extract against Malaria Vector, .

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2018 Mar 18;12(1):85-93. Epub 2018 Mar 18.

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy and Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Malaria, a mosquito-transmitted disease, is still a major human health problem all over the world. Larviciding is a component of comprehensive control program to overcome the disease. Negative aspects of synthetic insecticides application, such as environmental safety concerns, have favored use of natural insecticides.

Methods: Larvicidal activity of essential oil, extracts and fractions of a wild grown and a cultivated type of fruits against malaria vector was assessed according to the method described by WHO.

Results: showed remarkable potency against larvae. LC values for essential oil, total extract, petroleum ether fraction and methanol fraction were 27.4284, 64.9933, 85.9933 and 255.7486ppm for wild type, and 21.3823, 63.2580, 62.7814 and 152.6357ppm for cultivated one.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest as a valuable source of natural insecticides against malaria vector .
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6046109PMC
March 2018

Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of : Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT Assay and Larvicidal Activities.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2017 Sep 8;11(3):414-426. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicinal Plant Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant.

Methods: Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of essential oil against malaria vector was carried out according to the method described by WHO.

Results: In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-verbenol (9.66%), isobutyl acetate (25.73%) and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68%) were main compounds. The oil showed (IC= 111.2μg/ml) in DPPH and IC= 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD= 1.1μg/ml) in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC= 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 μg/ml) on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29) respectively. LC of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except , and

Conclusion: The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5758637PMC
September 2017

Antimalarial and cytotoxic activities of roots and fruits fractions of extract.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2017 Dec;20(12):1318-1323

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: (Apiaceae) is one of the two species of this genus which grows in different parts of Iran. Roots of this plant were rich in benzodioxoles and used as food additive or salad in Iran and near countries. The aim of present study was evaluation of antimalarial and cytotoxic effects of different fractions of fruits and roots extracts.

Materials And Methods: Ripe fruits and roots of were extracted and fractionated by hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, separately. Antimalarial activities of fractions were performed based on suppressive test in mice model and percentage of parasitemia and suppression were determined for each sample. Cytotoxicity of fruits and roots fractions were investigated against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), colorectal carcinoma (SW480) and normal (L929) cell lines by MTT assay and IC of them were measured.

Results: Hexane fraction of roots extract (RHE) and ethyl acetate fraction of fruits extract (FEA) of demonstrated highest parasite inhibition (73.3 and 72.3%, respectively at 500 mg/kg/day) which were significantly different from negative control group (<0.05). In addition, RHE showed potent anticancer activities against MCF-7 (IC of 0.01 µg/ml), SW480 (IC of 0.36 µg/ml) and L929 (IC of 0.70 µg/ml) cell lines.

Conclusion: According to the results, RHE and FEA fractions of could be introduced as excellent choice for antimalarial drug discovery. In addition, cytotoxic activity of RHE was noticeable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5722991PMC
December 2017

Astrodaucus persicus as a new source of bioinsectisides against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2017 Sep 13;10(9):896-899. Epub 2017 Sep 13.

Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine the larvicidal activities of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of roots and fruits extracts of Astrodaucus persicus from Apiaceae family against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).

Methods: Twenty five third instar larvae of An. stephensi were exposed to various concentrations (10-160 g/L) of fractions and were assayed according to World Health Organization protocol. The larval mortality was calculated after 24 h treatment.

Results: Among tested fractions, the highest larvicidal efficacy was observed from ethyl acetate fraction of fruits extract with 50% and 90% mortality values (LC and LC) of 34.49 g/L and 108.61 g/L, respectively. Chloroform fraction of fruits extract was the second larvicidal sample with LC of 45.11 g/L and LC of 139.36 g/L. Petroleum ether fractions of fruits and roots and methanol fraction of fruits showed moderate toxicity against An. stephensi.

Conclusions: Astrodaucus persicus is a potential source of valuable and natural larvicidal compounds against malaria vector, An. stephensi and can be used in mosquitoes control programs as an alternative to synthetic insecticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.08.007DOI Listing
September 2017

Chemodiversity of Nepeta menthoides Boiss. & Bohse. essential oil from Iran and antimicrobial, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and cytotoxic properties of 1,8-cineole chemotype.

Nat Prod Res 2018 Nov 15;32(22):2745-2748. Epub 2017 Oct 15.

a Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicinal Plants Research Centre, Department of Pharmacognosy , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

The essential oil of Nepeta menthoides Boiss. & Bohse., from Iran, was analysed by GC/MS. Two types of multivariate analyses were done based on the chemical composition of the investigated sample in this study and 12 other samples reported in the literature to show the chemodiversity in essential oil composition. Antimicrobial, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of the essential oil and its major component were assessed. Twenty-one compounds were identified, representing 96.81% of the total oil and the major constituent was 1,8-cineole (70.06%). Multivariate analyses revealed two chemotypes, i.e. nepetalactone and 1,8-cineole. The essential oil of the sample investigated in this study which was a 1,8-cineole chemotype and 1,8-cineole showed moderate antimicrobial activity and significantly inhibited the activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Cytotoxicity evaluation against three breast cancer cell lines showed a potent inhibitory activity. Further investigations are necessary to confirm the variety in several populations of N. menthoides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1378202DOI Listing
November 2018

Bioactive coumarins from the roots and fruits of Ferulago trifida Boiss., an endemic species to Iran.

Nat Prod Res 2018 Nov 27;32(22):2724-2728. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

a Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Phytochemical analysis of the Ferulago trifida Boiss. from Apiaceae family led to the isolation and identification of suberosin (1), isoimperatorin (2), prantschimgin (3), oxypeucedanin (4), oxypeucedanin methanolate (5), suberenol (6), 6-hydroxymethylherniarin (7), oxypeucedanin hydrate (8), ulopterol (9), bergapten (10), xanthotoxin (11), imperatorin (12) and grandivittin (13) from chloroform extracts of the roots (1-9) and fruits (1, 2, 8, 10-13) of this species. Oxypeucedanin methanolate and suberenol demonstrated a potent antioxidant power with 268.2 ± 5.4 and 251.2 ± 6.2 mmol FSE/100 g, respectively, compared by BHT (267.2 ± 4.2 mmol FSE/100 g) in FRAP method. The potent antibacterial effects were found for oxypeucedanin methanolate on S. epidermidis (IZ; 26 mm, MIC; 250 μg mL) an oxypeucedanin hydrate on K. pneumoniae (IZ: 21 mm, MIC: 250 μg mL). Moreover, suberosin showed higher preferential toxicity against MDA-MB-23 cells (IC: 0.21 mM, SI: 5.0), in comparison with tamoxifen (IC: 0.012 mM, SI: 2.45) in MTT assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1375915DOI Listing
November 2018

A two-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Viola odorata, Echium amoenum and Physalis alkekengi mixture in symptomatic benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) men.

Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):1800-1805

d Recombinant Proteins Department , Breast Cancer Research Center ACECR , Tehran , Iran.

Context: As an alternative approach, administration of phytotherapeutic agents in management of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), is rapidly growing each day. Different authors have indicated effectiveness of Viola odorata L. (Violaceae), Echium amoenum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. (Boraginaceae) and Physalis alkekengi L. (Solanaceae) in treatment of BPH. However, none have reported the beneficial outcomes of the mixture yet.

Objective: This study evaluates the therapeutical effects of V. odorata, E. amoenum and P. alkekengi mixture on symptomatic BPH patients.

Materials And Methods: Eighty six symptomatic BPH patients with International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of more than 13 and prostate volume of more than 30 cm were randomly allocated to receive a two-week course of placebo (control group) or 1 mL of mixed hydro-alcoholic solution of P. alkekengi, E. amoenum and V. odorata extracts (1.5, 1 and 1.5% respectively) (treatment group).

Results: IPSS score of incomplete urination (42.3 ± 2.04%), frequency of urination (20.08 ± 1.02%), intermittency (40.78 ± 2.16%), urgency (60.91 ± 3.14%), weak stream (50.58 ± 2.14%), straining (55.67 ± 2.53%) and nocturia (40.14 ± 1.89%) in treatment group were significantly decreased after treatment compare to placebo receiving group. Furthermore, the prostate volume (16.92 ± 0.89%) and extant urine volume (28.12 ± 1.36%) also significantly decreased in treatment group compared to control group. No significant side effects or abnormalities in biochemical tests and urinalysis were observed throughout the study.

Discussion And Conclusions: Based on results, mentioned mixture is safe and effective in improving life quality of patients suffering from BPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2017.1328445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130621PMC
December 2017

Antinociceptive effect of extracts of Jacq. aerial parts.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2017 Jan-Feb;7(1):73-79

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, B.C., Canada.

Objective: The genus is used for treatment of joint pain, gout, stomach-ache and colic in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Jacq. () is a native species in the flora of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive properties of various extracts of aerial parts of .

Materials And Methods: Antinociceptive activities of total hydroalcoholic extract (THE) and its n-hexane (non-polar) and residual partition (polar) fractions were analyzed using formalin test in mice. Morphine (5 mg/kg) and normal saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively.

Results: Intraperitoneal administration of THE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), non-polar fraction (200 mg/kg) and polar fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg), 30 min before formalin injection, caused significant analgesic activity in acute phase (0-5 min after formalin injection) of formalin test (p<0.05 as compared to control and p>0.05 in comparison with morphine). In chronic phase (15-60 min after formalin injection), non-polar and polar fractions (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) showed significant analgesic activity (p<0.001 as compared to control and p>0.05 in comparison with morphine).

Conclusion: Different extracts of demonstrated antinociceptive activity that support the traditional usage of genus for the treatment of arthritis, gout and other inflammatory diseases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5329179PMC
March 2017

New Benzodioxole Compounds from the Root Extract of .

Iran J Pharm Res 2016 ;15(4):901-906

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicinal Plant Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

There are many efforts for identification of natural compounds from dietary or medicinal plants. Young roots and aerial parts of have been used as food additive or salad vegetable in some parts of Iran. In this study, different fractions of the root extract of were subjected for isolation and purification of secondary metabolites. The methanol extract of the roots was fractionated with hexane (HE), chloroform (CL), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (ME). Five novel compounds were isolated from HE, CL and EA using different chromatographic techniques and were identified by H-NMR, C-NMR, 2D-NMR and MS spectroscopic methods. Elucidated compounds with benzodioxole structure were characterized for the first time as 5-((propanoyl methyl)amino)-4,7-dimethoxybenzo[][1,3]dioxole (1), 5-(3-ethyloxiran-2-yloxy)-4,7-dimethoxybenzo[][1,3]dioxole (2), 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(propanonyl) benzo[][1,3]dioxole (3), 4-ethoxybenzo[][1,3]dioxol-6-carbaldehyde (4), and 4-(O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-6-(3-propanyloxiran-2-yloxy)benzo[][1,3]dioxole (5).
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316270PMC
January 2016

Isolation of Phenolic Derivatives and Essential Oil Analysis of (L.) Lindl. Aerial Parts.

Iran J Pharm Res 2017 ;16(Suppl):207-215

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicinal Plant Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

(L.) Lindl. (Apiaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in Mediterranean regions, Caucasia and southwest of Asia. In the present study phytochemical constituents of the extract obtained from the aerial parts of were investigated using various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Essential oil of the plant aerial parts was also analyzed using GC-MS. Five phenolic derivatives, isoimperatorin (1), ferudenol (2), caffeic acid glucosyl ester (3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) were isolated from the aerial parts of and their structures were elucidated using H-NMR, C-NMR, EI-MS and UV spectral analyses. Twenty-seven compounds were also identified in the essential oil of plant aerial parts, of which β-pinene (43.1%), α-pinene (22.1%) and -δ3-carene (16.9%) were characterized as main compounds. The results of this study introduce as a source of potentially bioactive phenolic compounds and suggest it as an appropriate candidate for further studies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5963662PMC
January 2017

Securigenin glycosides as hypoglycemic principles of Securigera securidaca seeds.

J Nat Med 2017 Jan 15;71(1):272-280. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicinal Plant Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14174-14411, Iran.

Seeds of Securigera securidaca (Fabaceae) are used in Iranian folk medicine as an antidiabetic treatment. In this study, the antihyperglycemic activity of chloroform and methanol fractions (CF and MF) from S. securidaca seed extract was investigated and their bioactive constituents were identified. The antidiabetic effects of fractions were assessed by streptozocin-induced diabetic Naval Medical Research Institute mice. The hypoglycemic activity of MF at 100 mg/kg and CF at 400 mg/kg was comparable with glibenclamide (3 mg/kg). MF at 400 mg/kg and CF at 600 mg/kg showed equal hypoglycemic responses to 12.5 IU/kg insulin (P > 0.05). Three cardiac glycosides were isolated as active constituents responsible for the hypoglycemic activity. Securigenin-3- O -β-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-xylopyranoside (1) was a major compound in seeds. Securigenin-3- O -inositol-(1 → 3)-β-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-xylopyranoside (2) and securigenin-3- O -α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-glucopyranoside (3) were found as new natural products. When 1-3 were tested at 10 mg/kg there was a significant reduction of blood glucose levels in diabetic mice, comparable to that of 3 mg/kg glibenclamide (P > 0.05). The hypoglycemic effect was due to an increase in insulin secretion; the insulin levels in the diabetic mice significantly improved and were comparable with those in healthy animals (P > 0.05). Compounds responsible for the hypoglycemic properties of S. securidaca seeds were identified as cardiac glycosides and were found to act via an increase of insulin levels in a diabetic mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11418-016-1060-7DOI Listing
January 2017

Cytotoxic Potential of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana: The MTT Assay.

Acta Med Iran 2016 Sep;54(9):583-589

Department of Pharmacognosy, Medicinal Plants Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. AND Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

The genus Centaurea with an extensive background in Iranian traditional medicine represents more than 70 species in Iran that some of them are endemic to Iran. A variety of secondary metabolites has been isolated from this genus thus far. Sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids have been reported as main compounds of C.bruguierana. Methanolic extract and different fractions of the whole fruiting samples of Centaurea bruguierana ssp.belangerana (Asteraceae) were examined for cytotoxicity against various cell lines using MTT cytotoxicity assay in order to identify active fraction(s). The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of plant have demonstrated significant cytotoxicity against colon adenocarcinoma and breast ductal carcinoma cell lines, which chloroform fraction, exhibited the most potent in vitro cytotoxic activity against colon adenocarcinoma cell line, and therefore, can be considered as the potential fraction through main compounds of plant against the adenocarcinoma colon cancer cell line. Moreover, only chloroform fraction was moderately active against Swiss embryo fibroblast cell lines while the other fractions were nontoxic. To summarize, the chloroform fraction of C.bruguierana demonstrated better cytotoxic activity against all of the tested cell lines compared with the other fractions; and promisingly in some cases represented moderate to very good cytotoxicity that suggests more investigations about its phytochemical properties.
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September 2016

Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2016 Feb;19(2):159-65

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicinal Plant Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated.

Materials And Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured.

Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity.

Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4818363PMC
February 2016

Phytochemical and Antioxidant Investigation of the Aerial Parts of Dorema glabrum Fisch. & C.A. Mey.

Iran J Pharm Res 2015 ;14(3):925-31

Department of Pharmacognosy, Medicinal Plant Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Dorema glabrum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (Apiaceae) is a monocarpic perennial plant distributed in southern Caucasus. In Azerbaijan Republic folk medicine, the gum-resin of this species is used as a diuretic and anti-diarrheal agent. It is also traditionally used for the treatment of bronchitis and catarrh. In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and extract of D. glabrum aerial parts were investigated and their free radical scavenging potentials were assessed. GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of the plant essential oil resulted in identifying twenty compounds, out of which elemicin (38.6%) and myristicin (14.3%) were main compounds. Seven compounds including daucosterol (1), chlorogenic acid (2), a mixture of cynarin (3) and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), isoquercetin (6) and astragalin (7) were also isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of D. glabrum aerial parts using different chromatographic methods on silica gel (normal and reversed-phase) and sephadex LH20. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using UV and (1)H, (13)C-NMR spectrain comparison with those reported in respective published data. Antioxidant activities of the crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds were evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay method. Among the fractions, methanol fraction (IC50=53.3 ±4.7μg mL(-1)) and among the isolated compounds, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives exhibited the highest free radical scavenging activity (IC50= 2.2-2.6 μg mL(-1)).
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4518122PMC
September 2015

Chemical composition and biological activity of Pulicaria vulgaris essential oil from Iran.

Nat Prod Commun 2014 Nov;9(11):1633-6

The present study investigated the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) from aerial parts (flowering stage) of Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn. by GC-MS. Also, the antimicrobial activity of the EO against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) was tested. In total, 23 compounds were recognized, accounting for 98.08% of the EO. The main compounds in the EO were thymol (50.22%), p-menth-6-en-2-one (carvotanacetone, 20.2%), thymol isobutyrate (16.88%), menthan-2-one (4.31%), 1-methyl-1,2-propanedione (4.13%), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymene (4.01%), myrtenol (1.22%), linalool (1.1%), and β-myrcene (1.9%). Results of antibacterial test of P. vulgaris essential oil showed that all assayed concentrations significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa at P < 0.05. MIC for B. cereus, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa was 17.5, 25.2, 19.4 and 33.2 μg/mL respectively; antifungal screening of the essential oil of P. vulgaris showed that the oil significantly inhibited the growth of A. niger and C. albicans (MIC = 15.5 and 9.9 μg/mL, respectively). Results of cytotoxicity assay showed that the essential oil exhibited a significant cytotoxic activity against both cell lines. In case of MCF-7 and Hep-G2 cell lines, IC50 of the essential oil were 5.36 and 7.16 μg/ml, respectively. The potent antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the EO may be attributed to its high contents of thymol, carvotanacetone and thymol isobutyrate. Antimicrobial and antitumor chemotherapies are showing diminishing effectiveness because of emergence of drug-resistance. Hence, using efficient natural chemotherapeutic agents such as Pulicaria vulgaris essential oil with fewer side effects is an encouraging approach to fight cancer and infectious diseases in medicine, agriculture, food science and related fields.
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November 2014

Effective antidiabetic and antioxidant fractions of Otostegia persica extract and their constituents.

Pharm Biol 2014 Aug 20;52(8):961-6. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medicinal Plant Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran and.

Context: Otostegia persica (Burm.) Boiss. (Lamiaceae), "Goldar" in Persian, is widely used in the folk medicine of south Iran for control of diabetes mellitus.

Objective: In the present study, hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of different fractions of the O. persica extract were investigated and constituents of effective fractions were elucidated.

Materials And Method: Different concentrations (100-400 mg/kg) of aqueous infusion (AI) of flowering aerial parts of the plant (traditional preparation) and all fractions of the O. persica extract (i.p. injection) were tested for antidiabetic activity in streptozocin-induced diabetic NMRI mice. Blood glucose level was measured at time 0 and intervals of 1, 2, 4, and 6 h later. Antioxidant activities of different fractions of the plant extract and pure compounds (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) were determined with the DPPH method. Four compounds were isolated and identified from potent fractions.

Results And Discussion: Antidiabetic activity demonstrated that the effect of the methanol fraction at a dose of 300 mg/kg was equivalent with glibenclamide, and at a dose of 400 mg/kg was comparable with glibenclamide and insulin (p > 0.05). The EC50 of the methanol fraction was 307.12 mg. Methanol and ethyl acetate fractions showed antioxidant activities (both IC50 equal to 0.49 mg/ml), so these fractions were selected for the purification of compounds. Chrysoeriol from ethyl acetate and three apigenin derivatives (6-methylapigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, and echinaticin) from the methanol fraction were isolated and identified (new for the species). Chrysoeriol exhibited potent antioxidant activity comparable with vitamin E and BHT (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: The present study confirmed the folklore usage of O. persica for antidiabetic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2013.874463DOI Listing
August 2014

Chemical constituents and cytotoxic effect of the main compounds of Lythrum salicaria L.

Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2013 Sep-Oct;68(9-10):367-75

Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Lythrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae), a herbaceous plant growing widely in Iran, has been well known for many centuries for its astringent and styptic properties. A phytochemical investigation of this plant, based on spectroscopic analysis, identified fourteen compounds: 5-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one (1), umbelliferone-6-carboxylic acid (2), 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-(2"-acetyl)-glucopyranoside (3), 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), daucosterol (5), phytol (6), dodecanoic acid (7), oleanolic acid (8), 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid (9), corosolic acid (10), beta-sitosterol (11), peucedanin (12), buntansin (13), and erythrodiol (14). All compounds, except for 8 and 11, have been isolated from L. salicaria for the first time. Cytotoxic activities of the compounds were examined against three cancerous cell lines, colon carcinoma (HT-29), leukemia (K-562), and breast ductal carcinoma (T47D), and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH-3T3) cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and methotrexate as positive control. Compounds 5, 10, 11, and 14 were the most active against the HT-29 cell line with IC50 values of 192.7, 36.8, 38.2, and 12.8 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 14, 11, 5, and 10 were 6.4, 2.8, 2.6, and 1.4 times, respectively, more selective than methotrexate. Compound 5 was the most active against the K-562 cell line (IC50 = 50.2 microg/mL), with a selectivity exceeding that of methotrexate 13.3 times. The results of the cytotoxic assay confirmed that growth and proliferation of the cancer cell lines are predominantly influenced by triterpene derivatives and sterols of this plant.
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February 2014

Biological activity and microscopic characterization of Lythrum salicaria L.

Daru 2013 Jul 25;21(1):61. Epub 2013 Jul 25.

Background: There are several plants have been used worldwide in the folk medicine with high incidence for treatment of human disorders, of which Lythrum salicaria belongs to the Lythraceae family has traditionally reputation for some medicinal usage and recently many biological and pharmacological activity of the plant have been studied.

Methods: In this study, microscopic characterizations of the aerial parts of the plant were determined. Moreover, the plant extract (aqueous methanol 80%) was subjected to an anti-diabetic activity test (in a rat model of streptozocin induced diabetes), anti-Helicobacter pylori (using disc diffusion method) along with antioxidant activity against DPPH (stable free radical) tests. Besides, total flavonoids, phenols, tannins, as well as polysaccharides contents have been assessed using spectroscopic methods.

Results: The microscopic properties of the plant fragments revealed anomocytic stomata, conical shape trichomes, and abundant spherical pollen grains as a characteristic pattern for the aerial parts of the plant. The extract of the plant at concentration of 15 g/kg showed mild lowering activity on blood glucose level to 12.6% and 7.3% after 2 and 3 h of administration. Additionally, clinically isolated H. pylori strain was inhibited with the plant extract at concentration of 500 mg/mL (zone of inhibition: 17 ± 0.08 mm). Moreover, IC50 values for DPPH inhibition of the plant extract, vitamin E, BHA were examined as 13.5, 14.2, and 7.8 μg/mL, respectively. Total flavonoids, phenols, tannin, and polysaccharides contents of the extract were successfully evaluated as 5.8 ± 0.4 μg QE/mg EXT, 331 ± 3.7 μg GAE/mg EXT, 340 ± 2.3 μg TAE/mg EXT, 21 ± 0.2 μg GE/mg EXT, respectively.

Conclusions: The results suggested that L. salicaria has low anti-diabetic and anti-Helicobacter pylori effects, but high antioxidant activity, just the same as positive standard (vitamin E), which might be attributed to the high content of phenolic compounds in the extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2008-2231-21-61DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751246PMC
July 2013

Cytotoxic evaluation of Melia azedarach in comparison with, Azadirachta indica and its phytochemical investigation.

Daru 2013 May 16;21(1):37. Epub 2013 May 16.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages.

Methods: In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study.

Results: Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1). In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively) than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1). The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine.

Conclusions: The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows that flavonols are abundant in the leaves of M. azedarach and these compounds seem to be responsible for many of medicinal effects exploited in the traditional uses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2008-2231-21-37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3664079PMC
May 2013

Larvicidal activities of some Iranian native plants against the main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi.

Acta Med Iran 2013 Apr 6;51(3):141-7. Epub 2013 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Iranian Medicine Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Malaria is considered a major health problem in Iran. There are different methods for vector control. In this study we tested the larvicidal effects of some Iranian plants. The methanolic extracts of 11 plants were prepared with percolation method. The larvicidal activities of them against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi were studied using World Health Organization standard method. All LC50 values of methanolic extracts of plants that we screened were lower than 300 ppm. The methanolic extract of aerial parts of Lawsonia inermis and Stachys byzantina showed high larvicidal activity with LC50 values 69.40 ppm and 103.28 ppm respectively. The results obtained from this study suggest that the methanolic extracts of these plants have larvicidal effects against Anopheles stephensi larvae and could be useful in the search for new natural larvicidal compounds.
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April 2013

A comparative study of anti-Candida activity and phenolic contents of the calluses from Lythrum salicaria L. in different treatments.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2013 May 14;170(1):176-84. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 14155-6451, Tehran 14174, Iran.

In the study, anti-Candida activity and phenol contents of Lythrum salicaria L. calli and wild species have been evaluated. The seeds of L. salicaria (Lythraceae), collected from Lahidjan City in the north of Iran, were cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium (MSM) with a supplement, gibberellin, to germinate. Callus inductions were performed from segments of seedling on MSM containing different concentrations of plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The activity of calluses extracts, wild plant, gallic acid, and 3,3',4'-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (TMEG) as the main phenolic compounds against Candida albicans was assessed using cup plate diffusion method. The total phenols contents of calli and wild plant extracts were analyzed using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The callus formation in MSM supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-D and BAP were 0-100 %. Anti-Candida activity of callus extract which obtained from MSM supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP (1 mgdm(-3)) was similar to the wild plant extract. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of gallic acid and TMEG were obtained as 0.312 and 2.5 mgcm(-3), respectively. Gallic acid equivalent values in all treatments were from 0 to 288 μg GAE mg(-1). Phenolic contents of plant aerial parts (331±3.7 μg GAE mg(-1)) and the callus, which developed in MSM including 1 mgdm(-3) of both 2,4-D and BAP, showed the same phenolic value and exhibited anti-Candida extract activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-013-0185-3DOI Listing
May 2013

In vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of phenolic constituents from aerial parts of Polygonum hyrcanicum.

Daru 2012 Sep 10;20(1):37. Epub 2012 Sep 10.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And The Purpose Of The Study: The early stage of diabetes mellitus type 2 is associated with postprandial hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia is believed to increase the production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative tissue damage. In an effort of identifying herbal drugs which may become useful in the prevention or mitigation of diabetes, biochemical activities of Polygonum hyrcanicum and its constituents were studied.

Methods: Hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of P. hyrcanicum were tested for α-glucosidase inhibitory, antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. Active constituents were isolated and identified from the methanolic extract in an activity guided approach.

Results: A methanolic extract from flowering aerial parts of the plant showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 15 μg/ml). Thirteen phenolic compounds involving a cinnamoylphenethyl amide, two flavans, and ten flavonols and flavonol 3-O-glycosides were subsequently isolated from the extract. All constituents showed inhibitory activities while compounds 3, 8 and 11 (IC50 = 0.3, 1.0, and 0.6 μM, respectively) were the most potent ones. The methanol extract also showed antioxidant activities in DPPH (IC50 = 76 μg/ml) and FRAP assays (1.4 mmol ferrous ion equivalent/g extract). A total phenol content of 130 mg/g of the extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.

Conclusion: This study shows that P. hyrcanicum contains phenolic compounds with in vitro activity that can be useful in the context of preventing or mitigating cellular damages linked to diabetic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2008-2231-20-37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3555856PMC
September 2012

Larvicidal activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Nepeta menthoides against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2012 Dec;5(12):962-5

Departments of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Traditional Iranian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To investigate the larvicidal activity of essential oil and methanol extract of the Nepeta menthoides (N. menthoides) against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).

Methods: The essential oil of plant was obtained by Clevenger type apparatus and the methanol extract was supplied with Percolation method. Larvicidal activity was tested by WHO method. Twenty five fourth-instar larvae of An. stephensi were used in the larvicidal assay and four replicates were tested for each concentration. Five different concentrations of the oil and extract were tested for calculation of LC(50) and LC(90) values.

Results: The LC(50) and LC(90) values were determined by probit analysis. LC(50) was 69.5 and 234.3 ppm and LC(90) was 175.5 and 419.9 ppm for the extract and essential oil respectively.

Conclusions: According to the results of this study methanolic extract of plant exhibited more larvicidal activity than essential oil. This could be useful for investigation of new natural larvicidal compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60182-5DOI Listing
December 2012