Publications by authors named "Aaron S Mansfield"

114 Publications

Pralsetinib for patients with advanced or metastatic RET-altered thyroid cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, registrational, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Earle A Chiles Research Institute, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA.

Background: Oncogenic alterations in RET represent important therapeutic targets in thyroid cancer. We aimed to assess the safety and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET-altered thyroid cancers.

Methods: ARROW, a phase 1/2, open-label study done in 13 countries across 71 sites in community and hospital settings, enrolled patients 18 years or older with RET-altered locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours, including RET-mutant medullary thyroid and RET fusion-positive thyroid cancers, and an Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 (later limited to 0-1 in a protocol amendment). Phase 2 primary endpoints assessed for patients who received 400 mg once-daily oral pralsetinib until disease progression, intolerance, withdrawal of consent, or investigator decision, were overall response rate (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1.1; masked independent central review) and safety. Tumour response was assessed for patients with RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer who had received previous cabozantinib or vandetanib, or both, or were ineligible for standard therapy and patients with previously treated RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer; safety was assessed for all patients with RET-altered thyroid cancer. This ongoing study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03037385, and enrolment of patients with RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer was ongoing at the time of this interim analysis.

Findings: Between Mar 17, 2017, and May 22, 2020, 122 patients with RET-mutant medullary and 20 with RET fusion-positive thyroid cancers were enrolled. Among patients with baseline measurable disease who received pralsetinib by July 11, 2019 (enrolment cutoff for efficacy analysis), overall response rates were 15 (71%) of 21 (95% CI 48-89) in patients with treatment-naive RET-mutant medullary thyroid cancer and 33 (60%) of 55 (95% CI 46-73) in patients who had previously received cabozantinib or vandetanib, or both, and eight (89%) of nine (95% CI 52-100) in patients with RET fusion-positive thyroid cancer (all responses confirmed for each group). Common (≥10%) grade 3 and above treatment-related adverse events among patients with RET-altered thyroid cancer enrolled by May 22, 2020, were hypertension (24 patients [17%] of 142), neutropenia (19 [13%]), lymphopenia (17 [12%]), and anaemia (14 [10%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in 21 patients (15%), the most frequent (≥2%) of which was pneumonitis (five patients [4%]). Five patients [4%] discontinued owing to treatment-related events. One (1%) patient died owing to a treatment-related adverse event.

Interpretation: Pralsetinib is a new, well-tolerated, potent once-daily oral treatment option for patients with RET-altered thyroid cancer.

Funding: Blueprint Medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00120-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Pralsetinib for RET fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Oncogenic alterations in RET have been identified in multiple tumour types, including 1-2% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, oral, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC.

Methods: ARROW is a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study done at 71 sites (community and academic cancer centres) in 13 countries (Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and the USA). Patients aged 18 years or older with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours, including RET fusion-positive NSCLC, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 (later limited to 0-1 in a protocol amendment) were enrolled. In phase 2, patients received 400 mg once-daily oral pralsetinib, and could continue treatment until disease progression, intolerance, withdrawal of consent, or investigator decision. Phase 2 primary endpoints were overall response rate (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1·1 and assessed by blinded independent central review) and safety. Tumour response was assessed in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC and centrally adjudicated baseline measurable disease who had received platinum-based chemotherapy or were treatment-naive because they were ineligible for standard therapy. This ongoing study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03037385, and enrolment of patients with treatment-naive RET fusion-positive NSCLC was ongoing at the time of this interim analysis.

Findings: Of 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC enrolled between March 17, 2017, and May 22, 2020 (data cutoff), 92 with previous platinum-based chemotherapy and 29 who were treatment-naive received pralsetinib before July 11, 2019 (efficacy enrolment cutoff); 87 previously treated patients and 27 treatment-naive patients had centrally adjudicated baseline measurable disease. Overall responses were recorded in 53 (61%; 95% CI 50-71) of 87 patients with previous platinum-based chemotherapy, including five (6%) patients with a complete response; and 19 (70%; 50-86) of 27 treatment-naive patients, including three (11%) with a complete response. In 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC, common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (43 patients [18%]), hypertension (26 [11%]), and anaemia (24 [10%]); there were no treatment-related deaths in this population.

Interpretation: Pralsetinib is a new, well-tolerated, promising, once-daily oral treatment option for patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC.

Funding: Blueprint Medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00247-3DOI Listing
June 2021

SATB2 Is Expressed in a Subset of Pulmonary and Thymic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Am J Clin Pathol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Rochester, MN, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate SATB2 expression and prognostic implications in a large cohort of thoracic neuroendocrine tumors.

Methods: Surgical pathology files (1995-2017) and an institutional thymic epithelial tumor database (2010-2020) were searched for resected neuroendocrine tumors. Cases were stained with SATB2 (clone EP281). Percent SATB2-positive tumor cells and expression intensity were scored.

Results: In the lung, SATB2 was expressed in 5% or more of tumor cells in 29 (74.4%) of 39 small cell carcinomas and 9 (22.5%) of 40 atypical and 26 (40.6%) of 64 typical carcinoid tumors. SATB2 percent tumor cell expression and intensity were higher in small cell carcinomas than in carcinoid tumors (both P < .001, respectively). After adjusting for tumor subtype, SATB2 expression did not correlate with outcome. In the thymus, four (100%) of four atypical carcinoid tumors and one large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma but no small cell carcinoma (n = 2) expressed SATB2 in 5% or more of tumor cells.

Conclusions: SATB2 (clone EP281) is expressed in a large subset of pulmonary and thymic neuroendocrine tumors and therefore does not appear to be a useful marker to identify the origin of neuroendocrine tumors. Validation studies are needed, specifically including thymic neuroendocrine tumors, as the expression pattern might be different in those tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqab038DOI Listing
May 2021

First-in-human evaluation of the novel mitochondrial complex I inhibitor ASP4132 for treatment of cancer.

Invest New Drugs 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Ball Pharma Consulting, LLC, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background We assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of mitochondrial complex 1 inhibitor ASP4132. Methods This phase I dose-escalation/dose-expansion study enrolled patients with treatment refractory advanced solid tumors to assess safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), efficacy and pharmacokinetic or oral ASP4132. Results Overall, 39 patients received ASP4132. Acceptable tolerability of ASP4132 5 mg in the first patient led to enrollment in the 10-mg dose cohort. After two DLTs at the 10-mg dose, additional patients were enrolled in the 5-mg cohort; a 7.5-mg cohort and two intermittent-dosing cohorts (ASP4132 10 mg for 3 days, then 4 days off; ASP4132 15 mg for 1 day, then 6 days off). ASP4132 5 mg was well tolerated; however, multiple DLTs such as fatigue, mental status changes, dizziness, lactic acidosis, enteritis, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome were observed in higher dose cohorts (7.5-mg and intermittent 10-mg and 15-mg dose cohorts). Stable disease (+ 4 % to + 15 %) was observed in 8/39 (20.5 %) patients. ASP4132 plasma pharmacokinetics were characterized by high variability, with rapid absorption and accumulation from slow elimination. Conclusions ASP4132 showed limited clinical activity, and DLTs prohibited dose escalation. Further research is required to determine if DLTs will limit clinical activity of other mitochondrial complex I inhibitors. Clinical Trial ID (clinicaltrials.gov): NCT02383368, March 9, 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-021-01112-7DOI Listing
April 2021

A Phase Ib/II Study of Pepinemab in Combination with Avelumab in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Vaccinex, Inc., Rochester, New York.

Purpose: The CLASSICAL-Lung clinical trial tested the combination of pepinemab, an IgG4 humanized mAb targeting semaphorin 4D, with the PD-L1 inhibitor avelumab to assess the effects of coupling increased T-cell infiltration and reversal of immune suppression via pepinemab with sustained T-cell activation via checkpoint inhibition.

Patients And Methods: This phase Ib/II, single-arm study was designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of pepinemab in combination with avelumab in 62 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including immunotherapy-naïve (ION) patients and patients whose tumors progressed following anti-PD-1/L1 monotherapy (IOF). The main objectives were to evaluate safety/tolerability, establish a recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), obtain a preliminary evaluation of antitumor activity, and investigate candidate biomarker activity.

Results: The combination was well tolerated with no major safety signals identified. Pepinemab, 10 mg/kg with avelumab, 10 mg/kg, every 2 weeks, was selected as the RP2D. Among 21 evaluable ION patients, 5 patients experienced partial responses (PR), 4 patients evidenced clinical benefit ≥1 year, and the disease control rate (DCR) was 81%. Notably, overall response rate with the combination therapy was higher than previously reported for single-agent avelumab in the PD-L1-negative/low population. Among 29 evaluable IOF patients, the combination resulted in a DCR of 59%, including 2 PR and 7 patients with durable clinical benefit of ≥23 weeks. Biomarker analysis of biopsies demonstrated increased CD8 T-cell density correlating with RECIST response criteria.

Conclusions: The combination of pepinemab with avelumab was well tolerated in NSCLC and showed signs of antitumor activity in immunotherapy-resistant and PD-L1-negative/low tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4792DOI Listing
April 2021

Inflation of tumor mutation burden by tumor-only sequencing in under-represented groups.

NPJ Precis Oncol 2021 Mar 19;5(1):22. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Precision Cancer Therapeutics of Mayo Clinic's Center for Individualized Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.

With the recent FDA approval of tumor mutational burden-high (TMB-H) status as a biomarker for treatment with a PD-1 inhibitor regardless of tumor type, accurate assessment of patient-specific TMB is more critical now more than ever. Using paired tumor and germline exome sequencing data from 701 patients newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma, including 575 self-reported White patients and 126 self-reported Black patients, we observed that compared to the gold standard of filtering germline variants with patient-paired germline sequencing data, TMB estimates were significantly higher in both Black and White patients when using public databases for filtering non-somatic mutations; however, TMB was more significantly inflated in Black patients compared to White patients. TMB as a biomarker for patient selection to receive immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) therapy without patient-paired germline sequencing may introduce racial bias due to the under-representation of minority groups in public databases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41698-021-00164-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979755PMC
March 2021

Ablative radiotherapy for ultracentral lung cancers: Dosimetric, geometric, and volumetric predictors of outcomes and toxicity.

Radiother Oncol 2021 05 10;158:246-252. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Ultracentral lung cancers arise near the proximal bronchial tree (PBT), trachea, or esophagus, and have been associated with worse outcomes and increased toxicity after radiotherapy. We sought to associate dosimetric and anatomic factors with oncologic outcomes and toxicities.

Methods: One-hundred ten patients treated with ablative, curative-intent radiotherapy for ultracentral, node-negative, non-small cell lung cancer were included. Dosimetric and geometric data obtained using custom software that calculated volumes of target structures and organs-at-risk and measured the shortest vector length between these volumes were associated with outcomes and toxicity.

Results: Common dose/fractionation schemes included 50 Gy in 5 fractions (57%), 60 Gy in 8 fractions (15%), and 48 Gy in 4 fractions (13%). Overall survival at 1, 2, and 5 years was 78%, 57%, and 32%, respectively. Factors significantly associated with death included endobronchial tumor, gross tumor volume (GTV) or planning target volume (PTV) contacting PBT, shorter distance from GTV to PBT or esophagus, volume of PBT receiving prescription dose, higher pericardium max dose, lung V20Gy, and mean lung dose. Local progression at 1, 2, and 5 years was 4%, 16%, and 21%. Factors associated with local progression were lower GTV minimum dose and higher GTV/PTV volume ratio. Acute and late grade 2 + toxicity was seen in 18% and 27%, respectively. Four patients (4%) had fatal toxicity.

Conclusions: Lower GTV minimum dose and smaller volumetric PTV expansions may increase risk of local progression, and should be balanced against normal tissue doses including pericardium maximum dose, lung V20Gy, and mean lung dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2021.03.001DOI Listing
May 2021

Heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression between invasive and lepidic components of lung adenocarcinomas.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Division of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

The dynamics of PD-L1 expression are poorly understood over the development of lung adenocarcinomas from pre-invasive lesions to fully invasive carcinomas. Given the importance of PD-L1 expression for the selection of patients to receive immunotherapy in the metastatic setting and possibly in the neoadjuvant setting, we sought to evaluate the agreement of PD-L1 expression in invasive and lepidic components of resected tumor specimens. We stained 86 adenocarcinomas for PD-L1 using the SP263 clone. We assessed the agreement of PD-L1 expression by tumor cells and immune cells between lepidic and invasive components. When both lepidic and invasive components were considered, PD-L1 positive immune cells and tumor cells were observed in 50 (58.1%) and 18 (20.9%) samples, respectively, using a ≥ 1% PD-L1 expression cutoff. Using a ≥ 1% cutoff for PD-L1 expression, positively stained tumor cells were observed in 11 (13%) lepidic and 15 (17%) invasive patterns, with agreement in 76 (88%) specimens and disagreement in 10 (12%) specimens (ĸ = 0.549). At ≥ 1% PD-L1 expression cutoff, PD-L1 positive immune cells were observed in 31 (35%) lepidic and 32 (37%) invasive patterns with an agreement of PD-L1 expression in 49 (57%) specimens and disagreement in 37 (43%) specimens (ĸ = 0.073). In our study of early stage adenocarcinomas of the lung, there was poor agreement in PD-L1 expression between paired invasive and lepidic components of tumors. Our data suggest that the non-invasive tumor components may not be as immunostimulatory as the invasive components, resulting in less adaptive expression of PD-L1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-021-02883-xDOI Listing
February 2021

First-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab in unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (CheckMate 743): a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2021 01 21;397(10272):375-386. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital, AP-HP, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Approved systemic treatments for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have been limited to chemotherapy regimens that have moderate survival benefit with poor outcomes. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab has shown clinical benefit in other tumour types, including first-line non-small-cell lung cancer. We hypothesised that this regimen would improve overall survival in MPM.

Methods: This open-label, randomised, phase 3 study (CheckMate 743) was run at 103 hospitals across 21 countries. Eligible individuals were aged 18 years and older, with previously untreated, histologically confirmed unresectable MPM, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to nivolumab (3 mg/kg intravenously once every 2 weeks) plus ipilimumab (1 mg/kg intravenously once every 6 weeks) for up to 2 years, or platinum plus pemetrexed chemotherapy (pemetrexed [500 mg/m intravenously] plus cisplatin [75 mg/m intravenously] or carboplatin [area under the concentration-time curve 5 mg/mL per min intravenously]) once every 3 weeks for up to six cycles. The primary endpoint was overall survival among all participants randomly assigned to treatment, and safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of study treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02899299, and is closed to accrual.

Findings: Between Nov 29, 2016, and April 28, 2018, 713 patients were enrolled, of whom 605 were randomly assigned to either nivolumab plus ipilimumab (n=303) or chemotherapy (n=302). 467 (77%) of 605 participants were male and median age was 69 years (IQR 64-75). At the prespecified interim analysis (database lock April 3, 2020; median follow-up of 29·7 months [IQR 26·7-32·9]), nivolumab plus ipilimumab significantly extended overall survival versus chemotherapy (median overall survival 18·1 months [95% CI 16·8-21·4] vs 14·1 months [12·4-16·2]; hazard ratio 0·74 [96·6% CI 0·60-0·91]; p=0·0020). 2-year overall survival rates were 41% (95% CI 35·1-46·5) in the nivolumab plus ipilimumab group and 27% (21·9-32·4) in the chemotherapy group. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 91 (30%) of 300 patients treated with nivolumab plus ipilimumab and 91 (32%) of 284 treated with chemotherapy. Three (1%) treatment-related deaths occurred in the nivolumab plus ipilimumab group (pneumonitis, encephalitis, and heart failure) and one (<1%) in the chemotherapy group (myelosuppression).

Interpretation: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab provided significant and clinically meaningful improvements in overall survival versus standard-of-care chemotherapy, supporting the use of this first-in-class regimen that has been approved in the USA as of October, 2020, for previously untreated unresectable MPM.

Funding: Bristol Myers Squibb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32714-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Updated Overall Survival and PD-L1 Subgroup Analysis of Patients With Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Atezolizumab, Carboplatin, and Etoposide (IMpower133).

J Clin Oncol 2021 Feb 13;39(6):619-630. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

Purpose: IMpower133 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02763579), a randomized, double-blind, phase I/III study, demonstrated that adding atezolizumab (anti-programmed death-ligand 1 [PD-L1]) to carboplatin plus etoposide (CP/ET) for first-line (1L) treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) resulted in significant improvement in overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) versus placebo plus CP/ET. Updated OS, disease progression patterns, safety, and exploratory biomarkers (PD-L1, blood-based tumor mutational burden [bTMB]) are reported.

Patients And Methods: Patients with untreated ES-SCLC were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive four 21-day cycles of CP (area under the curve 5 mg per mL/min intravenously [IV], day 1) plus ET (100 mg/m IV, days 1-3) with atezolizumab (1,200 mg IV, day 1) or placebo, and then maintenance atezolizumab or placebo until unacceptable toxicity, disease progression, or loss of clinical benefit. Tumor specimens were collected; PD-L1 testing was not required for enrollment. The two primary end points, investigator-assessed PFS and OS, were statistically significant at the interim analysis. Updated OS and PFS and exploratory biomarker analyses were conducted.

Results: Patients received atezolizumab plus CP/ET (n = 201) or placebo plus CP/ET (n = 202). At the updated analysis, median follow-up for OS was 22.9 months; 302 deaths had occurred. Median OS was 12.3 and 10.3 months with atezolizumab plus CP/ET and placebo plus CP/ET, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.95; descriptive = .0154). At 18 months, 34.0% and 21.0% of patients were alive in atezolizumab plus CP/ET and placebo plus CP/ET arms, respectively. Patients derived benefit from the addition of atezolizumab, regardless of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry or bTMB status.

Conclusion: Adding atezolizumab to CP/ET as 1L treatment for ES-SCLC continued to demonstrate improved OS and a tolerable safety profile at the updated analysis, confirming the regimen as a new standard of care. Exploratory analyses demonstrated treatment benefit independent of biomarker status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078320PMC
February 2021

Clinical impact of uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor exon 19 insertion-deletion variants on epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor efficacy in non-small-cell lung cancer.

Eur J Cancer 2020 12 7;141:199-208. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Medical Oncology, Lung Cancer and Gastrointestinal Unit, Hunan Cancer Hospital/The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, 410013, China. Electronic address:

Aim: Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and resistance mechanisms of first-line epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harbouring uncommon EGFR exon 19 deletion-insertion (19delins) variants.

Methods: Targeted sequencing data of 2467 treatment-naive patients with NSCLC from January 2015 to August 2018 were retrospectively screened for EGFR exon 19 deletion (19del) variants. Clinical outcomes of 93 patients with uncommon EGFR 19delins and 93 patients with common EGFR 19del were selected through propensity score matching at a ratio of 1:1.

Results: We identified 10 previously unreported EGFR 19delins variants. L747_P753delinsS, L747_A750delinsP and E746_S752delinsV were the most frequent variants, accounting for 33.1% (42/127), 23.6% (30/127) and 12.6% (16/127) of the cases, respectively. Despite similar baseline characteristics, treatment history and response rates, patients with uncommon 19delins had significantly longer median progression-free survival (mPFS) than those with common 19del (19.0 months vs. 13.0 months; p = 0.0016). At progression from first-line EGFR inhibitor therapy, patients with uncommon 19delins and common 19del had similar rates of developing resistance mechanisms including the acquisition of EGFR T790M (45.8% vs 57.8%), small-cell transformation (3.4% vs 3.6%) and MET amplification (5.1% vs 4.8%). For patients whose tumours acquired T790M and who received second-line osimertinib, the mPFS was significantly shorter for patients with uncommon 19delins (n = 27) than those with common 19del (n = 47, 5.0 months vs. 12.0 months; p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Our results suggest that patients with uncommon EGFR 19delins have improved clinical outcomes with first-generation EGFR inhibitor treatment, but inferior outcomes upon the development of T790M resistance mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.10.005DOI Listing
December 2020

BRCA1/MAD2L1 Deficiency Disrupts the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint to Confer Vinorelbine Resistance in Mesothelioma.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 02 6;20(2):379-388. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Leicester Cancer Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Mesothelioma is a universally lethal cancer lacking effective therapy. The spindle poison vinorelbine exhibits clinical activity in the relapsed setting, and in preclinical models requires to initiate apoptosis. However, the mechanisms underlying this regulation and the clinical implications have not been explored. Here, we show that silencing abrogated vinorelbine-induced cell-cycle arrest, recruitment of BUBR1 to kinetochores, and apoptosis. silencing led to codepletion of at the mRNA and protein levels consistent with its status as a transcriptional target of Silencing of phenocopied and was sufficient to confer resistance to vinorelbine. This was recapitulated in cell lines selected for resistance to vinorelbine, which acquired loss of both and expression. Following vinorelbine in 20 primary tumor explants, apoptotic response rate was 59% in -positive explants compared with 0% in -negative explants. In 48 patients, and/or loss of expression was not prognostic; however, in a subset of patients treated with vinorelbine, survival was shorter for patients lacking expression compared with double-positive patients (5.9 vs. 36.7 months, = 0.03). Our data implicate loss as a putative predictive marker of resistance to vinorelbine in mesothelioma and warrant prospective clinical evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-20-0363DOI Listing
February 2021

Optimizing clinical cytology touch preparations for next generation sequencing.

Genomics 2020 11 2;112(6):5313-5323. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States. Electronic address:

Intraoperative diagnosis is routinely performed on cytology touch preparations (TPs) from core needle biopsies (CNBs). Current interest promotes their utility as an important source of patient tissue for clinical genomic testing. Herein we present whole genome structural variant analysis (SVA) from mate-pair sequencing (MPseq) and whole exome sequencing (WES) mutation calling in DNA directly whole genome amplified (WGA) from TPs. Chromosomal copy changes and somatic DNA junction detection from MPseq of TPs were highly consistent with associated CNBs and bulk resected tissues in all cases. While increased frequency coverage noise from limitations of amplification of limited sample input was significant, this was effectively compensated by natural tumor enrichment during the TP process, which also enhanced variant detection and loss of heterozygosity evaluations from WES. This novel TP methodology enables expanded utility of frequently limited CNB for both clinical and research genomic testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2020.10.031DOI Listing
November 2020

Therapeutic plasma exchange clears circulating soluble PD-L1 and PD-L1-positive extracellular vesicles.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 08;8(2)

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Trans-acting programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) derives from malignant cells in three known forms. High levels of secreted splice variant PD-L1 (sPD-L1), ADAM10/ADAM17-shed sPD-L1, and PD-L1-positive extracellular vesicles (evPD-L1) each predict poor prognosis and limited response to PD-(L)1 checkpoint inhibitors in cancer. To our knowledge, no clinical intervention has reduced any of these circulating forms of extracellular PD-L1. Here, we explore therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) as a treatment to reduce circulating extracellular PD-L1.

Results: In patients with melanoma, sPD-L1 levels above 0.277 ng/mL predicted inferior overall survival. In patients undergoing TPE for non-malignant indications, each TPE session removed a mean 70.8% sPD-L1 and 73.1% evPD-L1 detectable in plasma. TPE also reduced total and ADAM10-positive extracellular vesicles.

Conclusion: Here, we report the first known clinical intervention to remove either sPD-L1 or evPD-L1 from plasma in vivo. TPE reduces plasma sPD-L1 and evPD-L1 in vivo and may have a role in treatment with immunotherapy. TPE may also prove useful in patients with other extracellular vesicle-related conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437945PMC
August 2020

Maintaining Equipoise With Maintenance Therapy in Mesothelioma.

Clin Lung Cancer 2020 11 18;21(6):482-484. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2020.07.006DOI Listing
November 2020

Human leukocyte antigen expression in paired primary lung tumors and brain metastases in non-small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Jan 21;70(1):215-219. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Loss of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class 1 expression is a mechanism of tumor immune escape and may contribute to resistance to immunotherapy. Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors can have discordant responses between brain metastases and extracranial sites of disease. We sought to evaluate whether HLA class 1 expression was retained in metastatic NSCLC. Patients with paired primary NSCLC and brain metastases were identified from our institution's tissue registry. HLA class 1 cell membrane expression on tumor cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Tumors with greater than the median of 10% HLA expression were considered positive. Agreement statistics (κ) were used to assess the congruence of HLA expression. 51 patients with paired primary NSCLC and brain lesions were identified. The median HLA class 1 expression was 20% in the primary tumors (IQR 0-65%) and 10% in the brain metastases (IQR 5-40%). 27 primary tumors and 24 brain metastases were positive for HLA expression. There was disagreement in HLA positivity between paired lesions in 11 patients (22%, 95% CI 12-35%) (κ = 0.57, 95% CI 0.35-0.79) (p = 0.0001). None of the patients received checkpoint inhibitors for treatment of these lesions. The results show that while there is moderate agreement in HLA class 1 expression between primary lung tumor and brain metastasis pairs, HLA expression is incongruent in nearly one quarter of patients. Loss of antigen presentation may represent one of the many potential mechanisms of discordant responses to checkpoint inhibitor therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02677-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854856PMC
January 2021

Correlation of novel ALK with ALK immunohistochemistry and clinical outcomes in metastatic melanoma.

Histopathology 2020 Oct 15;77(4):601-610. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Aims: Recently, a novel isoform of anaplastic lymphoma kinase, with alternative transcription initiation (ALK ), has been described in melanoma and is susceptible to targeted ALK-inhibitor therapy. Clinical outcomes of patients with ALK mutated melanoma as well as correlation with immunohistochemical (IHC) methods have not yet been described.

Methods And Results: Clinicopathological characteristics were abstracted for 324 patients with metastatic melanoma (MM). IHC, fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and RNA-based digital molecular analysis assays were performed on archival tissue from 173 stage III and 192 stage IV tumours. ALK was identified in 12.7 and 4.8% stage III and IV tumours, respectively. Discrete presentations of the ALK are seen: isolated ALK (n = 20) and mixed ALK (combined ALK and ALK ; n = 7). Isolated ALK expression (n = 4) was seen with no ALK fusions. Stage III patients showed improved survival with ALK expression compared to those with ALK or no expression [5-year survival 80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 57-100% versus 43%, 95% CI = 34-55%, P = 0.013]. Clinicopathological characteristics were not statistically significant. Strong diffuse cytoplasmic staining of ALK IHC (n = 12) has a sensitivity of 52.2%, specificity 100%, PPV of 100% and NPV of 92.5% of detecting isolated ALK .

Conclusion: Presence of ALK is a good prognostic indicator in MM. ALK IHC and digital molecular analysis can be incorporated into MM evaluation to identify patients with ALK for targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14191DOI Listing
October 2020

HLA class-I and class-II restricted neoantigen loads predict overall survival in breast cancer.

Oncoimmunology 2020 1;9(1):1744947. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Tumors acquire numerous mutations during development and progression. When translated into proteins, these mutations give rise to neoantigens that can be recognized by T cells and generate antibodies, representing an exciting direction of cancer immunotherapy. While neoantigens have been reported in many cancer types, the profiling of neoantigens often focused on the class-I subtype that are presented to CD8 + T cells, and the relationship between neoantigen load and clinical outcomes was often inconsistent among cancer types. In this study, we described an informatics workflow, REAL-neo, for identification, quality control (QC), and prioritization of both class-I and class-II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) bound neoantigens that arise from somatic single nucleotide mutations (SNM), small insertions and deletions (INDEL), and gene fusions. We applied REAL-neo to 835 primary breast tumors in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and performed comprehensive profiling and characterization of the detected neoantigens. We found recurrent HLA class-I and class-II restricted neoantigens across breast cancer cases, and uncovered associations between neoantigen load and clinical traits. Both class-I and class-II neoantigen loads from SNM and INDEL were found to predict overall survival independent of tumor mutational burden (TMB), breast cancer subtypes, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) levels, tumor stage, and age at diagnosis. Our study highlighted the importance of accurate and comprehensive neoantigen profiling and QC, and is the first to report the predictive value of neoantigen load for overall survival in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2020.1744947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255108PMC
April 2020

A Population-based Study of Immunotherapy-related Toxicities in Lung Cancer.

Clin Lung Cancer 2020 09 13;21(5):421-427.e2. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Background: Population-level data regarding incidences of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are lacking. This study evaluated the frequencies of irAEs among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Patients And Methods: Administrative claims data from a large United States commercial insurance database (OptumLabs Data Warehouse) were used to retrospectively identify patients with NSCLC between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2017 who received a programmed death-ligand 1/programmed cell death protein-1 (PD(L)-1) inhibitor. Cumulative risks for irAEs were estimated at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after initiation of a PD-(L)1 inhibitor. Additionally, associations between patient characteristics and frequency of irAEs were investigated utilizing multivariate logistic modeling.

Results: The risk of developing any irAE was 52.5% (95% confidence interval, 49.9%-55.2%) after 12 months in 3164 patients with NSCLC who initiated a PD-(L)1 inhibitor (median age, 69.0 years; 1763 [55.7%] males; 1401 [44.3%] females). Cumulative risks of irAEs increased over time: pneumonitis was recorded in 2.5% of patients 1 month after initiation of treatment, and increased to 14.3% after 9 months. Risks of hypophysitis and pericarditis were 3.6% and 1.7% at 9 months, respectively. Patients who received PD-(L)1 inhibitors in the first line had lower frequencies of irAEs (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.87).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the frequencies of some irAEs may be higher than the rates reported in the pivotal trials that led to United States Food and Drug Administration approvals for PD-(L)1 inhibitors. These real-world data refine provider and patient expectations for outcomes in a broader population beyond what is observed in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2020.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486993PMC
September 2020

Delta-Like Protein 3 Expression and Targeting in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

Oncologist 2020 09 14;25(9):810-817. Epub 2020 May 14.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Purpose: Delta-like protein 3 (DLL3) is being developed as a predictive biomarker for DLL3-targeting antibody-drug conjugate and other therapies. Given the neuroendocrine features of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), we sought to evaluate DLL3 expression and its role in MCC.

Experimental Design: Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded MCC cases were consecutively selected. Immunohistochemistry was performed for DLL3 (SC16.65 antibody) and polyomavirus large T-antigen (sc-136172 antibody). Slides were read out for percentage of positive tumor cells. Cox proportional hazards model was applied to assess the association between DLL3 expression and overall survival (OS). A patient with a DLL3-expressing MCC was treated with rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T) in the "other tumor" cohort of NCT02709889 and assessed for response.

Results: The median H-score of DLL3 expression of 65 patients included was 60 (interquartile range, 30-100). Fifty-eight cases (89%) had ≥1% tumor cells positive for DLL3 expression with any intensity, of which the median DLL3 expression was 50% (interquartile range, 25%-70%). Thirty-four cases (52%) had ≥50% tumor cells positive for DLL3 expression with any intensity. Higher H-score of DLL3 expression was associated with higher polyomavirus nuclear expression (p = .003) when it was dichotomized to negative versus positive. H-score of DLL3 expression did not predict OS of patients with MCC (p = .4) after being adjusted for common clinicopathological factors. A patient treated with Rova-T for refractory metastatic MCC achieved partial response.

Conclusions: DLL3 overexpression is very common in MCC by immunohistochemistry. The response to treatment suggests that DLL3 expression may have predictive relevance for DLL3-targeting therapies in MCC.

Implications For Practice: Delta-like protein 3 (DLL3) is being developed as a predictive biomarker to identify patients for treatment with DLL3-targeting agents. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. It was found that DLL3 overexpression is very common in MCC by immunohistochemistry and significantly associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus expression. Despite the lack of prognostic significance in this cohort, DLL3 expression may have predictive relevance for DLL3-targeting therapies in MCC. The high levels of DLL3 expression in a subset of MCC may potentially be used to select patients to receive DLL3-targeting therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485334PMC
September 2020

ADAM10 and ADAM17 cleave PD-L1 to mediate PD-(L)1 inhibitor resistance.

Oncoimmunology 2020 14;9(1):1744980. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

ADAM10 and ADAM17 expression and soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) predict poor prognosis in many malignancies, including in patients treated with PD-(L)1 inhibitors. The mechanism of soluble PD-L1 production and its effects are unknown. Here we uncover a novel mechanism of ADAM10- and ADAM17-mediated resistance to PD-(L)1 inhibitors. ADAM10 and ADAM17 cleave PD-L1 from the surface of malignant cells and extracellular vesicles. This cleavage produces an active sPD-L1 fragment that induces apoptosis in CD8 + T cells and compromises the killing of tumor cells by CD8 + T cells. Reduced tumor site PD-L1 protein-to-mRNA ratios predict poor outcomes and are correlated with elevated ADAM10 and ADAM17 expression in multiple cancers. These results may explain the discordance between PD-L1 immunohistochemistry and PD-(L)1 inhibitor response. Thus, including ADAM10 and ADAM17 tissue staining may improve therapy selection. Furthermore, treatment with an ADAM10/ADAM17 inhibitor may abrogate PD-(L)1 inhibitor resistance and improve clinical responses to PD-(L)1 immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2020.1744980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185206PMC
April 2020

Integrating genomic features for non-invasive early lung cancer detection.

Nature 2020 04 25;580(7802):245-251. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Radiologic screening of high-risk adults reduces lung-cancer-related mortality; however, a small minority of eligible individuals undergo such screening in the United States. The availability of blood-based tests could increase screening uptake. Here we introduce improvements to cancer personalized profiling by deep sequencing (CAPP-Seq), a method for the analysis of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), to better facilitate screening applications. We show that, although levels are very low in early-stage lung cancers, ctDNA is present prior to treatment in most patients and its presence is strongly prognostic. We also find that the majority of somatic mutations in the cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of patients with lung cancer and of risk-matched controls reflect clonal haematopoiesis and are non-recurrent. Compared with tumour-derived mutations, clonal haematopoiesis mutations occur on longer cfDNA fragments and lack mutational signatures that are associated with tobacco smoking. Integrating these findings with other molecular features, we develop and prospectively validate a machine-learning method termed 'lung cancer likelihood in plasma' (Lung-CLiP), which can robustly discriminate early-stage lung cancer patients from risk-matched controls. This approach achieves performance similar to that of tumour-informed ctDNA detection and enables tuning of assay specificity in order to facilitate distinct clinical applications. Our findings establish the potential of cfDNA for lung cancer screening and highlight the importance of risk-matching cases and controls in cfDNA-based screening studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2140-0DOI Listing
April 2020

Surgery for Mesothelioma After Radiation Therapy (SMART); A Single Institution Experience.

Front Oncol 2020 24;10:392. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

The optimal treatment sequence for localized malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is controversial. We aimed to assess outcomes and toxicities of treating localized MPM with neoadjuvant radiation therapy (RT) followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP). Patients were enrolled on an institutional protocol of surgery for mesothelioma after radiation therapy (SMART) between June 2016 and May 2017. Eligible patients were adults with MPM localized to the ipsilateral pleura. Patients underwent staging with PET/CT, pleuroscopy, bronchoscopy/EBUS, mediastinoscopy, and laparoscopy. Five fractions of RT were delivered using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), with 30 Gy delivered to gross disease and 25 Gy to the entire pleura. EPP was performed 4-10 days following completion of RT. Five patients were treated on protocol. Median age was 62 years (range 36-66). Histology was epithelioid on initial biopsy in all patients, but one was found to have biphasic histology after surgery. Three patients had surgeon-assessed gross total resection, and two had gross residual disease. While all patients were clinically node negative by pretreatment staging, three had positive nodal disease at surgery. Patients were hospitalized for a median 24 days (range 5-69) following surgery. Two patients developed empyema, one of whom developed respiratory failure and subsequently renal failure requiring dialysis, while the other required multiple surgical debridements. Two patients developed atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response after surgery, one of whom developed acute respiratory distress requiring intubation and tracheostomy. At last follow-up, one patient died at 1.4 years after local and distant progression, two were alive with local and distant progression, and the remaining two were alive without evidence of disease at 0.1 and 2.7 years. Median time to progression was 9 months. Three patients received salvage chemotherapy. SMART provided promising oncologic outcomes at the cost of significant treatment related morbidity. Due to the significant treatment associated morbidity and favorable treatment alternatives, we have not broadly adopted SMART at our institution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7105743PMC
March 2020

Detection of Nonreciprocal/Reciprocal ALK Translocation as Poor Predictive Marker in Patients With First-Line Crizotinib-Treated ALK-Rearranged NSCLC.

J Thorac Oncol 2020 06 27;15(6):1027-1036. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Lung Cancer and Gastrointestinal Unit, Hunan Cancer Hospital/The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Introduction: During nonreciprocal/reciprocal translocation process, 5'-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) sometimes gets retained in the genome and is detectable by next-generation sequencing; however, no study has investigated its clinical significance. Our study aimed to assess the impact of harboring 5'-ALK on the efficacy of crizotinib.

Methods: A total of 150 patients with next-generation sequencing-identified ALK-rearranged NSCLC from March 2014 to July 2018 at the Hunan Cancer Hospital were enrolled in this study. The efficacy of crizotinib as first-line therapy was evaluated in 112 patients according to the retention of 5'-ALK.

Results: Among the 150 patients with NSCLC, nonreciprocal/reciprocal translocation was detected in 18.7% (28 of 150), and 3'-ALK fusion alone was detected in 81.3% (122 of 150). Among the 112 patients who received first-line crizotinib, 89 had 3'-ALK fusion alone (79 echinoderm microtubule associated protein-like 4 [EML4]-ALK and 10 non-EML4-ALK), and 23 had nonreciprocal/reciprocal ALK translocation. Among the patients with nonreciprocal/reciprocal ALK translocation, three patients harbored dual concurrent 3'-ALK fusions. Patients with nonreciprocal/reciprocal ALK translocation had higher incidence of brain metastasis at baseline than those with 3'-ALK fusion alone (39.1% versus 13.4%, p = 0.028). Crizotinib-treated patients with nonreciprocal/reciprocal ALK translocation had significantly shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) compared with patients carrying 3'-ALK fusion alone (6.1 m versus 12.0 m, p = 0.001) or with EML4-ALK fusion alone (6.1 m versus 12.6 m, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that harboring nonreciprocal/reciprocal ALK translocation was an independent predictor of worse PFS for crizotinib-treated ALK-rearranged NSCLC (p = 0.0046).

Conclusions: Presence of nonreciprocal/reciprocal ALK translocation was predictive for worse PFS and greater likelihood of baseline brain metastases in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC who received first-line crizotinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2020.02.007DOI Listing
June 2020

Tumor Mutational Burden From Tumor-Only Sequencing Compared With Germline Subtraction From Paired Tumor and Normal Specimens.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 02 5;3(2):e200202. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Importance: Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is an emerging factor associated with survival with immunotherapy. When tumor-normal pairs are available, TMB is determined by calculating the difference between somatic and germline sequences. In the case of commonly used tumor-only sequencing, additional steps are needed to estimate the somatic alterations. Computational tools have been developed to determine germline contribution based on sample copy state, purity estimates, and occurrence of the variant in population databases; however, there is potential for sampling bias in population data sets.

Objective: To investigate whether tumor-only filtering approaches overestimate TMB.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study of 50 tumor samples from 10 different tumor types. A 595-gene panel test was used to assess TMB by adding all missense, indels, and frameshift variants with an allelic fraction of at least 5% and coverage of at least 100× within each tumor. Tumor-only TMB was evaluated against the criterion standard of matched germline-subtracted TMB at 3 levels. Level 1 removed all the tumor-only variants with allelic fraction of at least 1% in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database (with the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort removed). Level 2 removed all variants observed in population databases, simulating a naive approach of removing germline variation. Level 3 used an internal tumor-only pipeline for calculating TMB. These specimens were processed with a commercially available panel, and results were analyzed at the Mayo Clinic. Data were analyzed between December 1, 2018, and May 28, 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Tumor mutation burden per megabase (Mb) as determined by 3 levels of filtering and germline subtraction.

Results: There were significantly higher estimates of TMB with level 1 (median [range] mutations per Mb, 28.8 [17.5-67.1]), level 2 (median [range] mutations per Mb, 20.8 [10.4-30.8]), and level 3 (median [range] mutations per Mb, 3.8 [0.8-12.1]) tumor-only filtering approaches than those determined by germline subtraction (median [range] mutations per Mb, 1.7 [0.4-9.2]). There were no strong associations between TMB estimates and tumor-germline TMB for level 1 filtering (r = 0.008; 95% CI, -0.004 to 0.020), level 2 filtering (r = 0.018; 95% CI, 0.003 to 0.033), or level 3 filtering (r = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.68).

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of this study indicate that tumor-only approaches that filter variants in population databases can overestimate TMB compared with germline subtraction methods. Despite improved association with more stringent filtering approaches, these falsely elevated estimates may result in the inappropriate categorization of tumor specimens and negatively affect clinical trial results and patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.0202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7049088PMC
February 2020

Investigation of efficacy and acquired resistance for EGFR-TKI plus bevacizumab as first-line treatment in patients with EGFR sensitive mutant non-small cell lung cancer in a Real world population.

Lung Cancer 2020 03 13;141:82-88. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, T) plus bevacizumab (an antiangiogenic therapy, A) in a real-world population and to provide insights into their mechanism of resistance.

Methods: This study included 256 NSCLC patients harboring EGFR sensitizing mutations (EGFR 19del and L858R) who underwent nextgeneration sequencing (NGS) with 168-gene panel prior to treatment between Jan 2015 to Aug 2018. Cohort A included 60 patients treated with A + T; while cohort B consisted of 120 patients treated with EGFR-TKI monotherapy with the patients identified using Propensity Score Matching (Ratio of 1:2). Clinical outcomes and potential resistance mechanism were evaluated.

Results: Baseline clinical characteristics were not significantly different between Cohort A and B. Compared with cohort B, cohort A had significantly better overall response rate (95% vs 74.2%, p = 0.001) and longer median progression-free survival (PFS, 16.5m vs.12.0 m, HR = 0.7, p = 0.001). Until Jan 2019, 31 and 103 patients in cohort A and B, respectively, were evaluated with progressive disease and underwent tissue re-biopsy and NGS profiling with 168-gene panel. In cohort B, T790M was the predominant acquired resistance mechanism, detected in 51.5% (53/103) of progressive tumors, followed by amplifications in EGFR (15.5%, 16/103) and MET (6.8%, 7/103). Contrastingly, cohort A had a significantly lower rate of T790 M mutation (35.5%, 11/31, p = 0.0003), followed by mutations in TP53 (29.0%, 9/31), RB1 (9.7%, 3/31), SMAD4 (3.2%, 1/31) and EGFR V834 L (3.2%, 1/31) and amplifications in EGFR (9.7%, 3/31), and MET(6.5%, 2/31).

Conclusion: Treatment with first-line A + T significantly extends the time to progression and increases the response rate with acceptable safety profile. T790 M was the most common acquired resistance mechanism but it was less common in patients who received A + T.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.01.009DOI Listing
March 2020

Influence of Sociodemographic Factors on Treatment Decisions in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Clin Lung Cancer 2020 05 30;21(3):e115-e129. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Introduction: In stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), survival has significantly improved. Despite such trends, it has been noted that patients frequently refuse treatment. Therefore, we explored the factors associated with treatment refusal in NSCLC.

Patients And Methods: Utilizing the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), we identified all stage IV NSCLC cases from 2004 to 2014. Patients who received cancer treatment outside of the reporting facility were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine associations with treatment refusal.

Results: A total of 341,993 patients were identified; 5.4% of patients refused radiotherapy and 10.3% refused chemotherapy despite provider recommendations. The proportion of patients refusing radiotherapy and chemotherapy increased over time from 4.2% to 7.3% and 7.9% to 15%, respectively (P < .001). In multivariable analysis, men were less likely to refuse treatment compared to women (respectively, odds ratio = 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.84; P < .001; odds ratio = 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.85; P < .001, respectively). Factors associated with radiotherapy refusal included: Medicaid or Medicare as primary insurance, uninsured status, low household median income, and lower educational level. Regarding chemotherapy, uninsured patients, Medicaid patients, and patients with a high comorbidity index were more likely to refuse chemotherapy. Asians had lower rates of chemotherapy refusal relative to non-Hispanic whites. Non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians had increasing chemotherapy refusal rates over time, while non-Hispanic blacks had less pronounced trends over time.

Conclusion: Socioeconomic factors rather than race/ethnicity appear to influence the refusal of cancer treatment in patients with stage IV NSCLC. Assessing socioeconomic challenges should be an essential part of patient evaluation when discussing treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2019.08.005DOI Listing
May 2020

Radiologic Considerations and Standardization of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Imaging Within Clinical Trials: Consensus Statement from the NCI Thoracic Malignancy Steering Committee - International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer - Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation Clinical Trials Planning Meeting.

J Thorac Oncol 2019 10 27;14(10):1718-1731. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

Detailed guidelines pertaining to radiological assessment of malignant pleural mesothelioma are currently lacking due to the rarity of the disease, complex morphology, propensity to invade multiple planes simultaneously, and lack of specific recommendations within the radiology community about assessment, reporting, and follow-up. In March 2017, a multidisciplinary meeting of mesothelioma experts was co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Thoracic Malignancy Steering Committee, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and the Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation. One of the outcomes of this conference was the foundation of detailed, multidisciplinary consensus imaging and management guidelines. Here, we present the recommendations for radiologic assessment of malignant pleural mesothelioma in the setting of clinical trial enrollment. We discuss optimization of imaging parameters across modalities, standardized reporting, and response assessment within clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.08.012DOI Listing
October 2019

Expression of delta-like protein 3 is reproducibly present in a subset of small cell lung carcinomas and pulmonary carcinoid tumors.

Lung Cancer 2019 09 17;135:73-79. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Delta-like protein 3 (DLL3), an inhibitory Notch ligand, is the target for rovalpituzumab tesirine in development for the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We studied the expression of DLL3, its reproducibility and prognostic role in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.

Materials And Methods: Institutional pathology files were searched for resected pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (1995-2017). Expression of DLL3 (clone SP347) was categorized as high (≥50% of tumor cells) or low (<50%). Interobserver agreement among 5 thoracic pathologists was measured by Krippendorff's α coefficient. Staging (N = 148) was performed according to the 8th AJCC.

Results: Our study included 157 patients with a median age of 62.2 years (range 23.2-88.1) including 59 men (37.6%). Tumors included 44 (28.0%) SCLC, 46 (29.3%) atypical and 67 (42.7%) typical carcinoid tumors at stages I (N = 83, 56.1%), II (N = 28, 18.9%), and III/IV (N = 37, 25.0%). Interobserver agreement for high vs low DLL3 expression (N = 70) was 82.9% (α = 0.79, substantial). High DLL3 expression was observed in 35 (79.5%) SCLC, 17 (37.0%) atypical and 22 (32.8%) typical carcinoid tumors. High DLL3 was associated with SCLC morphology (p < 0.0001). During a median follow-up of 4.2 years (range, 2 days-20.3 years), 70 patients died; 19 died from disease. High DLL3 expression was associated with better overall survival in SCLC (p = 0.049) but not after adjusting for age, tumor size and stage.

Conclusions: DLL3 expression is reliably quantifiable by pathologists and is highly expressed in the majority of SCLC and a subset of carcinoid tumors, making it an attractive target for anti-DLL3 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2019.07.016DOI Listing
September 2019

Current Diagnosis and Management of Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Mayo Clin Proc 2019 08;94(8):1599-1622

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive disease with distinct pathological, clinical, and molecular characteristics from non-small-cell lung cancer. SCLC has high metastatic potential, resulting in a clinically poor prognosis. Early concurrent chemo-radiation is the standard of care for limited-stage SCLC (LS-SCLC). Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is recommended for patients with LS-SCLC without progression of disease after initial therapy. A combination of etoposide and cisplatin or carboplatin remains the mainstay of first-line treatment for ES-SCLC, with the addition of atezolizumab, now becoming standard. Most SCLCs initially respond to therapy but almost invariably recur. Topotecan and amrubicin (in Japan) remain the primary chemotherapy options for relapsed SCLC. Immunotherapy, including nivolumab with or without ipilimumab, is now available for refractory disease. In general, the poor prognosis of SCLC has not improved significantly for more than 3 decades. Recently, next-generation molecular profiling studies have identified new therapeutic targets for SCLC. A variety of proapoptotic agents, compounds capitalizing on DNA-repair defects, immunotherapy agents, and antibody-drug conjugates are being evaluated in SCLC, with a number of them showing early promise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.01.034DOI Listing
August 2019