Publications by authors named "Abbas Etminan"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Relationship between the serum levels of Vitamin D and inflammatory markers in ESRD patients.

Acta Biomed 2020 11 10;91(4):e2020099. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background And Aim: In patients with End-stage renal disease (ESRD), 25-(OH)-Vitamin D3 deficiency is a common problem and also the inflammatory responses increase in these patients. The present study aims to evaluate the relation of 25-(OH)-Vitamin D3 with the indirect inflammatory markers in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD).

Methods: This study was done by cross-sectional method on 85 ESRD patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT), from one geographical area. 64 patients on HD and 21 patients on PD who were matched for age and sex were studied. Serum level of 25-(OH) Vitamin D3 was measured in each patient. ESR, CRP and the other routine blood tests were measured as well.

Results: The level of 25-OH Vitamin D3 was significantly lower in PD group in comparison to HD group (P: 0/0012, 2/70±0/10 vs 2/05±0/14). Platelet (195/40 ± 7/6 vs 265/52 ± 15/6, P: 0/001) and ESR (46/80 ± 6/89 vs 23/53 ± 1/96, P: 0/003) were significantly higher in PD group. Considering total population of the study (PD and HD), there was a significant association between ESR and serum level of 25-(OH)-Vitamin D3 (r: 0.26, P: 0.036) but no correlation was seen between 25-(OH)-Vitamin D3 and hemoglobin (Hb) or duration of dialysis. On the other hand, in patients on HD, multiple regression analysis revealed a significant relationship between duration of dialysis (P: 0.02), Hb (P: 0.01) and ESR (P: 0.001) with 25-(OH)-Vitamin D3 level. Moreover, there was a relationship between vitamin D3 levels and inflammatory markers as well.

Conclusions: The deficiency of 25-(OH)-Vitamin D3 was followed with increase of ESR as an inflammatory marker in patients on HD. Key words: Inflammation; 25-hydroxy vitamin D; Renal replacement; Dialysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i4.8223DOI Listing
November 2020

Estimating the Loss in Expectation of Life and Relative Survival Rate among Hemodialysis Patients in Iran.

J Res Health Sci 2020 Aug 3;20(3):e00487. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Modeling in Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Information regarding the prognosis and burden of diseases can be used by policymakers to determine competing health priorities. We aimed to assess the Relative Survival Rate (RSR) and loss of expectation of life (LEL) to evaluate the prognosis and burden of diseases in Hemodialysis (HD) patients.

Study Design: A retrospective cohort study.

Methods: We recruited 648 HD patients referred to three referral centers in Kerman City, Iran, from 2008 to 2019. RSR, was defined as the ratio of the observed and the expected survival rates of general population for persons of the same age and sex as patients in the current study. LEL was determined as the difference between corresponding life expectancies (LE). The extended Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify variables associated with the outcome.

Results: Variables associated with outcome were diabetic status and age. In the 5th year of the follow-up study, the overall RSR was 0.57. In general, for HD patients, the estimation of LE and LEL was 22.6 and 12.36 year, respectively.

Conclusion: HD patients, especially older patients, showed a very poor prognosis, with a large amount of lost life expectancy. Therefore, they need more care and attention from health authorities. It is suggested to estimate the cost of eliminating the risk factors causing kidney diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jrhs.2020.21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585771PMC
August 2020

Serum Apelin Peptide Level in Hemodialysis Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2018 07;12(4):209-214

Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a destructive disease that is characterized by vasoconstriction, alterations and abnormal angiogenesis in pulmonary vessels, and right ventricular dysfunction. There is no certain treatment known for this condition. Patients with PAH have a lower level of apelin in their blood and less apelin is secreted in their endothelial cells, but this condition is not investigated in hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to compare apelin level in hemodialysis patients with and without PAH.

Materials And Methods: Forty hemodialysis patients with PAH were compared with 40 patients without the condition. Apelin serum level was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Dialysis adequacy was measured and its relationship with apelin level and the pulmonary arterial pressure was investigated.

Results: The mean level of apelin in the group suffering from PAH was 54.87 ± 23.50 ng/L, while it was 76.85 ± 34.66 ng/L in those without PAH (P = .001). It was also found that hemodialysis adequacy had no effect on apelin level or pulmonary arterial pressure.

Conclusion: The findings of our study suggest that in hemodialysis patients with PAH, apelin peptide serum levels are significantly lower than patients with normal arterial pressure and this condition is not affected by hemodialysis.
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July 2018

The perspective of medical students regarding the roles and characteristics of a clinical role model.

Electron Physician 2017 Apr 25;9(4):4124-4130. Epub 2017 Apr 25.

B.Sc. of Health Services Management, Shafa Clinical Research Committee, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: As medical students spend most of their time with their clinical teachers and imitate their roles and characteristics during the school year, it is important to identify the roles and characteristics that they find essential in their role models. These traits play a part in their future professions as doctors.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the perspective of students, interns, and residents regarding the roles and characteristics of a clinical role model.

Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, a structured and self-developed questionnaire was completed by 185 medical students at educational hospitals of Kerman University of Medical Sciences during April and May 2015. Participants were selected using convenience sampling method. For data analysis, we used descriptive and inferential statistics. SPSS software version 16 was used as needed.

Results: In total, 90 medical students (48.7%), 65 interns (35.1%), and 30 residents (16.2%) participated in this study. Male respondents (n=75) comprised 40.5% and female respondents (n=110) 59.5% of the study sample. The three most important roles of a clinical teacher were organizer role (99.7), teacher role (101.7), and supporter role (109.5) for students, interns, and residents respectively. On the other hand, supporter role (85.4), communicator role (86.4) and organizer role (83.4) were ranked as the least important for students, interns, and residents respectively. There was no significant association among the three batches and the roles of a clinical teacher (p>0.05). Conversely, Females rated the roles of a clinical teacher significantly higher than males (p<0.05).

Conclusions: As teachers are frequently perceived by students as role models in medical schools, great attention should be given to their roles. Teachers must be aware that their roles have an impact on students' professional development and performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/4124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5459282PMC
April 2017

Role of Donors and Recipients' Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Polymorphisms in Association of Oxidative Stress With Delayed Graft Function in Kidney Allograft Recipients.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2017 May;11(3):241-248

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Centre, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: Oxidative stress contributes to delayed graft function (DGF). Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are polymorphic genes which produce enzymes with protective effect against oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the association between donors' and recipients' GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and DGF, creatinine clearance, and oxidative stress parameters in kidney allograft recipients.

Materials And Methods: One hundred and eighty-two donor-recipient pairs were studied. Lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity were measured in the recipients' plasma as the parameters of oxidative stress. Delayed graft function was determined based on at least 10% increase, no change, or less than 10% decrease in the serum creatinine level in 3 consecutive days during the 1st week after transplantation.

Results: Lipid peroxidation was significantly greater in the recipients with DGF (P < .001). The frequency of GSTM1 null was significantly higher in the patients with DGF (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.86; P = .02). There was also a significant association between the donors' GSTM1 polymorphism and DGF (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.68; P = .003). A significant association was detected between combination of recipients and donors' GSTM1 polymorphism and DGF (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.64, P = .006). The recipients' GSTM1 polymorphism, alone and in combination with donors' GSTM1 and GSTT1, significantly affected the creatinine clearance on discharge day.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the donors and recipients' GSTM1 polymorphism may be a major risk factor for oxidative stress and poor kidney allograft transplantation outcomes.
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May 2017

Cost-effectiveness analysis of dialysis and kidney transplant in patients with renal impairment using disability adjusted life years in Iran.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2016 28;30:390. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

Health Insurance Organization, Head of Kerman office, Kerman, Iran.

Background: This cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the cost-effectiveness of three therapeutic methods of long-term hemodialysis, kidney transplant from a living person and kidney transplant from a cadaver utilizing Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) using data from the records of patients referred to Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman in 2012.

Methods: This cross-sectional study utilizing Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) as outcome measure, used data from the records of patients referred to Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman in 2012. The decision tree model and decision tree software (Tree Age pro 11) were used for data analysis. In this research, costs and effects were studied from the patients and healthcare providers' perspective.

Results: In the patient's perspective, the CER of dialysis was 5.04 times greater than transplant from a living person and 6.15 times higher than transplant from a cadaveric donor. In the hospital's perspective, the average cost-effectiveness ratio of dialysis was 8.4 times greater than transplant from a living person and 14.07 times higher than transplant from a cadaver. The smaller the C-E ratio, the greater was the cost-effectiveness. In both perspectives, the order of effectiveness of treatment methods were transplant from a cadaver, transplant from a living person and dialysis.

Conclusion: Considering the results obtained in this study, measures should be taken to increase the desire for organ donation from brain-dead patients, living people and patients' relatives.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4972066PMC
August 2016

Comparison of pregabalin with doxepin in the management of uremic pruritus: a randomized single blind clinical trial.

Hemodial Int 2017 01 11;21(1):63-71. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Biostatistics Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Pruritus is one of the frustrating skin manifestations of advanced renal failure. Many options have been used for the management of uremic pruritus (UP) such as pregabalin. There are some studies that reported beneficial effects of pregabalin in reducing UP; however, most of them did not have a comparator arm. Therefore, we designed this study to compare antipruritic effects of pregabalin with doxepin in the management of pruritus in hemodialysis patients.

Methods: Seventy-two patients suffering from UP were randomly assigned to receive pregabalin (50 mg every other day) or doxepin (10 mg per day) for 4 weeks. Severity of pruritus and its effect on quality of life were assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), 5-D itch scale and dermatology life quality index (DLQI) at baseline and after 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks of the treatment.

Findings: Mean scores of the VAS decreased from 7.5± 1.4 and 7.1 ± 1.3 at baseline to 2.1 ± 2.6 and 4.2 ± 2.6 at the end of the study (P < 0.001) in the pregabalin and doxepin groups, respectively. Similarly, pregabalin significantly reduced mean scores of the 5-D itch scale and the DLQI compared to doxepin. The most reported side effect in each group was somnolence which occurred in similar rates in the both groups.

Discussion: Pregabalin was more effective than doxepin in reducing the severity of uremic pruritus and improving the quality of life of patients in this study, so we suggest that clinician can consider pregabalin prior to using antihistamine drugs in the management of severe itch in hemodialysis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hdi.12455DOI Listing
January 2017

Estimation of the prevalence of chronic kidney disease: The results of a model based estimation in Kerman, Iran.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2016 5;30:338. Epub 2016 Mar 5.

MD, PHD of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Center for Modelling in Health, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Chronic kidney disease is asymptomatic until its last stages and though it is increasing globally, we are faced with paucity of a population-based model to assess this disease, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and trends of CKD according to a new estimation method.

Methods: Using multiplier method, we estimated the numbers of different stages of CKD based on the number of patients with end stage renal failure from 2006 to 2016. The required multipliers were extracted from a simulation of the disease in Kerman following a dynamic model. The 95% uncertainty interval was computed using Monte-Carlo technique with 10,000 iterations.

Results: The prevalence of CKDA (GFR<=90mL/min/1.73m2) and CKDB (GFR less than 60mL/min/1.73m2) patients were estimated to be 7.6% (95% uncertainty interval (UI), 5.7-9.1%) and 1.1% (95% UI, 0.8-1.3%), respectively in 2011. The method revealed that the prevalence may rise up to 25.7% (95% UI, 18.2-32.5%) and 3.7% (95% UI, 2.7-4.5%) for CKDA and CKDB, respectively in 2016, indicating approximately 3.3 times increase for both figures.

Conclusion: This study predicted an increase in the prevalence of CKD in the future. This may be due to the increasing life expectancy of the population, the increase in the prevalence of non- communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, or patients' survival due to receiving better support. Therefore, the policymakers should be concerned and well informed about this increase.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4898837PMC
July 2016

Investigation of association between donors' and recipients' NADPH oxidase p22(phox) C242T polymorphism and acute rejection, delayed graft function and blood pressure in renal allograft recipients.

Transpl Immunol 2015 Jan 28;32(1):46-50. Epub 2014 Aug 28.

Physiology Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Department of Nephrology, Urology and Renal Transplantation, Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby induction of oxidative stress seem to be one of the major mediators of inflammatory adverse outcomes after renal transplantation. p22(phox) is a polymorphic subunit of NAD(P)H-oxidase that is critical for activation and stabilization of the enzyme. This enzyme is involved in the production of superoxide that triggers inflammatory injuries to the kidney. So in this study, the association between donors and recipients' C242T polymorphism of p22(phox) and acute rejection (AR), delayed graft function (DGF), creatinine clearance (CrCl), and blood pressure in renal-allograft recipients was studied.

Methods: One hundred ninety six donor-recipient pairs were studied. The C242T polymorphism of p22(phox) was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). According to p22 genotype, the subjects were divided in wild-type (CC) and T allele carriers (CT+TT). Transplantation outcomes were determined using acute rejection and delayed graft function criteria. The mean arterial pressure was also measured monthly after transplantation.

Results: There was a significant association between the recipients' p22(phox) polymorphism and DGF occurrence (OR=2.5, CI: 1.2-4.9, p=0.0009). No significant association was detected between donors' p22(phox) polymorphism and AR and DGF events. CrCl during the six months follow-up after transplantation was lower in the patients who received allograft from donors carrying 242T allele (B=-12.8, CI: -22.9-12.8 (-22.9 to -2.6)). Changes in the blood pressure were not different among the patients having different genotypes of p22(phox).

Conclusion: These results suggest that the recipients' p22(phox) C242T polymorphism may be a major risk factor for DGF in renal transplantation. Moreover, the donors' 242T allele seems to affect the rate of CrCl in the renal allograft recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2014.08.004DOI Listing
January 2015

Short-term and long-term survival of kidney allograft: cure model analysis.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2014 May;8(3):225-30

Departments of Nephrology, Urology and Renal Transplantation, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: Kidney allograft failure is a major concern in kidney transplant recipients. We separately assessed risk factors for long-term and short-term survival of death-censored kidney allograft.

Materials And Methods: This study included 397 kidney recipients who underwent surgery in Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, from 2004 to 2010. The Cox mixture cure model was used to fit independent variables for prediction of graft survival in short-term and long-term.

Results: Allograft failure occurred in 43 kidney transplant recipients (10.8%). Among the long-term survivors, hypertension (odds ratio, 3.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 6.7), a serum creatinine level greater than 1.6 at hospital discharge (odds ratio, 15.1; 95% CI, 7.2 to 31.9), and donor age (odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.18) were significant predictors of allograft failure. Overweight, obesity, and male donor were associated with better survival. In short-term survivors, a high body mass index (hazard ratio, 3.59; 95% CI, 1.2 to 10.7) and longer duration of pretransplant dialysis (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.07 to 5.7) were associated with graft failure, while the risk of allograft failure decreased in recipients who received kidney transplants from living donors versus deceased donors (hazard ratio, 0.3; 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.78) and with each 1-year increase in donor age (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.96).

Conclusions: Many efforts have been made to improve short-term survival of kidney allograft. The cure analysis extends the knowledge by showing that control of which variables can improve both long-term and short-term survival rates.
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May 2014

Multi-state survival analysis in renal transplantation recipients.

Iran J Public Health 2014 Mar;43(3):316-22

1. Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran.

Background: Renal transplantation is a therapy for end-stage renal disease. During the study of recipients' survival after renal transplantation, there are some events as intermediate events that not only affect the recipients' survival but also events which are affected by various factors. The aim of this study was to handle these intermediate events in order to identify factors that affect recipients' survival by using multi-state models.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 405 renal transplant patients from Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, from 2004 to 2010. The survival time of these recipients was determined after transplantation and the effect of various factors on the death hazard with and without renal allograft failure and hazard of renal allograft failure was studied by using multi-state models.

Results: During 4.06 years (median) of follow-up; 28 (6.9%) recipients died and allograft failure occurred in 51 (12.6%) recipients. Based on the results of multi-state model, receiving a living kidney transplantation decreased the hazard of renal allograft failure (HR=0.38; 95% CI: 0.17- 0.87), pre-transplant hypertension (HR=2.94; 95% CI: 1.54- 5.63) and serum creatinine levels >1.6 upon discharge from the hospital (HR=7.38; 95% CI: 3.87- 7.08) increased the hazard of renal allograft failure. Receiving living kidney transplantation decreased the hazard of death directly (HR=0.18; 95% CI: 0.04- 0.93).

Conclusion: It was concluded that the effect of donor type, pre-transplant hypertension and having serum creatinine >1.6 upon discharge from the hospital was significant on hazard of renal allograft failure. The only variable that had a direct significant effect on hazard of death was donor type.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4419169PMC
March 2014

Does L-carnitine improve endothelial function in hemodialysis patients?

J Res Med Sci 2012 May;17(5):417-21

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in hemodialysis patients. These patients are also very prone to L-carnitine deficiency due to kidney disease. In this clinical trial, we investigated the effect of oral L-carnitine on endothelial function of these patients.

Materials And Methods: [corrected] We studied 31 adult chronic hemodialysis patients in our center and divided them into two groups. The first group (n = 20) received 1500 mg/dialysis interval (every other day) oral L-carnitine. The control group (n = 11) received placebo for one month. Ultrasonographic measurements of flow mediated dilation and carotid intima-media thickness were performed before and after one month of L-carnitine and placebo therapy.

Results: This study showed that after one month of L-carnitine or placebo therapy there was no significant improvement in flow mediated dilation (p = 0.80 and p = 0.59, respectively) or decrease in carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0.12 and p = 0.50, respectively).

Conclusions: Our study revealed that one month of oral L-carnitine therapy did not improve endothelial function in hemodialysis patients. Long-term studies with large sample size using intravenous form and higher doses of the drug are required to clarify the questionable role of L-carnitine in hemodialysis patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3634264PMC
May 2012

Combination of a low dose of daclizumab and standard regimen for prevention of rejection in men and women receiving a kidney transplant.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2013 Mar;7(2):142-6

Physiology Research Center and Faculty of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of low-dose daclizumab for prevention of acute kidney allograft rejection and to evaluate differences between men and women receiving living donor transplants.

Materials And Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 120 living donor kidney transplant recipients. Participants in the case group received a low dose of daclizumab (1 mg/kg) before and 14 days after transplantation in addition to their standard immunosuppressant regimen. Participants in the control group received the standard treatment protocol only. Acute rejection episodes and graft survival were compared between the two groups. Additionally, graft survival of women and men was compared separately between the two groups.

Results: Acute rejection was significantly less frequent in the daclizumab group than in the controls (6.7% versus 18.3%; P = .048). The 6-month survival rates were 95% (95% CI, 92% to 98%) in the daclizumab group and 85% (95% CI, 81% to 89%) in the control group (P = .03). The 6-month graft survival rates of the women were 97% (95% CI, 95% to 99%) in the daclizumab group and 74% (95% CI, 65% to 83%) in the control group (P = .02). However, the difference in graft survival rates was not significant among the men.

Conclusions: The use of induction therapy with two doses of daclizumab reduces the incidence of acute rejection and improves graft survival of living donor kidney transplant recipients. This study shows that these effects are prominent among the female recipients.
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March 2013

Chemokine receptor 2-V64I and chemokine receptor 5-Delta32 polymorphisms and clinical risk factors of delayed graft function and acute rejection in kidney transplantation.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2012 Jan;6(1):56-62

Physiology Research Center and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Introduction: Chemokines and chemokine receptors have a pivotal role in immunity and inflammation. We aimed to evaluate their role in kidney transplant rejection.

Materials And Methods: The association of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2)-V64I and CCR5-Delta32 gene polymorphisms with acute rejection (AR) and delayed graft function (DGF) were examined in 100 donor-recipient pairs. The CCR2-V64I and CCR5-Delta32 alleles were determined using polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, respectively.

Results: No associations were found between donors or recipients' CCR2-V64I and CCR5-Delta32 gene polymorphisms and AR or DGF. Of the characteristics of the donors, recipients, and transplantation, glomerulonephritis as a cause of kidney failure in the recipients was weakly associated with AR (relative risk, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 46.0; P = .07). Transplantation of kidney from females to males was weakly associated with DGF (relative risk, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 33.0; P = .06). There was a significant association between AR, but not DGF, and graft loss in the patients (relative risk, 28.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 487.0; P = .03).

Conclusions: Our study failed to suggest CCR2-V64I or CCR5-Delta32 gene polymorphisms as risk factors for AR and DGF in kidney transplantation. Sex-matching between donors and recipients should be considered for living donor kidney transplantation.
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January 2012