Publications by authors named "Aaron Lord"

47 Publications

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome is Associated with Hematoma Expansion in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 30;30(8):105870. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Objectives: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and hematoma expansion are independently associated with worse outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but the relationship between SIRS and hematoma expansion remains unclear.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients admitted to our hospital from 2013 to 2020 with primary spontaneous ICH with at least two head CTs within the first 24 hours. The relationship between SIRS and hematoma expansion, defined as ≥6 mL or ≥33% growth between the first and second scan, was assessed using univariable and multivariable regression analysis. We assessed the relationship of hematoma expansion and SIRS on discharge mRS using mediation analysis.

Results: Of 149 patients with ICH, 83 (56%; mean age 67±16; 41% female) met inclusion criteria. Of those, 44 (53%) had SIRS. Admission systolic blood pressure (SBP), temperature, antiplatelet use, platelet count, initial hematoma volume and rates of infection did not differ between groups (all p>0.05). Hematoma expansion occurred in 15/83 (18%) patients, 12 (80%) of whom also had SIRS. SIRS was significantly associated with hematoma expansion (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.16 - 17.39, p= 0.02) on univariable analysis. The association remained statistically significant after adjusting for admission SBP and initial hematoma volume (OR 5.72, 95% CI 1.40 - 23.41, p= 0.02). There was a significant indirect effect of SIRS on discharge mRS through hematoma expansion. A significantly greater percentage of patients with SIRS had mRS 4-6 at discharge (59 vs 33%, p=0.02).

Conclusion: SIRS is associated with hematoma expansion of ICH within the first 24 hours, and hematoma expansion mediates the effect of SIRS on poor outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105870DOI Listing
May 2021

A prospective study of long-term outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with and without neurological complications.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Jul 12;426:117486. Epub 2021 May 12.

New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Little is known regarding long-term outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 6-month outcomes of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients with new neurological complications during hospitalization who survived were propensity score-matched to COVID-19 survivors without neurological complications hospitalized during the same period. The primary 6-month outcome was multivariable ordinal analysis of the modified Rankin Scale(mRS) comparing patients with or without neurological complications. Secondary outcomes included: activities of daily living (ADLs;Barthel Index), telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep.

Results: Of 606 COVID-19 patients with neurological complications, 395 survived hospitalization and were matched to 395 controls; N = 196 neurological patients and N = 186 controls completed follow-up. Overall, 346/382 (91%) patients had at least one abnormal outcome: 56% had limited ADLs, 50% impaired cognition, 47% could not return to work and 62% scored worse than average on ≥1 Neuro-QoL scale (worse anxiety 46%, sleep 38%, fatigue 36%, and depression 25%). In multivariable analysis, patients with neurological complications had worse 6-month mRS (median 4 vs. 3 among controls, adjusted OR 1.98, 95%CI 1.23-3.48, P = 0.02), worse ADLs (aOR 0.38, 95%CI 0.29-0.74, P = 0.01) and were less likely to return to work than controls (41% versus 64%, P = 0.04). Cognitive and Neuro-QOL metrics were similar between groups.

Conclusions: Abnormalities in functional outcomes, ADLs, anxiety, depression and sleep occurred in over 90% of patients 6-months after hospitalization for COVID-19. In multivariable analysis, patients with neurological complications during index hospitalization had significantly worse 6-month functional outcomes than those without.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113108PMC
July 2021

Toxic Metabolic Encephalopathy in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19.

Neurocrit Care 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Toxic metabolic encephalopathy (TME) has been reported in 7-31% of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, some reports include sedation-related delirium and few data exist on the etiology of TME. We aimed to identify the prevalence, etiologies, and mortality rates associated with TME in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter, observational cohort study among patients with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized at four New York City hospitals in the same health network between March 1, 2020, and May 20, 2020. TME was diagnosed in patients with altered mental status off sedation or after an adequate sedation washout. Patients with structural brain disease, seizures, or primary neurological diagnoses were excluded. The coprimary outcomes were the prevalence of TME stratified by etiology and in-hospital mortality (excluding comfort care only patients) assessed by using a multivariable time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for age, race, sex, intubation, intensive care unit requirement, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores, hospital location, and date of admission.

Results: Among 4491 patients with COVID-19, 559 (12%) were diagnosed with TME, of whom 435 of 559 (78%) developed encephalopathy immediately prior to hospital admission. The most common etiologies were septic encephalopathy (n = 247 of 559 [62%]), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (n = 331 of 559 [59%]), and uremia (n = 156 of 559 [28%]). Multiple etiologies were present in 435 (78%) patients. Compared with those without TME (n = 3932), patients with TME were older (76 vs. 62 years), had dementia (27% vs. 3%) or psychiatric history (20% vs. 10%), were more often intubated (37% vs. 20%), had a longer hospital length of stay (7.9 vs. 6.0 days), and were less often discharged home (25% vs. 66% [all P < 0.001]). Excluding comfort care patients (n = 267 of 4491 [6%]) and after adjustment for confounders, TME remained associated with increased risk of in-hospital death (n = 128 of 425 [30%] patients with TME died, compared with n = 600 of 3799 [16%] patients without TME; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.52, P = 0.031), and TME due to hypoxemia conferred the highest risk (n = 97 of 233 [42%] patients with HIE died, compared with n = 631 of 3991 [16%] patients without HIE; aHR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21-2.00, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: TME occurred in one in eight hospitalized patients with COVID-19, was typically multifactorial, and was most often due to hypoxemia, sepsis, and uremia. After we adjustment for confounding factors, TME was associated with a 24% increased risk of in-hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-021-01220-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962078PMC
March 2021

Etiologic Subtypes of Ischemic Stroke in SARS-CoV-2 Patients in a Cohort of New York City Hospitals.

Front Neurol 2020 17;11:1004. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Neuroradiology & Neurointervention Service, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

To describe the ischemic stroke subtypes related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a cohort of New York City hospitals and explore their etiopathogenesis. Most neurological manifestations are non-focal, but few have reported the characteristics of ischemic strokes or investigated its pathophysiology. Data were collected prospectively April 1-April 15, 2020 from two centers in New York City to review possible ischemic stroke types seen in COVID-19-positive patients. Patient presentation, demographics, related vascular risk factors, associated laboratory markers, as well as imaging and outcomes were collected. The age of patients ranged between 27 and 82 years. Approximately 81% of patients had known vascular risk factors, the commonest being hypertension (75%) followed by diabetes (50%) coronary disease or atrial fibrillation. Eight patients presented with large vessel occlusion (LVO) with median age 55 years (27-82) and all were male. Eight patients presented with non-LVO syndromes, with median age 65.5 years (59-82) and most were female (62.5%). Both groups were 50% African Americans and 37.5% South Asian. Both groups had similar D-dimer levels although other acute phase reactants/disease severity markers (Ferritin, CRP, procalcitonin) were higher in the LVO group. The LVO group also had a significantly higher mortality compared to the non-LVO group. The most common etiology was cryptogenic (6 patients) followed by small vessel occlusion (3 patients) and undetermined-unclassified (3 patients). For the remaining 4 patients, 2 were identified as cardioembolic and 2 with large artery atherosclerosis. COVID-19-related ischemic events can present as small vessel occlusions, branch emboli or large vessel occlusions. The most common etiology is cryptogenic. Patients with LVO syndromes tend to be younger, male and may have elevated acute inflammatory markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.01004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527497PMC
September 2020

Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation After Extracranial Hemorrhage.

Stroke 2020 12 8;51(12):3592-3599. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY (A.L., K.I., J.T., S.Y.).

Background And Purpose: Anticoagulation therapy not only reduces the risk of ischemic stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) but also predisposes patients to hemorrhagic complications. There is limited knowledge on the risk of first-ever ischemic stroke in patients with AF after extracranial hemorrhage (ECH).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using the California State Inpatient Database including all nonfederal hospital admissions in California from 2005 to 2011. The exposure variable was hospitalization with a diagnosis of ECH with a previous diagnosis of AF. The outcome variable was a subsequent hospitalization with acute ischemic stroke. We excluded patients with stroke before or at the time of ECH diagnosis. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios for ischemic stroke during follow-up and at 6-month intervals using Cox regression models adjusted for pertinent demographics and comorbidities. In subgroup analyses, subjects were stratified by primary ECH diagnosis, severity/type of ECH, age, CHADS-VASc score, or the presence/absence of a gastrointestinal or genitourinary cancer.

Results: We identified 764 257 patients with AF (mean age 75 years, 49% women) without a documented history of stroke. Of these, 98 647 (13%) had an ECH-associated hospitalization, and 22 748 patients (3%) developed an ischemic stroke during the study period. Compared to patients without ECH, subjects with ECH had ≈15% higher rate of ischemic stroke (overall adjusted hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.11-1.19]). The risk appeared to remain elevated for at least 18 months after the index ECH. In subgroup analyses, the risk was highest in subjects with a primary admission diagnosis of ECH, severe ECH, gastrointestinal-type ECH, with gastrointestinal or genitourinary cancer, and age ≥60 years.

Conclusions: Patients with AF hospitalized with ECH may have a slightly elevated risk for future ischemic stroke. Particular consideration should be given to the optimal balance between the benefits and risks of anticoagulation therapy and the use of nonanticoagulant alternatives, such as left atrial appendage closure in this vulnerable population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751804PMC
December 2020

A Prospective Study of Neurologic Disorders in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 in New York City.

Neurology 2021 01 5;96(4):e575-e586. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

From the New York University Grossman School of Medicine (J.A.F., S.S., R.L., T.F., B.F., P.M.-V., T.S., S.B., D.Y., A.G., N.M., P.P., J.G., K.M., S.A., M.B., A.A., E.V., M.O., A.K., K.L., Daniel Friedman, David Friedman, M.H., J.H., S.T., J.H., N.A.-F., P.K., A.L., A.S.L., T.Z., D.E.K., B.M.C., J.T., S.Y., K.I., E.S., D.P., M.L., T.W., A.B.T., L.B., S.G.), New YorkUniversity of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (S.H.-Y.C., E.L.F.), PAThe Ohio State University (M.M., S.M.), ColumbusMedical University of Innsbruck (R.H.), AustriaThe Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (C.R., J.I.S., W.Z.), Baltimore, MDUniversity of Utah School of Medicine (M.S., A.d.H.), Salt Lake CityUniversity of Cambridge (D.M.), UK.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated mortality of well-defined neurologic diagnoses among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we prospectively followed hospitalized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients and recorded new neurologic disorders and hospital outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study of consecutive hospitalized adults in the New York City metropolitan area with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of new neurologic disorders (as diagnosed by a neurologist) was recorded and in-hospital mortality and discharge disposition were compared between patients with COVID-19 with and without neurologic disorders.

Results: Of 4,491 patients with COVID-19 hospitalized during the study timeframe, 606 (13.5%) developed a new neurologic disorder in a median of 2 days from COVID-19 symptom onset. The most common diagnoses were toxic/metabolic encephalopathy (6.8%), seizure (1.6%), stroke (1.9%), and hypoxic/ischemic injury (1.4%). No patient had meningitis/encephalitis or myelopathy/myelitis referable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and 18/18 CSF specimens were reverse transcriptase PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Patients with neurologic disorders were more often older, male, white, hypertensive, diabetic, intubated, and had higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores (all < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, SOFA scores, intubation, history, medical complications, medications, and comfort care status, patients with COVID-19 with neurologic disorders had increased risk of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.62, < 0.001) and decreased likelihood of discharge home (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63-0.85, < 0.001).

Conclusions: Neurologic disorders were detected in 13.5% of patients with COVID-19 and were associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality and decreased likelihood of discharge home. Many observed neurologic disorders may be sequelae of severe systemic illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905791PMC
January 2021

Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with COVID-19.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 May 24;51(4):953-960. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Neurology, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can be a devastating complication of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aimed to assess risk factors associated with ICH in this population. We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted to NYU Langone Health system between March 1 and April 27 2020 with a positive nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction test result and presence of primary nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage or hemorrhagic conversion of ischemic stroke on neuroimaging. Patients with intracranial procedures, malignancy, or vascular malformation were excluded. We used regression models to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) of the association between ICH and covariates. We also used regression models to determine association between ICH and mortality. Among 3824 patients admitted with COVID-19, 755 patients had neuroimaging and 416 patients were identified after exclusion criteria were applied. The mean (standard deviation) age was 69.3 (16.2), 35.8% were women, and 34.9% were on therapeutic anticoagulation. ICH occurred in 33 (7.9%) patients. Older age, non-Caucasian race, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, and therapeutic anticoagulation were associated with ICH on univariate analysis (p < 0.01 for each variable). In adjusted regression models, anticoagulation use was associated with a five-fold increased risk of ICH (OR 5.26, 95% CI 2.33-12.24, p < 0.001). ICH was associated with increased mortality (adjusted OR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.2-5.9). Anticoagulation use is associated with increased risk of ICH in patients with COVID-19. Further investigation is required to elucidate underlying mechanisms and prevention strategies in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-020-02288-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511245PMC
May 2021

Keeping the team together: Transformation of an inpatient neurology service at an urban, multi-ethnic, safety net hospital in New York City during COVID-19.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 10 17;197:106156. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Division of Neurology, NYU Langone Hospital-Brooklyn, Brooklyn, NY, United States; NYU Grossman School of Medicine, NY, NY United States.

The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically affected the operations of New York City hospitals during March and April of 2020. This article describes the transformation of a neurology division at a 450-bed tertiary care hospital in a multi-ethnic community in Brooklyn during this initial wave of COVID-19. In lieu of a mass redeployment of staff to internal medicine teams, we report a novel method for a neurology division to participate in a hospital's expansion of care for patients with COVID-19 while maintaining existing team structures and their inherent supervisory and interpersonal support mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430288PMC
October 2020

Anticoagulation use and Hemorrhagic Stroke in SARS-CoV-2 Patients Treated at a New York Healthcare System.

Neurocrit Care 2021 06 24;34(3):748-759. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Background And Purpose: While the thrombotic complications of COVID-19 have been well described, there are limited data on clinically significant bleeding complications including hemorrhagic stroke. The clinical characteristics, underlying stroke mechanism, and outcomes in this particular subset of patients are especially salient as therapeutic anticoagulation becomes increasingly common in the treatment and prevention of thrombotic complications of COVID-19.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with hemorrhagic stroke (both non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage and spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage) who were hospitalized between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, within a major healthcare system in New York, during the coronavirus pandemic. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke on admission and who developed hemorrhage during hospitalization were both included. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients with hemorrhagic stroke and COVID-19 to those without COVID-19 admitted to our hospital system between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020 (contemporary controls), and March 1, 2019, and May 15, 2019 (historical controls). Demographic variables and clinical characteristics between the individual groups were compared using Fischer's exact test for categorical variables and nonparametric test for continuous variables. We adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method.

Results: During the study period in 2020, out of 4071 patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, we identified 19 (0.5%) with hemorrhagic stroke. Of all COVID-19 with hemorrhagic stroke, only three had isolated non-aneurysmal SAH with no associated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Among hemorrhagic stroke in patients with COVID-19, coagulopathy was the most common etiology (73.7%); empiric anticoagulation was started in 89.5% of these patients versus 4.2% in contemporary controls (p ≤ .001) and 10.0% in historical controls (p ≤ .001). Compared to contemporary and historical controls, patients with COVID-19 had higher initial NIHSS scores, INR, PTT, and fibrinogen levels. Patients with COVID-19 also had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (84.6% vs. 4.6%, p ≤ 0.001). Sensitivity analyses excluding patients with strictly subarachnoid hemorrhage yielded similar results.

Conclusion: We observed an overall low rate of imaging-confirmed hemorrhagic stroke among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most hemorrhages in patients with COVID-19 infection occurred in the setting of therapeutic anticoagulation and were associated with increased mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-020-01077-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444897PMC
June 2021

Prevalence and Impact of Hyponatremia in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in New York City.

Crit Care Med 2020 12;48(12):e1211-e1217

Department of Medicine, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY.

Objectives: Hyponatremia occurs in up to 30% of patients with pneumonia and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of hyponatremia associated with coronavirus disease 2019 and the impact on outcome is unknown. We aimed to identify the prevalence, predictors, and impact on outcome of mild, moderate, and severe admission hyponatremia compared with normonatremia among coronavirus disease 2019 patients.

Design: Retrospective, multicenter, observational cohort study.

Setting: Four New York City hospitals that are part of the same health network.

Patients: Hospitalized, laboratory-confirmed adult coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted between March 1, 2020, and May 13, 2020.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Hyponatremia was categorized as mild (sodium: 130-134 mmol/L), moderate (sodium: 121-129 mmol/L), or severe (sodium: ≤ 120 mmol/L) versus normonatremia (135-145 mmol/L). The primary outcome was the association of increasing severity of hyponatremia and in-hospital mortality assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Secondary outcomes included encephalopathy, acute renal failure, mechanical ventilation, and discharge home compared across sodium levels using Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests. In exploratory analysis, the association of sodium levels and interleukin-6 levels (which has been linked to nonosmotic release of vasopressin) was assessed. Among 4,645 patient encounters, hyponatremia (sodium < 135 mmol/L) occurred in 1,373 (30%) and 374 of 1,373 (27%) required invasive mechanical ventilation. Mild, moderate, and severe hyponatremia occurred in 1,032 (22%), 305 (7%), and 36 (1%) patients, respectively. Each level of worsening hyponatremia conferred 43% increased odds of in-hospital death after adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index, past medical history, admission laboratory abnormalities, admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, renal failure, encephalopathy, and mechanical ventilation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88; p = 0.012). Increasing severity of hyponatremia was associated with encephalopathy, mechanical ventilation, and decreased probability of discharge home (all p < 0.001). Higher interleukin-6 levels correlated with lower sodium levels (p = 0.017).

Conclusions: Hyponatremia occurred in nearly a third of coronavirus disease 2019 patients, was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality, and was associated with increased risk of encephalopathy and mechanical ventilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467047PMC
December 2020

Acute stroke care in a New York City comprehensive stroke center during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Sep 20;29(9):105068. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Neurology, New York Langone Health, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused unprecedented demand and burden on emergency health care services in New York City. We aim to describe our experience providing acute stroke care at a comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and the impact of the pandemic on the quality of care for patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from a quality improvement registry of consecutive AIS patients at New York University Langone Health's CSC between 06/01/2019-05/15/2020. During the early stages of the pandemic, the acute stroke process was modified to incorporate COVID-19 screening, testing, and other precautionary measures. We compared stroke quality metrics including treatment times and discharge outcomes of AIS patients during the pandemic (03/012020-05/152020) compared with a historical pre-pandemic group (6/1/2019-2/29/2020).

Results: A total of 754 patients (pandemic-120; pre-pandemic-634) were admitted with a principal diagnosis of AIS; 198 (26.3%) received alteplase and/or mechanical thrombectomy. Despite longer median door to head CT times (16 vs 12 minutes; p = 0.05) and a trend towards longer door to groin puncture times (79.5 vs. 71 min, p = 0.06), the time to alteplase administration (36 vs 35 min; p = 0.83), door to reperfusion times (103 vs 97 min, p = 0.18) and defect-free care (95.2% vs 94.7%; p = 0.84) were similar in the pandemic and pre-pandemic groups. Successful recanalization rates (TICI≥2b) were also similar (82.6% vs. 86.7%, p = 0.48). After adjusting for stroke severity, age and a prior history of transient ischemic attack/stroke, pandemic patients had increased discharge mortality (adjusted OR 2.90 95% CI 1.77 - 7.17, p = 0.021) CONCLUSION: Despite unprecedented demands on emergency healthcare services, early multidisciplinary efforts to adapt the acute stroke treatment process resulted in keeping the stroke quality time metrics close to pre-pandemic levels. Future studies will be needed with a larger cohort comparing discharge and long-term outcomes between pre-pandemic and pandemic AIS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305900PMC
September 2020

Pearls & Oy-sters: Leukoencephalopathy in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

Neurology 2020 10 11;95(16):753-757. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

From the Departments of Neurology (H.H., H.E., M.C., E.V., I.K., L.K., H.W., S.G., J.F., T.Z., D.E.K., A. Lord, A. Lewis) and Neurosurgery (J.F., T.Z., D.E.K., A. Lord, A. Lewis), NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010636DOI Listing
October 2020

Protocolized Urine Sampling is Associated with Reduced Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: A Pre- and Post-intervention Study.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Aug 10. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY.

Background: Standard urine sampling and testing techniques do not mitigate against detection of colonization, resulting in false positive catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). We aim to evaluate if a novel protocol for urine sampling and testing reduces rates of CAUTI.

Methods: A pre-intervention and post-intervention study with a contemporaneous control group was conducted at two campuses (test and control) of the same academic medical center. The test campus implemented a protocol requiring urinary catheter removal prior to urine sampling from a new catheter or sterile straight catheterization, along with urine bacteria and pyuria screening prior to culture. Primary outcomes were test campus CAUTI rates compared between each 9-month pre- and post-intervention epoch. Secondary outcomes included the percent reductions in CAUTI rates compared between the test campus and a propensity-score matched cohort at the control campus.

Results:   A total of 7,991 patients from the test campus were included in the primary analysis, and 4,264 were included in the propensity-score matched secondary analysis. In primary analysis, CAUTI/1000-patients was reduced by 77% (6.6 to 1.5), CAUTI/1000-catheter days by 63% (5.9 to 2.2) and urinary catheter days/patient by 37% (1.1 to 0.69, all P≤0.001). In propensity score-matched analysis, CAUTI/1000-patients was reduced by 82% at the test campus versus 57% at the control campus, CAUTI/1000 catheter-days declined by 68% versus 57% and catheter-days/patient decreased by 44% versus 1% (all P<0.001).

Conclusions:  Protocolized urine sampling and testing aimed at minimizing contamination by colonization was associated with significantly reduced CAUTI infection rates and urinary catheter days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1152DOI Listing
August 2020

Anticoagulation Type and Early Recurrence in Cardioembolic Stroke: The IAC Study.

Stroke 2020 09 6;51(9):2724-2732. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Neurology, Spectrum Health, Grand Rapids, MI (H.P., H.M., J.T., M.V., M.K.).

Background And Purpose: In patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation, treatment with low molecular weight heparin increases early hemorrhagic risk without reducing early recurrence, and there is limited data comparing warfarin to direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) therapy. We aim to compare the effects of the treatments above on the risk of 90-day recurrent ischemic events and delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.

Methods: We included consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation from the IAC (Initiation of Anticoagulation after Cardioembolic) stroke study pooling data from stroke registries of 8 comprehensive stroke centers across the United States. We compared recurrent ischemic events and delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage between each of the following groups in separate Cox-regression analyses: (1) DOAC versus warfarin and (2) bridging with heparin/low molecular weight heparin versus no bridging, adjusting for pertinent confounders to test these associations.

Results: We identified 1289 patients who met the bridging versus no bridging analysis inclusion criteria and 1251 patients who met the DOAC versus warfarin analysis inclusion criteria. In adjusted Cox-regression models, bridging (versus no bridging) treatment was associated with a high risk of delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 2.74 [95% CI, 1.01-7.42]) but a similar rate of recurrent ischemic events (hazard ratio, 1.23 [95% CI, 0.63-2.40]). Furthermore, DOAC (versus warfarin) treatment was associated with a lower risk of recurrent ischemic events (hazard ratio, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.29-0.87]) but not delayed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.22-1.48]).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that patients with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation would benefit from the initiation of a DOAC without bridging therapy. Due to our study limitations, these findings should be interpreted with caution pending confirmation from large prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.028867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484360PMC
September 2020

Stroke Treatment Delay Limits Outcome After Mechanical Thrombectomy: Stratification by Arrival Time and ASPECTS.

J Neuroimaging 2020 09 27;30(5):625-630. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Neurology, New York Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.

Background And Purpose: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has helped many patients achieve functional independence. The effect of time-to-treatment based in specific epochs and as related to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) has not been established. The goal of the study was to evaluate the association between last known normal (LKN)-to-puncture time and good functional outcome.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MT for large vessel occlusion. We used binary logistic regression models adjusted for age, Modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia score, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and noncontrast CT ASPECTS to assess the association between LKN-to-puncture time and favorable outcome defined as Modified Rankin Score 0-2 on discharge.

Results: Among 421 patients, 328 were included in analysis. Increased LKN-to-puncture time was associated with decreased probability of good functional outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] ratio per 15-minute delay = .98; 95% confidence interval [CI], .97-.99; P = .001). This was especially true when LKN-puncture time was 0-6 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .94; 95% CI, .89-.99; P = .05) or ASPECTS 8-10 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .97-.99; P = .002) as opposed to when LKN-puncture time was 6-24 hours (aOR per 15-minute delay = .99; 95% CI, .97-1.00; P = .16) and ASPECTS <8 (aOR = .98; 95% CI, .93-1.03; P = .37).

Conclusion: Decreased LKN-groin puncture time improves outcome particularly in those with good ASPECTS presenting within 6 hours. Strategies to decrease reperfusion times should be investigated, particularly in those in the early time window and with good ASPECTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12729DOI Listing
September 2020

Factors Associated With DNR Status After Nontraumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage.

Neurohospitalist 2020 Jul 22;10(3):168-175. Epub 2019 Sep 22.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: We explored factors associated with admission and discharge code status after nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage.

Methods: We extracted data from patients admitted to our institution between January 1, 2013, and March 1, 2016 with nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage who had a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 4 to 6. We reviewed data based on admission and discharge code status.

Results: Of 88 patients who met inclusion criteria, 6 (7%) were do not resuscitate (DNR) on admission (aDNR). Do not resuscitate on admission patients were significantly older than those who were full code on admission ( 0.04). There was no significant difference between admission code status and sex, marital status, active cancer, premorbid mRS, admission Glasgow Coma scale (GCS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, or bleed severity. At discharge, 66 (75%) patients were full code (dFULL), 11 (13%) were DNR (dDNR), and 11 (13%) were comfort care. African American and Hispanic patients were significantly more likely to be dFULL than Asian or white patients ( .01) and less likely to be seen by palliative care ( .004). Patients with less aggressive code status had higher median APACHE II scores ( .008) and were more likely to have active cancer ( .06). There was no significant difference between discharge code status and sex, age, marital status, premorbid mRS, discharge GCS, or bleed severity.

Conclusions: Limitation of code status after nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage appears to be associated with older age, white race, worse APACHE II score, and active cancer. The role of palliative care after intracranial hemorrhage and the racial disparity in limitation and de-escalation of treatment deserves further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941874419873812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271616PMC
July 2020

SARS-CoV-2 and Stroke in a New York Healthcare System.

Stroke 2020 07 20;51(7):2002-2011. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Neurology (S.Y., K.I., J.T., K.H., T.T., K.L., S.A., M.S., S.K., E.S., A.L., J.F.), NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Background And Purpose: With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the current worldwide pandemic, there is mounting evidence that patients affected by the illness may develop clinically significant coagulopathy with thromboembolic complications including ischemic stroke. However, there is limited data on the clinical characteristics, stroke mechanism, and outcomes of patients who have a stroke and COVID-19.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between March 15, 2020, and April 19, 2020, within a major health system in New York, the current global epicenter of the pandemic. We compared the clinical characteristics of stroke patients with a concurrent diagnosis of COVID-19 to stroke patients without COVID-19 (contemporary controls). In addition, we compared patients to a historical cohort of patients with ischemic stroke discharged from our hospital system between March 15, 2019, and April 15, 2019 (historical controls).

Results: During the study period in 2020, out of 3556 hospitalized patients with diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, 32 patients (0.9%) had imaging proven ischemic stroke. Cryptogenic stroke was more common in patients with COVID-19 (65.6%) as compared to contemporary controls (30.4%, =0.003) and historical controls (25.0%, <0.001). When compared with contemporary controls, COVID-19 positive patients had higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and higher peak D-dimer levels. When compared with historical controls, COVID-19 positive patients were more likely to be younger men with elevated troponin, higher admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Patients with COVID-19 and stroke had significantly higher mortality than historical and contemporary controls.

Conclusions: We observed a low rate of imaging-confirmed ischemic stroke in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Most strokes were cryptogenic, possibly related to an acquired hypercoagulability, and mortality was increased. Studies are needed to determine the utility of therapeutic anticoagulation for stroke and other thrombotic event prevention in patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7258764PMC
July 2020

Factors associated with therapeutic anticoagulation status in patients with ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Jul 13;29(7):104888. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background And Purpose: Understanding factors associated with ischemic stroke despite therapeutic anticoagulation is an important goal to improve stroke prevention strategies in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aim to determine factors associated with therapeutic or supratherapeutic anticoagulation status at the time of ischemic stroke in patients with AF.

Methods: The Initiation of Anticoagulation after Cardioembolic stroke (IAC) study is a multicenter study pooling data from stroke registries of eight comprehensive stroke centers across the United States. Consecutive patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke in the setting of AF were included in the IAC cohort. For this study, we only included patients who reported taking warfarin at the time of the ischemic stroke. Patients not on anticoagulation and patients who reported use of a direct oral anticoagulant were excluded. Analyses were stratified based on therapeutic (INR ≥2) versus subtherapeutic (INR <2) anticoagulation status. We used binary logistic regression models to determine factors independently associated with anticoagulation status after adjustment for pertinent confounders. In particular, we sought to determine whether atherosclerosis with 50% or more luminal narrowing in an artery supplying the infarct (a marker for a competing atherosclerotic mechanism) and small stroke size (≤ 10 mL; implying a competing small vessel disease mechanism) related to anticoagulant status.

Results: Of the 2084 patients enrolled in the IAC study, 382 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 77.4 ± 10.9 years and 52.4% (200/382) were women. A total of 222 (58.1%) subjects presented with subtherapeutic INR. In adjusted models, small stroke size (OR 1.74 95% CI 1.10-2.76, p = 0.019) and atherosclerosis with 50% or more narrowing in an artery supplying the infarct (OR 1.96 95% CI 1.06-3.63, p = 0.031) were independently associated with INR ≥2 at the time of their index stroke.

Conclusion: Small stroke size (≤ 10 ml) and ipsilateral atherosclerosis with 50% or more narrowing may indicate a competing stroke mechanism. There may be important opportunities to improve stroke prevention strategies for patients with AF by targeting additional ischemic stroke mechanisms to improve patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104888DOI Listing
July 2020

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection and Ischemic Stroke.

Stroke 2020 07 12;51(7):e124-e127. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030153DOI Listing
July 2020

Modafinil in Recovery after Stroke (MIRAS): A Retrospective Study.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Apr;29(4):104645

NYU Langone Health, Department of Neurology, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Acute rehabilitation is known to enhance stroke recovery. However, poststroke lethargy and fatigue can hinder participation in rehabilitation therapies. We hypothesized that in patients with moderate to severe stroke complicated by poststroke fatigue and lethargy early stimulant therapy with modafinil increases favorable discharge disposition defined as transfer to acute inpatient rehabilitation or home.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of patients with acute stroke admitted to the stroke service over a 3-year period. All patients 18 years or older with confirmed ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, an NIHSS greater than or equal to 5 and documentation of fatigue/lethargy in clinical documentation were included. We compared patients that were treated with modafinil 50-200 mg to those managed with standard care. The primary outcome measure was discharge disposition. Secondary outcome was 90 day modified Rankin score (mRS). Statistical significance was determined using chi-square test for association and logistic regression models. Logistic regression models were derived in 2 ways with both raw data and an adjusted model that accounted for age, sex, and NIHSS score to account for the lack of randomization.

Results: This study included 199 stroke patients (145 ischemic, 54 hemorrhagic). Seventy-two (36.2%) were treated with modafinil and 129 (64.8%) were discharged to acute inpatient rehabilitation, while none were recommended for discharge home. Median NIHSS for modafinil patients was 13.5 versus 11 for standard care patients (P = .059). In adjusted models, modafinil was associated with higher odds of favorable discharge disposition (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.01-3.95). Favorable outcome at 90 days defined as mRS less than or equal to 2 occurred more frequently with modafinil (5.6% versus 3.3%) but this did not achieve statistical significance (P > .1). These results occurred despite the modafinil group requiring longer ICU stays and having more in-hospital complications such as infections and need for percutaneous gastrostomy tubes. The benefit of modafinil was seen across all subgroups except those with severe stroke (NIHSS ≥ 15). There were no significant adverse events associated with modafinil administration.

Conclusions: Modafinil use in acute in-hospital stroke patients with moderate stroke complicated by lethargy and fatigue was associated with improved discharge disposition. Randomized controlled trials are needed to further study the safety, efficacy, and long-term effects of modafinil in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104645DOI Listing
April 2020

Redefined Measure of Early Neurological Improvement Shows Treatment Benefit of Alteplase Over Placebo.

Stroke 2020 04 27;51(4):1226-1230. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

From the Department of Neurology, New York Langone Health (S.A., E.S., A.L., J.F., K.I., J.T., S.R., S.Y.).

Background and Purpose- The first of the 2 NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Study trials did not show a significant increase in early neurological improvement, defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) improvement by ≥4, with alteplase treatment. We hypothesized that early neurological improvement defined as a percentage change in NIHSS (percent change NIHSS) at 24 hours is superior to other definitions in predicting 3-month functional outcomes and using this definition there would be treatment benefit of alteplase over placebo at 24 hours. Methods- We analyzed the NINDS rt-PA Stroke Study (Parts 1 and 2) trial data. Percent change NIHSS was defined as ([admission NIHSS score-24-hour NIHSS score]×100/admission NIHSS score] and delta NIHSS as (admission NIHSS score-24-hour NIHSS score). We compared early neurological improvement using these definitions between alteplase versus placebo patients. We also used receiver operating characteristic curve to determine the predictive association of early neurological improvement with excellent 3-month functional outcomes (Barthel Index score of 95-100 and modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1), good 3-month functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2), and 3-month infarct volume. Results- There was a significantly greater improvement in the 24-hour median percent change NIHSS among patients treated with alteplase compared with the placebo group (28% versus 15%; =0.045) but not median delta NIHSS (3 versus 2; =0.471). Receiver operating characteristic curve comparison showed that percent change NIHSS (ROC) was better than delta NIHSS (ROC) and admission NIHSS (ROC) with regards to excellent 3-month Barthel Index (ROC, 0.83; ROC, 0.76; ROC, 0.75), excellent 3-month modified Rankin Scale (ROC, 0.83; ROC, 0.74; ROC, 0.78), and good 3-month modified Rankin Scale (ROC, 0.83; ROC, 0.76; ROC, 0.78). Conclusions- In the NINDS rt-PA trial, alteplase was associated with a significant percent change improvement in NIHSS at 24 hours. Percent change in NIHSS may be a better surrogate marker of thrombolytic activity and 3-month outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101071PMC
April 2020

Left Atrial Appendage Morphology Improves Prediction of Stagnant Flow and Stroke Risk in Atrial Fibrillation.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 02 27;13(2):e008074. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine (N.P., A. Chu, M.W., C.S.), The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.119.008074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7446933PMC
February 2020

Redefining Early Neurological Improvement After Reperfusion Therapy in Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Feb 11;29(2):104526. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of Neurology, New York Langone Health, New York, New York; Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Early neurologic improvement (ENI) in patients treated with alteplase has been shown to correlate with functional outcome. However, the definition of ENI remains controversial and has varied across studies. We hypothesized that ENI defined as a percentage change in the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (percent change NIHSS score) at 24-hours would better correlate with favorable outcomes at 3 months than ENI defined as the change in NIHSS score (delta NIHSS score) at 24 hours.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected single-center quality improvement data was performed of all acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients treated with alteplase. We examined delta NIHSS score and percent change NIHSS score in unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models as predictors of a favorable outcome at 3 months (defined as mRS 0-1).

Results: Among 586 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 194 (33.1%) had a favorable outcome at 3 months. In fully adjusted models, both delta NIHSS score (OR per point decrease 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.36) and percent change NIHSS score (OR per 10 percent decrease 1.17; 95% CI 1.12-1.22) were associated with favorable functional outcome at 3 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve comparison showed that the area under the ROC curve for percent change NIHSS score (.755) was greater than delta NIHSS score (.613) or admission NIHSS (.694).

Conclusions: Percentage change in NIHSS score may be a better surrogate marker of ENI and functional outcome in AIS patients after receiving acute thrombolytic therapy. More studies are needed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2019.104526DOI Listing
February 2020

Management of Elevated Intracranial Pressure: a Review.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2019 11 26;19(12):99. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Neurology, NYU Langone, 222 East 41st Street, 9th Floor, New York, NY, 10017, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Principles of intracranial pressure (ICP) management continue to be an essential part of the neurointensivist's skillset as appropriate treatment decisions can prevent secondary injury to the central nervous system. This review of the literature aims to: discuss commonly encountered pathologies associated with increased ICP, summarize diagnostic approaches used in evaluating ICP, and present evidence-based treatment paradigms that drive clinical care in intensive care units.

Recent Findings: Recent topics of discussion include invasive and non-invasive modalities of diagnosis and monitoring, recent developments in hypothermia, hyperosmolar therapy, pharmacological interventions, and surgical therapies. The authors also present an example of an algorithm used within our system of hospitals for managing patients with elevated ICP. Recent advances have shown the mortality benefits in appropriately recognizing and treating increased ICP. Multiple modalities of treatment have been explored, and evidence has shown benefit in some. Further work continues to provide clarity in the appropriate management of intracranial hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-019-1010-3DOI Listing
November 2019

Teaching NeuroImages: Hippocampal sclerosis in cerebral malaria.

Neurology 2019 07;93(1):e112-e113

From the Departments of Neurology (K.L., D.B., A. Lord, B.C., A. Lewis, A.K.) and Neurosurgery (A. Lord, B.C., A. Lewis), NYU Langone Medical Center, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007725DOI Listing
July 2019

How Does Preexisting Hypertension Affect Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage?

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2019 Mar 13;28(3):782-788. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Background And Purpose: Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) frequently present with hypertension, but it is unclear if this is due to pre-existing hypertension (prHTN) or to the bleed itself or associated pain. We sought to assess the relationship between prHTN and admission systolic blood pressure (aBP) and bleed severity.

Methods: We retrospectively assessed the relationship between prHTN and aBP and NIHSS in patients with ICH at 3 institutions.

Results: Of 251 patients, 170 (68%) had prHTN based on history of hypertension/antihypertensive use. Median aBP was significantly higher in those with prHTN (155 mm Hg (IQR 135-181) versus 139 mm Hg (IQR 124-158), P < .001). Patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on electrocardiogram (ECG) or transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) had significantly higher aBP than those without LVH (median aBP 195 mm Hg (IQR 155-216) for patients with LVH on ECG versus 147 mm Hg (IQR 129-163) for patients with no LVH on ECG, P < .001; median aBP 181 mm Hg (IQR 153-214) for patients with LVH on TTE versus 152 mm Hg (IQR 137-169) for patients with no LVH on TTE, P = .01). prHTN was associated with a higher median NIHSS (11 (IQR 3-20) for patients with history of hypertension/antihypertensive use versus 6 (IQR 1-14) for patients without this history (P = .02); 9 (IQR 3-19) versus 5 (IQR 2-13) for patients with/without LVH on ECG (P = .085); and 10 (IQR 5-18) versus 5 (IQR 1-13) for patients with/without LVH on TTE (P = .046).

Conclusions: Patients with ICH who have prHTN have higher aBP and NIHSS, suggesting that prHTN may worsen reactive hypertension in the setting of ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.11.023DOI Listing
March 2019

Efficacy of a Discharge Educational Strategy vs Standard Discharge Care on Reduction of Vascular Risk in Patients With Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack: The DESERVE Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Neurol 2019 01;76(1):20-27

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City.

Importance: Despite secondary prevention strategies with proven efficacy, recurrent stroke rates remain high, particularly in racial/ethnic minority populations who are disproportionately affected by stroke.

Objective: To determine the efficacy of a culturally tailored skills-based educational intervention with telephone follow-up compared with standard discharge care on systolic blood pressure reduction in a multiethnic cohort of patients with mild/moderate stroke/transient ischemic attack.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Randomized clinical trial with 1-year follow-up. Participants were white, black, and Hispanic patients with mild/moderate stroke/transient ischemic attack prospectively enrolled from 4 New York City, New York, medical centers during hospitalization or emergency department visit between August 2012 and May 2016. Through screening of stroke admissions and emergency department notifications, 1083 eligible patients were identified, of whom 256 declined to participate and 275 were excluded for other reasons. Analyses were intention to treat.

Interventions: The Discharge Educational Strategies for Reduction of Vascular Events (DESERVE) intervention is a skills-based, culturally tailored discharge program with follow-up calls delivered by a community health coordinator. This intervention was developed using a community engagement approach.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was systolic blood pressure reduction at 12 months postdischarge.

Results: A total of 552 participants were randomized to receive intervention or usual care (281 women [51%]; mean [SD] age, 64.61 [2.9] years; 180 Hispanic [33%], 151 non-Hispanic white [27%], and 183 non-Hispanic black [33%]). At 1-year follow-up, no significant difference in systolic blood pressure reduction was observed between intervention and usual care groups (β = 2.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, -1.9 to 6.9). Although not powered for subgroup analysis, we found that among Hispanic individuals, the intervention arm had a clinically and statically significant 9.9 mm Hg-greater mean systolic blood pressure reduction compared with usual care (95% CI, 1.8-18.0). There were no significant differences between arms among non-Hispanic white (β = 3.3; 95% CI, -4.1 to 10.7) and non-Hispanic black participants (β = -1.6; 95% CI, -10.1 to 6.8).

Conclusions And Relevance: Few behavioral intervention studies in individuals who have had stroke have reported clinically meaningful reductions in blood pressure at 12 months, and fewer have focused on a skills-based approach. Results of secondary analyses suggest that culturally tailored, skills-based strategies may be an important alternative to knowledge-focused approaches in achieving sustained vascular risk reduction and addressing racial/ethnic stroke disparities; however, these findings should be tested in future studies.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01836354.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.2926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439868PMC
January 2019

Highest In-Hospital Glucose Measurements are Associated With Neurological Outcomes After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Oct 22;27(10):2662-2668. Epub 2018 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: The relationship between in-hospital hyperglycemia and neurological outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is not well studied.

Methods: We analyzed the relationships between pre-hospital and hospital variables including highest in-hospital glucose (HIHGLC) and discharge Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), discharge Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) and 3-month MRS using a single-institution cohort of ICH patients between 2013 and 2015.

Results: There were 106 patients in our sample. Mean HIHGLC was 154 ± 58 mg/dL for patients with discharge GCS of 15 and 180 ± 57 mg/dL for patients with GCS < 15; 146 ± 55 mg/dL for patients with discharge MRS 0-3 and 175 ± 58 mg/dL for patients with discharge MRS 4-6; and 149 ± 52 mg/dL for patients with 3-month MRS of 0-3 and 166 ± 61 mg/dL for patients with 3-month MRS of 4-6. On univariate analysis, discharge GCS was associated with HIHGLC (P = .01), age (P = .006), ICH volume (P = .008), and length of stay (LOS) (P = .01); discharge MRS was associated with HIHGLC (P < .001), age (P < .001), premorbid MRS (P = .046), ICH volume (P < .001), and LOS (P < .001); and 3-month MRS was associated with HIHGLC (P = .006), discharge MRS (P < .001), age (P = .001), sex (P = .002), ICH volume (P = .03), and length of stay (P = .004). On multivariate analysis, discharge GCS only had a significant relationship with ICH volume (odds ratio [OR] .949, .927-.971); discharge MRS had a significant relationship with age (OR 1.043, 1.009-1.079), premorbid MRS (OR 2.622, 1.144-6.011), and ICH volume (OR 1.047, 1.003-1.093); and 3-month MRS only had a significant relationship with age (OR 1.039, 1.010-1.069).

Conclusions: The relationship between in-hospital hyperglycemia and neurological outcomes in ICH patients was meaningful on univariate, but not multivariate, analysis. Glucose control after ICH is important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.05.030DOI Listing
October 2018

Infection Prevention in the Neurointensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review.

Neurocrit Care 2019 08;31(1):196-210

Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Hospital-acquired infections are common in neurointensive care units. We sought to review interventions which may reduce infection rates in neurocritically ill populations. We conducted a systematic review of studies targeting adult patients in neuro-intensive care units (neuro-ICUs) with an intervention designed to prevent ICU-acquired infections. Our outcome of interest was change in the prevalence or rates of infection between active and control arms of these studies. We excluded studies based on the following criteria: no English full-text version available; pediatric population; non-neurosciences ICU population; pre- or intraoperative methods to prevent infection; lack of discrete data for infection rates/prevalence; studies that were purely observational in nature and did not test an intervention; and studies performed in resource limited settings. We initially retrieved 3716 results by searching the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE via Ovid, and Cochrane CENTRAL via Ovid. No date or language limits were used in the search. Computerized deduplication was conducted using EndNote followed by a confirmatory manual review resulting in 3414 citations. An additional 19 manuscripts were identified through review of references. The screening process followed a standard protocol, using two screeners at the title/abstract level to determine relevance and at the full-text level to determine eligibility for inclusion. The 3427 titles/abstracts were independently screened by two board-certified neurointensivists to determine relevance for full-text review, and 3248 were rejected. The remaining 179 abstracts were reviewed in full text using predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Ultimately, 75 articles met our inclusion criteria and were utilized in the final analysis. The reviewed literature highlights the need for collaborative, multi-disciplinary, and multi-pronged approaches to reduce infections. Rates of VRI, SSI, VAP, CAUTI, and CLABSI can approach zero with persistence and a team-based approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-018-0568-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329681PMC
August 2019