Publications by authors named "Abbas Ahmadi"

74 Publications

Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide particles on sperm parameters and fertilization potential in mice: A comparison between nano- and fine-sized particles.

Vet Res Forum 2020 15;11(4):401-408. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Titanium dioxide particles (TiO) as the second most widely used materials in consumer products are composed of nano-sized (<100 nm) particles (NPs) and fine-sized (>100 nm) particles (FPs). Toxicological studies on animals have shown that TiO NPs exposure can cross the blood-testis barrier and accumulate in the testis resulting in testicular tissue damage and reduction of sperm count and motility. However, there is no information on the toxic effects of TiO FPs on male reproductive fertility. Twenty-four adult male mice were randomly divided into three groups including control, TiO NPs, and TiO FPs (150 mg kg per day). After intragastric administration for 35 days, testicular tissue alterations (seminiferous tubule diameter and germinal epithelial height), sperm parameters (count, motility, viability, morphology, and DNA quality), fertilization potential, oxidative stress assays such as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, level of glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testicular tissue were investigated. The results showed that both sizes of TiO caused pathologic changes in the testis and significantly increased MDA level and decreased GSH levels and activities of SOD and GPx in testicular tissue. Moreover, the administration of both sizes of TiO significantly decreased all of the sperm parameters and fertility (fertilization rate and pre-implantation embryos development) compared to control. Administration of TiO FPs similar to TiO NPs through inducing damages to testis led to a marked reduction in sperm quality, fertilization, and embryos development in male mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2018.89501.2163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904129PMC
December 2020

Sustainable closed-loop supply chain network for an integrated water supply and wastewater collection system under uncertainty.

J Environ Manage 2020 Dec 25;275:111277. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, Amirkabir University of Technology, No. 424, Hafez Ave, Tehran, Iran; ESC Rennes School of Business, 2 Rue Robert D'Arbrissel, 35065, Rennes, France.

Today, an increase in the drought and water shortage all around the world is a challengeable threat for different governments and international committees. Water supply chain aims to manage the water consumption and to control the water shortage. Contrary to most of previous studies focused on the forward directions of the water supply chain, this paper also considers the reverse logistics known as a Closed-Loop Supply Chain (CLSC). Hence, an integrated Water Supply and Wastewater Collection System (WSWCS) under uncertainty is proposed. Furthermore, regarding the trend of sustainable development, the environmental dimensions and social benefits of the integrated WSWCS are contributed. To meet the standards of the sustainable development in developing countries, a case study in Iran is applied to a novel multi-objective stochastic optimization model based on triple bottom lines of sustainability. Having already been employed to similar optimization problems, the Social Engineering Optimizer (SEO) has been never applied in this research area. Another innovation of this study is to introduce an improved multi-objective SEO to solve this complicated model. Eventually, with regards to an extensive comparison contributing to the Pareto-based metrics and different sensitivities, some managerial implications are concluded as the main findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111277DOI Listing
December 2020

Discovering the signature of a lupus-related microRNA profile in the Gene Expression Omnibus repository.

Lupus 2020 Oct 28;29(11):1321-1335. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Lupus is one of the most prevalent systemic autoimmune diseases. It is a multifactorial disease in which genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors play significant roles. The pathogenesis of lupus is not yet well understood. However, deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) - one of the post-transcriptional regulators of genes - can contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. Over the last two decades, advances in the profiling of miRNA using microarray have received much attention, and it has been demonstrated that miRNAs play a regulatory role in the pathogenesis of lupus. Therefore, dysregulated miRNAs can be considered as promising diagnostic biomarkers for lupus. This article is an overview of lupus-related miRNA profiling studies and arrays in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The aims of our study were to widen current knowledge of known dysregulated miRNAs as potential biomarkers of SLE and to introduce a bioinformatics approach to using microarray data and finding novel miRNA and gene candidates for further study. We identified hsa-miR-4709-5p, hsa-miR-140, hsa-miR-145, hsa-miR-659, hsa-miR-134, hsa-miR-150, hsa-miR-584, hsa-miR-409 and hsa-miR-152 as potential biomarkers by integrated bioinformatics analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961203320944473DOI Listing
October 2020

Molecular and clinical profile of congenital fibrinogen disorders in Iran, identification of two novel mutations.

Int J Lab Hematol 2020 Oct 8;42(5):619-627. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Hematology and Blood Banking, Faculty of Allied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Congenital fibrinogen disorders (CFDs) comprise the quantitative and qualitative fibrinogen molecule abnormalities that are caused by fibrinogen gene mutations. The objective of this cohort research was to study the molecular and clinical profiles of patients with CFDs.

Materials And Methods: Genomic DNA Sanger sequencing of 14 Iranian patients was performed to determine CFDs-causing mutations. The disorders were diagnosed by routine and specific (fibrinogen antigen and functional assay) coagulation tests, and clinical data were obtained from medical records. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the effect of missense mutation on the protein structure.

Results: Thirteen out of 14 patients had afibrinogenemia while the remaining patient had dysfibrinogenemia. Umbilical cord bleeding was the most common clinical presentation (n: 9, ~70%) which led to the diagnosis of afibrinogenemia, while menorrhagia led to the diagnosis of dysfibrinogenemia. Six homozygous mutations were identified in afibrinogenemia: three previously described variants in FGA (p.Trp52Ter, p.Ser312AlafsTer109 and p.Gly316GlufsTer105), one in FBG (p.Gly430Asp), and two novel mutations in FGB (p.Gly430Arg) and FGG (p.His366ThrfsTer40), while the FGA (p.Arg38Thr) heterozygous mutation was identified in dysfibrinogenemia. MD simulation indicated that the FGA p. Arg38Thr mutation probably interferes with polymerization of fibrin monomers.

Conclusions: In Iran, with its high rate of consanguinity, autosomal recessive afibrinogenemia with severe clinical presentations is relatively common due to heterogeneous molecular defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13258DOI Listing
October 2020

The effects of exposure to fluoxetine during lactation on testicular tissue and sperm parameters in mice offspring.

Vet Res Forum 2020 15;11(1):35-42. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is commonly prescribed to treat maternal depression in pregnancy and lactation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to fluoxetine via lactation on testicular tissue, sperm parameters including count, motility, viability, and normal morphology and testicular oxidative stress status in male mice offspring. Ten mice dams were divided into control and experimental groups. The control group received water and the experimental group received fluoxetine (20.00 mg kg) by gavage daily from postnatal days of 0-21. Histology of testis, sperm parameters and oxidative stress in the testicular tissue were analyzed at 80 days after birth in their male offspring (n = 8). Significant reductions in the body and testes weights were observed in animals exposed to fluoxetine. Additionally, fluoxetine exposure significantly reduced all sperm parameters, tubular diameter and epithelial height of the seminiferous tubules as well as Leydig cells number. Significant increases in the testicular malondialdehyde levels and percentage of sperm with chromatin/DNA damage were observed in mice exposed to fluoxetine compared to control. These findings suggest that maternal exposure to fluoxetine during lactation in mice has a negative effect on the testicular tissue of their offspring and impairs the spermatogenesis process which in turn can induce infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2018.82090.2082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282220PMC
March 2020

Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on testicular histology and fertilization potential in cyclophosphamide treated mice.

Vet Res Forum 2020 15;11(1):7-13. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

In the present study, we aimed to address the use of ethyl pyruvate (EP) against the harmful effects of cyclophosphamide (CP) treatment. Thirty-nine adult male mice were divided into three groups including control group received normal saline [0.20 mL per day; intraperitoneally (IP)], CP group received CP (15.00 mg kg per week, IP) and CP+EP group received EP (40.00 mg kg per day, IP) along with CP and treated for 35 days. After preparation of paraffin sections and Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, the histomorphometric studies were performed on the testicular tissue. Additionally, the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and testosterone level, testis malondialdehyde (MDA) and fertilization rate were assessed. The results showed an increase in the tubal differentiation index, repopulation index, spermiogenesis index, thickness of testicular capsule, mean distribution of active Sertoli cells, SOD and testosterone levels of the CP+EP group in comparison with the CP group. Moreover, the MDA levels in the CP+EP group were lower than the CP group. An increase occurred in the percentage of fertilization in the CP+EP group compared to the CP group. Results of this study revealed that the EP ameliorates deleterious side effects of CP on testicular histology and fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2018.91253.2047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282215PMC
March 2020

Association of HDAC8 Expression with Pathological Findings in Triple Negative and Non-Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Implications for Diagnosis.

Iran Biomed J 2020 09 2;24(5):288-94. Epub 2020 May 2.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Background: Previous data have shown the tumorigenicity roles of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC 8) in breast cancer. More recently, the oncogenic effects of this molecule have been revealed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The present study aimed to determine the diagnostic value of HDAC8 for the differentiation of TNBC from nTNBC tumors.

Methods: A total of 50 cancerous and normal adjacent tumor specimens were obtained, and the clinical and pathological findings of studied subjects were recorded. The expression of HDAC8 gene was determined by qRT-PCR. Also, immunohistochemical staining was performed on tissue samples.

Results: Our results showed that the expression of HDAC8 in breast cancer tissues was significantly higher than the normal adjacent tissues (p = 0.0011). HDAC8 expression was also observed to be higher in TNBC patients than nTNBC group (p = 0.0013). In addition, in the TNBC group, there was a significant association between the HDAC8 overexpression and tumor characteristics, including tumor size (p = 0.039), lymphatic invasion (p = 0.01), tumor grade (p = 0.02), and perineural invasion (p < 0.05). The cut-off value was fixed at 0.6279 r.u., and the corresponding sensitivity and specificity were found to be 73.91% and 70.37%, respectively.

Conclusion: According to the findings, among the other markers, HDAC8 oncogene may be used as a potential tumor marker in the diagnosis of TNBC tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29252/ibj.24.5.283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392136PMC
September 2020

Curcumin: a dietary phytochemical for targeting the phenotype and function of dendritic cells.

Curr Med Chem 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran. Iran.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most powerful antigen-presenting cells which link the innate and adaptive immune responses. Depending on the context DCs initiate the immune responses or contribute to immune tolerance. Any disturbance in their phenotypes and functions may initiate inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. Hence, dysregulated DCs are the most attractive pharmacological target for the development of new therapies aiming at reducing their immunogenicity and at enhancing their tolerogenicity. Curcumin is the polyphenolic phytochemical component of the spice turmeric with a wide range of pharmacological activities. It acts in several ways as a modulator of DCs and converts them into tolerogenic DCs. Tolerogenic DCs possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities that regulate the immune responses in health and disease. Curcumin by blocking maturation markers, cytokines and chemokines expression, and disrupting the antigen-presenting machinery of DCs render them non- or hypo-responsive to immunostimulants. It also reduces the expression of co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules on DCs and prevents them from both migration and antigen presentation but enhances their endocytosis capacity. Hence, curcumin causes DCs-inducing regulatory T cells and dampens CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 polarization. Inhibition of transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, MAPKs (p38, JNK, ERK) and other intracellular signaling molecules such as JAK/STAT/SOCS provide a plausible explanation for most of these observations. In this review, we summarize the potential effects of curcumin on the phenotypes and functions of DCs as the key players in orchestration, stimulation, and modulation of the immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867327666200515101228DOI Listing
May 2020

A bi-objective home healthcare routing and scheduling problem considering patients' satisfaction in a fuzzy environment.

Appl Soft Comput 2020 Aug 8;93:106385. Epub 2020 May 8.

Geneva School of Business Administration, University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland (HES-SO), 1227 Carouge, Switzerland.

Home care services are an alternative answer to hospitalization, and play an important role in reducing the healthcare costs for governments and healthcare practitioners. To find a valid plan for these services, an optimization problem called the home healthcare routing and scheduling problem is motivated to perform the logistics of the home care services. Although most studies mainly focus on minimizing the total cost of logistics activities, no study, as far as we know, has treated the patients' satisfaction as an objective function under uncertainty. To make this problem more practical, this study proposes a bi-objective optimization methodology to model a multi-period and multi-depot home healthcare routing and scheduling problem in a fuzzy environment. With regards to a group of uncertain parameters such as the time of travel and services as well as patients' satisfaction, a fuzzy approach named as the Jimenez's method, is also utilized. To address the proposed home healthcare problem, new and well-established metaheuristics are obtained. Although the social engineering optimizer (SEO) has been applied to several optimization problems, it has not yet been applied in the healthcare routing and scheduling area. Another innovation is to develop a new modified multi-objective version of SEO by using an adaptive memory strategy, so-called AMSEO. Finally, a comprehensive discussion is provided by comparing the algorithms based on multi-objective metrics and sensitivity analyses. The practicality and efficiency of the AMSEO in this context lends weight to the development and application of the approach more broadly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2020.106385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205736PMC
August 2020

Protective effects of Equisetum arvense methanolic extract on sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilization potential in experimental diabetic mice: An experimental study.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2020 Feb 27;18(2):93-104. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by impaired insulin secretion or the inability of tissues to respond to insulin. This disease can damage the testis and reduce semen quality. Therefore, it can impair the potential for male fertility. Different herbal therapeutic treatments have been used to control diabetes and its complications.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on sperm and in vitro fertilization (IVF) potential and investigate the protective effects of Equisetum arvense methanolic extract on diabetic mice.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-four adult male mice were divided into four groups: control-sham, diabetic, diabetic + Equisetum extract (250 mg/kg), and diabetic + Equisetum extract (500 mg/kg). After 45 days, sperm samples were collected from the cauda epididymis to evaluate the characteristics of sperm (including viability, count, motility, morphology and chromatin/DNA integrity of sperm) and the IVF potential.

Results: Sperm motility and viability were increased remarkably (p 0.001) in the treated groups compared with the non-treated diabetic group. The decrease in sperm count in the diabetic group compared with the treated groups was not significant. Moreover, the percentage of sperm with DNA damage, nuclear immaturity, and abnormal morphology was decreased significantly (p 0.001) in the treated groups compared with the diabetic group. The treated animals exhibited remarkably higher fertilization rates and a higher percentage of fertilized oocytes that developed toward the blastocyst stage compared with the non-treated diabetic group (p 0.001).

Conclusion: The methanolic extract of the Equisetum arvense inhibited diabetes-induced detrimental effects on sperm quality and fertilization rate, which may have been associated with hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities in this plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijrm.v18i2.6415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7097174PMC
February 2020

New Amine and Aromatic Substituted Analogues of Phencyclidine: Synthesis and Determination of Acute and Chronic Pain Activities.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2019 ;22(8):570-576

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

Background: Phencyclidine (PCP, I) is a synthetic drug with remarkable physiological properties. PCP and its analogues exert many pharmacological activities and interact with some neurotransmitter systems in the central nervous system like particular affinity for PCP sites in NMDA receptors or dopamine uptake blocking or even both.

Aim And Objective: The following research, methyl group with electron-donating and dipole moment characters was added in different positions of phenyl ring along with the substitution of benzylamine (with many pharmacological effects) instead of piperidine ring of I to produce new compounds (II-V) of this family with more analgesic activities.

Materials And Methods: Analgesic activities of these new compounds were measured by tail immersion and formalin tests for acute and chronic pains, respectively. Also, the outcomes were compared with control and PCP (10 mg/kg) groups.

Results: The results indicate that compounds III, IV, and V have more acute and chronic antinociceptive effects than PCP and compound II which may be concerned with more antagonizing activities of these new painkillers for the blockage of dopamine reuptake as well as high affinity for NMDA receptors PCP binding site.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the benzylamine derivative of phencyclidine with a methyl group on the benzyl position on phenyl ring (V) is a more appropriate candidate to reduce acute and chronic (thermal and chemical) pains compared to other substituted phenyl analogs (II-IV) and PCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207322666191016152157DOI Listing
September 2020

MiR-216b-5p inhibits cell proliferation in human breast cancer by down-regulating HDAC8 expression.

Life Sci 2019 Nov 9;237:116945. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. Electronic address:

Aim: Over-expression of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) has been demonstrated in breast cancer. But the underlying molecular mechanism of HDAC8 on the progression of breast cancer remains unknown. MicroRNAs (miRs) are proposed as important molecules in cancer progression by targeting specific oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes. Our overall objective was to assess the miR-216b-5p role on HDAC8; and its impacts on breast cancer (BC) progression.

Main Methods: We acquired cancerous and noncancerous tissues from Iran Tumor Bank (I.T.B). The MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and MCF-10A BC cell lines were also purchased. The tissue and cell line expression levels of miR-216b-5p and HDAC8 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). We next measured protein levels of HDAC8 by Western blotting assay. The cell cycle, cell proliferation, and colony formation assay were determined. Finally, we investigated the role of HDAC8 using a knockout vector; and confirmed the targeting of 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of HDAC8 through miR-216b-5p using a luciferase reporter assay.

Key Findings: Our results demonstrated a significant decrease in miR-216b-5p, and remarkable increase in HDAC8 levels within human breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The lower levels of miR-216b-5p were negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced tumor size. The overexpression of miR-216b-5p in BC cell lines inhibited cellular proliferation and progression. HDAC8 was directly down-regulated by miR-216b-5p and knockout of HDAC8 showed the similar effects as miR-216b-5p overexpression.

Significance: Briefly, HDAC8 is an oncogene that accelerate breast cancer proliferation and progression and miR-216b-5p modulates those functions by binding to HDAC8 3'-UTR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116945DOI Listing
November 2019

miR-483-3p suppresses the proliferation and progression of human triple negative breast cancer cells by targeting the HDAC8>oncogene.

J Cell Physiol 2020 03 11;235(3):2631-2642. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous subclass of breast cancer (BC) distinguished by lack of hormone receptor expression. It is highly aggressive and difficult to treat with traditional chemotherapeutic regimens. Targeted-therapy using microRNAs (miR) has recently been proposed to improve the treatment of TNBC in the early stages. Here, we explore the roles of miR-483-3p/HDAC8 HDAC8 premiR-vector on tumorigenicity in TNBC patients. Clinical TNBC specimens and three BC cell lines were prepared. miR-483-3p and expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell cycle progression was assessed by a flow-cytometry method. We also investigated cell proliferation by 3-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and colony formation assay. We used a to overexpress miR-483-3p, and a HDAC8-KO-vector for knocking out the endogenous production of HDAC8. Our data showed significant downregulation of miR-483-3p expression in TNBC clinical and cell line samples. The HDAC8 was also upregulated in both tissue specimens and BC cell lines. We found that increased levels of endogenous miR-483-3p affects tumorigenecity of MDA-MB-231. Downregulation of HDAC8 using the KO-vector showed the same pattern. Our results revealed that the miR-483-3p suppresses cellular proliferation and progression in TNBC cell lines via targeting HDAC8. Overall, our outcomes demonstrated the role of miR-483-3p as a tumor suppressor in TNBC and showed the possible mechanism via HDAC8. In addition, targeted treatment of TNBC with miR-483-3p might be considered in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29167DOI Listing
March 2020

A hybrid hierarchical soft computing approach for the technology selection problem in brick industry considering environmental competencies: A case study.

J Environ Manage 2019 Oct 24;248:109219. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Brick manufacturing is an important industry which produces some fundamental building materials. Since brick production industries have environmental adverse effects such as air pollution, excessive energy consumption as well as waste production, they have become more challenging to manage as they face increasing pressure to improve economic performance and the green and clean production concerns. Concerning these issues and taking into account the current state of the literature in this area, this paper, proposes a hybrid hierarchical fuzzy multiple-criteria group decision making (HH-FMCGDM) model based on a modified fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (MFAHP) to evaluate and rank the related alternative technologies based on various criteria including economic, environmental, market related, technical advantages, and so on. In the proposed method MFAHP is utilized to determine the weights of the criteria. Also, a new method is presented to assign a weight factor for each decision maker (DM) in the group decision-making process. Also, we propose a fuzzy extended version of TOPSIS method as an evaluation tool to calculate the local priority of candidates of brick manufacturing technologies. Afterward, in order to avoid the data loss of DMs' judgments, the final rank of alternatives are obtained based on the proposed last aggregation approach. To illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach, a real-life case study in a brick industry is done based on our approach. Then, a sensitivity analysis is done to assess the robustness and sensitiveness of the obtained results from the proposed approach. Finally, some managerial insights are suggested to increase the applicability of the proposed HH-FMCGDM approach for real cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.06.120DOI Listing
October 2019

Using artificial neural network in determining postharvest LIFE of kiwifruit.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Oct 18;99(13):5918-5925. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Department of Horticultural Corps and Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Artificial intelligence systems have been employed for the development of predictive models that estimate many agricultural processes.

Results: In present study, the predictive capabilities of artificial neural networks (ANNs) were evaluated with respect to assessing fruit firmness as a postharvest life index, with determinations made at four stages of storage: 1, 60, 120 and 180 days after harvesting. Single concentrations of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) on fruit (D ), all of these nutrient concentrations (D ), the ratios of the nutrient concentrations alone (D ), and a combination of nutrient concentrations and their ratios (D ), were considered.

Conclusion: The results obtained showed that fruit firmness at 1 and 60 days after harvesting was not influenced by nutrients. However, the ANN model estimated fruit firmness of 120 and 180 days, respectively, for D and D more accurately than for the D and D datasets. Application of D (nitrogen/calcium ratio) as the input dataset improved predictions of fruit firmness, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85 between the measured and estimated data. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9866DOI Listing
October 2019

A Comprehensive Overview of Coagulation Factor V and Congenital Factor V Deficiency.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2019 Jul 23;45(5):523-543. Epub 2019 May 23.

Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, School of Allied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Coagulation factor (F) V is a glycoprotein that plays an essential role in the formation of the prothrombinase complex, which is critical for progressing clot formation. FV deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder with an estimated incidence of one per 1 million in the general population. The disorder is manifested with a wide array of clinical bleeding events. The most common bleeding features of FV deficiency are mucosal bleedings. Life-threatening manifestations are rarely seen in this disorder. FV deficiency is diagnosed using routine coagulation tests and FV activity assay. A wide spectrum of mutations including missense, nonsense, and frameshift is observed throughout the gene. Although fresh frozen plasma is the dominant therapeutic choice, a newly introduced plasma-derived FV concentrate was found effective in in vitro correction of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin generation parameters in severe FV deficiency and should provide more targeted treatment for patients with FV deficiency in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1687906DOI Listing
July 2019

Targeting the balance of T helper cell responses by curcumin in inflammatory and autoimmune states.

Autoimmun Rev 2019 Jul 4;18(7):738-748. Epub 2019 May 4.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.. Electronic address:

CD4 T helper (Th) cells are a crucial player in host defense but under certain conditions can contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Beside the Th1/Th2 subset, several additional Th subsets have been identified, each with a distinctive transcription factor, functional properties, signature cytokine profile, and possible role in the pathophysiology of diseases. These newer Th subsets include Th17, regulatory Th cells (Tregs), and more recently, Th9, Th22, and follicular T helper cells. Interestingly, imbalance of Th subsets contributes to the immunopathology of several disease states. Therefore, targeting the imbalance of Th subsets and their signature cytokine profiles by a safe, effective and inexpensive nutraceutical agent such as curcumin could be helpful to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In this study different Th subsets and how the imbalance of these subsets could promote pathology of several diseases has been reviewed. Furthermore, the role of curcumin in this process will be discussed and the impact of targeting Th subsets by curcumin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2019.05.012DOI Listing
July 2019

The effect of early change of skin graft dressing on pain and anxiety among burn patients: a two-group randomized controlled clinical trial.

Int J Burns Trauma 2019 15;9(1):13-18. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Science Qazvin, Iran.

Burn is one of the injuries causing enormous pain among the patients, and the treatment procedure poses great anxiety. This study was designed to determine the effect of early change of skin graft on the pain and anxiety of the patients.

Materials And Methods: This clinical trial study was accomplished on 64 burn patients at Burn Center of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2018. Convenience sampling was used to select the participants who were then randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, the graft and donor site dressing was changed one day (early change) after the surgery, while it was done after three days for the control group, both in the same way. The researchers assessed the burn pain anxiety of the patients with BSPAS (Burn Specific Pain Anxiety Scale) and the pain intensity with VAS (Visual Analogue Scale). The data were fed into SPSS 21, and then Chi-square and independent t-test were calculated.

Results: The average ages of the patients in the intervention and control groups were respectively 40.4±14.3 and 36.8±13.8. The percentage of burn was 12.1 in the intervention groups and 14.5 in the control group. Statistical analysis using Chi-Square revealed no significant differences between the two groups in the contextual variables (P>0.05). Pain intensity was 4±1.8 in the intervention group and it was 6±1.9 in the control group showing a moderate pain in the former group and severe pain in the control group (P<0.001). Furthermore, it was found that the anxiety level in the control group (46.8±11.2) was significantly greater than that of the intervention group (33.6±11.3) (P<0.001).

Conclusion: Given that early change of skin graft and donor dressing has a positive effect on decreasing the amount of pain and anxiety, it is recommended to change the dressing in 24 hours after the surgery.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420706PMC
February 2019

Ameliorative effect of extract on busulfan-induced oxidative stress in mice sperm.

Vet Res Forum 2018 15;9(3):265-271. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Busulfan is known to cause several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity in humans. Garlic , a widely distributed medicinal plant, is highly regarded for its medicinal activities including antioxidant property. This study was conducted to assess whether garlic extract could serve as protective agents against testicular toxicity during busulfan treatment in a mice model. Seventy-two adult male mice were randomly divided into nine groups. In groups 1,2 and 3, distilled water, busulfan, and dimethyl sulfoxide and in the treatment groups hydro-alcoholic extract of garlic was administered orally at different doses per day (groups 4, 5 and 6; 200, 400, 800 mg kg respectively). Groups 7, 8 and 9 were treated with the extract (200, 400 and 800 mg kg, respectively) plus busulfan. Following euthanasia, blood samples and epididymal sperm were collected. The busulfan-treated group showed significant decreases in sperm quality parameters, and serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH was observed in the busulfan-treated mice. In addition, the TAC levels and antioxidant enzymes activities were reduced and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased in the busulfan-treated mice. Notably, garlic extract co-administration caused a considerable recovery in sperm quality parameters, TAC levels, antioxidant enzymes activities, hormonal changes and MDA level. Based on our results, garlic has antioxidant effects against busulfan-induced testicular damages in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2018.32079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6198159PMC
September 2018

Oral administration of titanium dioxide nanoparticle through ovarian tissue alterations impairs mice embryonic development.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2018 Jun;16(6):397-404

Department of Occupational Health, School of Health, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Background: Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiONP) is commonly used in industrial products including food colorant, cosmetics, and drugs. Previous studies have shown that oral administration of TiONP can be toxic to the reproductive system, but little is known if TiONP could be able to affect the functions of the female reproductive system, in particular fertility.

Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of TiONP on histological changes in ovaries, pregnancy rate and in vitro fertility in mice.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 54 adult female NMRI mice were randomly assigned to two groups: control group (received vehicle orally) and TiONP group (received 100 mg/kg/daily TiONP solution orally). After 5 wk, pregnancy and in vitro fertilization rates, histological changes in ovaries, malondyaldehyde and estrogen hormone levels in the blood serum were investigated and compared between groups.

Results: Our results revealed that TiONP administration induced histological alterations in ovary including, degenerating and reduction of ovarian follicles, ovarian cyst formation and disturbance of follicular development. Compared to control, animals in TiONP group have shown significant reduction of pregnancy rates and number of giving birth (p=0.04). TiONP caused significant reduction in oocyte number, fertilization rate, and pre-implantation embryo development (p<0.001). Furthermore, malondyaldehyde and estrogen hormone levels were significantly (p<0.01) increased in mice received TiONP.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that TiONP exposure induces alterations on mice ovary resulting in a decrease in the rate of embryo development and fertility.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6079309PMC
June 2018

Substituted Aminobenzothiazole Derivatives of Tacrine: Synthesis and Study on Learning and Memory Impairment in Scopolamine-Induced Model of Amnesia in Rat.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2019 ;19(1):72-78

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.

Background: Currently, there is no conclusive cure for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and existing treatments mainly offer symptomatic relief. Dysfunction of the cholinergic system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Tacrine (1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydroacridin-9-amine, III) was the first approved agent for the palliative therapy of AD but its use is associated with some complications. Development of novel multi target derivatives of Tacrine with lower complications is strongly warranted. In this study, new aminobenzothiazole (1-5, with many useful biological and pharmacological properties) analogues (IV-VIII) were synthesized by changing of amine moiety of III. Then, the effects of these new compounds on learning and memory impairment in scopolamine-induced model of amnesia were studied and the outcomes were compared with control and Tacrine groups in rat.

Material And Methods: The rats received Tacrine or its derivatives (IV-VIII) i.p. for two weeks at a dose of 10 mg/kg. For induction of amnesia, scopolamine at a dose of 1 mg/kg was daily administered i.p. started on day-8 till the end of the study. Behavioral experiments including Y-maze, novel object recognition (discrimination) and passive avoidance paradigms were conducted at week 2.

Results: Data analysis showed that some Tacrine derivatives, especially VII with 2-amino, 6-nitrobenzothiazole moiety, could markedly and significantly improve alternation score, discrimination ratio and step through latency compared to control and Tacrine groups.

Conclusion: These findings indicated that some of these derivatives (especially compounds VI and VII) are capable to mitigate learning and memory deficits in scopolamine-induced model of amnesia in rats and may have potential benefit in management of patients with AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557518666180716122608DOI Listing
January 2019

Effect of Satureja essential oil against fertility disorders induced by busulfan in female mice.

Vet Res Forum 2017 15;8(4):281-286. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Busulfan is an alkylating agent affects ovarian follicles growth by oxidative stress induction. has antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to examine whether essential oil (SKEO) exhibits protective effects on busulfan-induced ovarian failure. Eighty-four adult female mice were divided into six groups including dimethyl sulfoxide (control), SKEO 225.00 mg kg (orally), busulfan 3.00 mg kg (orally), busulfan 36.00 mg kg (intraperitoneally), busulfan 3.00 mg kg and SKEO and busulfan 36.00 mg kg and SKEO. After 28 days, the mice were euthanized and oocytes were removed for fertilization (IVF) rate evaluation. Oocyte quantity and quality, fertilization rate and pre-implantation embryo development were daily examined with a stereo microscope in a period of 120 hr. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were also evaluated. Busulfan caused significant decreases in oocyte number and quality, fertilization rate, pre-implantation embryo development and embryo quality. The SKEO significantly decreased the adverse effects of busulfan. The present study indicated that SKEO can protect female fertility potential against busulfan induced damages.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5756246PMC
December 2017

Matrix metalloproteinase-2 C-735T and its interaction with matrix metalloproteinase-7 A-181G polymorphism are associated with the risk of preeclampsia: influence on total antioxidant capacity and blood pressure.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2018 Apr 10;38(3):327-332. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

a Medical Biology Research Center , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Kermanshah , Iran.

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 C-735 T and MMP-7 A-181 G genotypes were studied in 144 pregnant patients with mild and severe preeclampsia and 103 healthy pregnant women. Significantly higher frequencies of CT and TT genotypes in patients compared to controls increased the risk of preeclampsia by 2.42 and 3.13 times, respectively. In severe preeclamptic women in the presence of MMP-2 CT the level of total antioxidant capacity was significantly lower than MMP-2 CC genotype. Also, in the presence of MMP-2 CT + TT blood pressure was significantly increased compared to CC genotype in all the patients. The combined presence of MMP-2 T and the MMP-7 A alleles compared to MMP-2 C and MMP-7 A alleles significantly increased the risk of preeclampsia by 3.08-fold. Our findings demonstrate an association between the MMP-2 C-735 T polymorphism with blood pressure and the risk of preeclampsia. Also, in the presence of polymorphism total antioxidant capacity level decreased in severe preeclampsia. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) including MMP-2 might be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia through alteration of invasive ability of trophoblastic cells and abnormal placentation. In one available study the absence of association between MMP-2 C-735T polymorphism with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia has been reported. What the results of this study add: We found that the presence of MMP-2 C-735T polymorphism increased the risk of preeclampsia and there was a significantly lower level of total antioxidant capacity in the presence of the polymorphism in severe preeclampsia. Also, we found significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the presence of MMP-2 C-735T polymorphism. We detected a synergism between the MMP-2 T and the MMP-7 A alleles that increased the risk of preeclampsia. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: New findings of our study are involvement of lower activity MMP-2 -735 T allele and its synergism with MMP-7 A allele, low promoter activity allele, in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia through possible impairment of placentation and also by decreased total antioxidant capacity and increased blood pressure. Further association studies of the role of MMP-2 polymorphism and MMP-2 activity in relation to oxidative stress parameters and blood pressure could elucidate the role of MMP-2 and MMP-7 in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2017.1354178DOI Listing
April 2018

Incidence and Mortality of Nasopharynx Cancer and Its Relationship With Human Development Index in the World in 2012.

World J Oncol 2016 Dec 23;7(5-6):109-118. Epub 2016 Dec 23.

Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran.

Background: One of the most common cancers in head and neck is nasopharynx. Knowledge about the incidence and mortality of this disease and its distribution in terms of geographical areas is necessary for further study, better planning and prevention. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the incidence and mortality of nasopharynx cancer and its relationship with human development index (HDI) in the world in 2012.

Methods: This study was an ecological study conducted based on GLOBOCAN project of World Health Organization (WHO) for the countries in world. The correlation between standardized incidence rates (SIRs) and standardized mortality rates (SMRs) of nasopharynx cancer with HDI and its components was assessed with correlation coefficient by using SPSS 15.

Results: In 2012, 86,691 nasopharynx cancer cases occurred in the world, so that 60,896 new cases were seen in men and 25,795 new cases in women (sex ratio = 2.36). SIR of the cancer was 1.2 per 100,000 (1.7 in men and 0.7 in women per 100,000) in the world. In 2012, 50,831 nasopharynx death cases occurred in the world, so that 35,756 death cases were seen in men and 15,075 death cases in women (sex ratio = 2.37). SIR of mortality from the cancer was 0.7 per 100,000 (0.7 in women and 1 in men per 100,000) in the world. The results of correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between the SIR and HDI (r = -0.037, P = 0.629), and also the results of correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between the SMR and HDI (r = -0.237, P = 0.002).

Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal cancer is native to Southeast Asia and the highest incidence and mortality were seen in countries with moderate and low HDI. It is suggested that studies are conducted on determining the causes of the cancer incidence and mortality in the world and the differences between various regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/wjon980wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5624652PMC
December 2016

Incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and its relationship with HDI (Human Development Index) in the world in 2012.

Clujul Med 2017 15;90(3):286-293. Epub 2017 Jul 15.

Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran.

Background And Aims: Kidney cancer is among the cancers that have the highest growth rate in all age and racial groups in the world and is as the most deadly type of urinary tract cancer. Since awareness about this cancer incidence status and mortality is essential for better planning, this study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality rate of kidney cancer and its relationship with the development index in the world in 2012.

Method: This study was an ecological study conducted based on GLOBOCAN project of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the countries in the world. The correlation between Standardized Incidence Rates (SIRs) and Standardized Mortality Rates (SMRs) of kidney cancer with HDI and its components was assessed using SPSS18.

Results: In total, 337,860 incidence cases (213,924 were men and 123,936 women) and 143,406 deaths (90,802 cases in men and 52,604 in women) of kidney cancer were recorded in 2012. A positive correlation of 0.731 was seen between SIR of kidney cancer and HDI (p≤0.001). Also, a negative correlation of 0.627 was seen between SMR of kidney cancer and HDI (p≤0.001).

Conclusion: The incidence and mortality rate of kidney cancer is higher in developed countries. A significant positive correlation has been seen between the standardized incidence and mortality rate of kidney cancer with the Human Development Index and its components. We need more studies to examine variation in incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and its related factors in the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15386/cjmed-691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5536208PMC
July 2017

Synthesis and Study of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Amide Derivatives of Ibuprofen.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2017 ;17(9):799-804

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used drugs worldwide and represent a mainstay in the therapy of acute and chronic pain and inflammation. The traditional NSAIDs like ibuprofen (I) contain free carboxylic acid group which can produce gastrointestinal (GI) damage for long-term use.

Objective: In order to obtain the novel NSAIDs with less side effects; carboxylic acid moiety has been modified into various amide groups which is the most active area of research in this family.

Method: In this research, synthesis of various pharmacological heterocyclic amides of ibuprofen is described. All the new compounds were tested for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in mice and compared with standard (Ibuprofen) and control (saline) groups.

Results & Conclusion: The results revealed that all the synthesized compounds (III-VI) exhibited more analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in tail immersion (as a model of acute thermal pain), formalin (as a model of acute chemical and chronic pain) and paw edema (as a model of acute inflammation) tests when compared with standard and control animals. These pharmacological activities were significant for VI compared to other new compounds (III-V) which may be concern to more effective role of morpholin for the reduction of pain and inflammation compared to other used heterocyclic amines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557516666161226155951DOI Listing
September 2017

Synthesis and Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Activity of Sulfonamide-benzothiazole Derivatives of Benzylidene-2,4- thiazolidnedione.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2017 ;17(8):721-726

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and sulfonamides are important and highly consumption class of antidiabetic drugs having insulin sensitizing and stimulating properties in patients with type 2 diabetes, respectively.

Objective: In this paper, some novel benzothiazole derivatives of TZD-sulfonamides were synthesized (I-IV) and evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities in the STZ-induced diabetic rat model.

Results: Results indicated that all new conjugated compounds showed significant hypoglycemic activities compared to control animals that were better for I and IV than others. Moreover, these new compounds displayed high efficiency for lowering lipid profiles as compared to control and standard (Pioglitazone) groups that was significant and higher for I than others.

Conclusion: It is concluded that these new conjugated TZD-sulfonamide-benzothiazoles (I-IV) can indicate useful results for hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities compared to control and standard groups, respectively with different mechanism that is closer to TZDs' analogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557516666161130095407DOI Listing
September 2017

Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on mice sperm parameters in phenylhydrazine induced hemolytic anemia.

Vet Res Forum 2016 15;7(1):63-8. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Department of Food Hygiene and Quality control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on sperm quality parameters, testosterone level and malondialdehyde (MDA) in phenylhydrazine (PHZ) treated mice. For this purpose, 32 NMRI mice with the age range of 8 to 10 weeks, weight average 26.0 ± 2.0 g, were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (1) received normal saline (0. 1 mL per day) by intraperitoneal injection (IP). Group 2 (PHZ group) was treated with initial dose of PHZ (8 mg 100 g(-1), IP) followed by 6 mg 100 g(-1) , IP every 48 hr. Group 3, (Group PHZ+EP) received PHZ (according to the previous prescription) with EP (40 mg kg(-1), daily, IP). Ethyl pyruvate group (4) received only EP (40 mg kg(-1), daily, IP). Treatment period was 35 days. After euthanasia, sperms from caudal region of epididymis were collected and the total mean sperm count, sperm viability, motility and morphology were determined. Testis tissue MDA and serum testosterone levels of all experimental groups were also evaluated. A considerable reduction in mean percentage of number, natural morphology of sperm, sperm motility and viability and serum testosterone concentration besides DNA injury increment among mice treating with PHZ in comparison with control group were observed. However, in PHZ+EP group the above mentioned parameters were improved. This study showed that PHZ caused induction of toxicity on sperm parameters and reduction of testosterone as well as the increment of MDA level and EP as an antioxidant could reduce destructive effects of PHZ on sperm parameters, testosterone level and lipid peroxidation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4867039PMC
May 2016

Synthesis and Analgesic Properties of Lidocaine Derivatives with Substituted Aminobenzothiazoles.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2016 ;19(6):507-12

Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; No 99, Yakhchal, Gholhak, Shariati, Tehran, Iran.

Local anesthetics are the most widely consumed drugs in the practice of medicine which provide a loss of sensation in a certain body part without loss of consciousness or impairment of central control of essential functions. Lidocaine (I) is the most commonly local anaesthetic drug which is widely used in all species due to its fabulous diffusing and penetrating properties as well as prompt onset of surgical analgesia. In this study, new aminobenzothiazole (with many useful biological and pharmacological properties) analogues were synthesized by changing of amine moiety of I. Both acute and chronic pain properties of new compounds (II-VI) were studied by using the tail immersion and formalin tests on mice and the outcomes were compared with control and lidocaine groups. According to the results, aminobenzothiazole derivatives are better candidates than diethylamine group for replacement on amine moiety of I. Also, derivatives with electron-withdrawing groups on this amine (V and VI) could decrease pain better than electron-donating ones (II and III) (specially on position 6 of this amine, II and V) which may be of concern for blockade of specific sodium channels by these new compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207319666160517115310DOI Listing
August 2017

Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates The Damage Induced by Cyclophosphamide on Adult Mice Testes.

Int J Fertil Steril 2016 Apr-Jun;10(1):79-86. Epub 2016 Apr 5.

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Background: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a chemotherapy drug which causes deleterious effects on testicular tissue and increases free radicals in the body. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on testicular improvement in CP treated animals.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, 15 male mice (6-8 weeks) were divided into 3 groups. The control group received normal saline (0.1 ml/day), intraperitoneal (IP), CP group received CP (15 mg/kg/week, IP), and the CP+EP group received EP (40 mg/kg/day, IP) plus CP. After 35 days, we assessed serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) along with histomorphometric and histochemical analyses of the testicles.

Results: The mean thickness of the germinal epithelium, diameter of seminiferous tubules, and the number of Leydig cells in the CP+EP group were higher than those of the CP group (P<0.05). The number of the mast cells in the CP+EP group significantly reduced compared with the CP group (P<0.05). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), periodic acid-schiff (PAS) positive reactions and lipid granules in cytoplasm of the Leydig cells in the CP group increased compared with the other groups (P<0.05). TAC in the CP group significantly reduced compared with the other groups (P<0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed the ability of EP to reduce the destructive side effects of CP in the adult mice reproductive system.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4845533PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/ijfs.2016.4772DOI Listing
April 2016