Publications by authors named "A T Raj"

1,099 Publications

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Pattern of Drug Resistance in Primary Spinal Tuberculosis: A Single-Center Study From India.

Global Spine J 2021 Sep 17;11(7):1070-1075. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

ySeth G.S. Medical College and K.E.M Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Study Design: Retrospective observational analysis.

Objectives: Spinal tuberculosis accounts for about 50% of cases among extra pulmonary osteoarticular tuberculosis. Resistance to drugs in spinal tuberculosis patients is on a rise and there is inadequate literature concentrating on the precise pattern of resistance in Indian subcontinent which harbors 24% of global prevalence. The aim was to study the pattern of drug resistance in spinal tuberculosis among first- and second-line drugs. Drug resistance is common in spinal tuberculosis and we intended to find the prevalence of various drug resistance patterns.

Methods: Patients with spinal tuberculosis visiting a tertiary center were assessed. Samples were taken from the affected vertebrae and sent for BACTEC mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 culture. Patients with a positive growth in MGIT were included in the study. All previously treated patients (relapse, treatment after failure, treatment after loss to follow-up and other previously treated patients) were excluded.

Results: A total of 150 patients with a positive growth in MGIT report were included in the study, of whom 43 patients had some kind of drug resistance. Seven were multidrug resistant (MDR), 9 had preextensive drug resistance (pre-XDR), and 4 had extensive drug resistance (XDR). Seventeen patients had mono-drug resistance, which was most frequently for isoniazid. Resistance among second-line drugs was common in the fluoroquinolone group.

Conclusion: Drug resistance in spinal tuberculosis was found to be 28.6%. Of these, MDR was in 16.2%, pre-XDR in 20.9%, and XDR in 9.3% patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568220941445DOI Listing
September 2021

Decolourisation of textile dye by laccase: Process evaluation and assessment of its degradation bioproducts.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 14;340:125591. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, Environmental Toxicology Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow-226 001, Uttar Pradesh, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201 002, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Biodegradation of environmentally hazardous synthetic dyes by enzymes has been achieved the highest interest in recent years. In this work, we optimized Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) dye biodegradation by Arthrographis kalrae derived laccase via the Box-Behnken design (BBD) approach of the surface response methodology (RSM). Optimization of dye decolourisation by one variable at a time (OVAT) approach resulted in optimal dye decolourisation at laccase dose (2 IU mL), pH (7.0), temperature (35 °C), incubation time (240 min), and initial dye concentration (100 mg L). The optimized process through BBD enhanced dye decolourisation (97.18%). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and UV-Visible Spectrophotometry have proven biodegradation. In addition, in comparison to untreated samples, the laccase-treated dye sample showed relatively less phyto- and cytotoxic effect on Allium cepa L. Extra Precision Glide docking exhibited the binding affinity score of -5.355 kcal mol between laccase-RBBR complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125591DOI Listing
July 2021

Emergence of directional bias in tau deposition from axonal transport dynamics.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 27;17(7):e1009258. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Defects in axonal transport may partly underpin the differences between the observed pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that of other non-amyloidogenic tauopathies. Particularly, pathological tau variants may have molecular properties that dysregulate motor proteins responsible for the anterograde-directed transport of tau in a disease-specific fashion. Here we develop the first computational model of tau-modified axonal transport that produces directional biases in the spread of tau pathology. We simulated the spatiotemporal profiles of soluble and insoluble tau species in a multicompartment, two-neuron system using biologically plausible parameters and time scales. Changes in the balance of tau transport feedback parameters can elicit anterograde and retrograde biases in the distributions of soluble and insoluble tau between compartments in the system. Aggregation and fragmentation parameters can also perturb this balance, suggesting a complex interplay between these distinct molecular processes. Critically, we show that the model faithfully recreates the characteristic network spread biases in both AD-like and non-AD-like mouse tauopathy models. Tau transport feedback may therefore help link microscopic differences in tau conformational states and the resulting variety in clinical presentations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009258DOI Listing
July 2021

Investigation on biofilm formation activity of Enterococcus faecium under various physiological conditions and possible application in bioremediation of tannery effluent.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 19;339:125586. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, Environmental Toxicology Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201002, India. Electronic address:

Treatment of tannery effluent (TE) using bacterial biofilm is a trending approach in the current scenario, due to greater survival and adaptation in stress conditions. The present study is concerned with the characterization of biofilm-forming bacterium Enterococcus faecium from tannery sludge and the investigation of their activity under different physiological conditions. Biofilm formation by E. faecium was strongly affected by variable physiological conditions. The optimum conditions were pH 7.5, temperature 28 °C, incubation time up to 96 h, glucose 1%, yeast extract 0.1-0.5%, NaCl 0.1-0.5%, tannery effluent-TE up to 50% v/v and Cd, Cr (VI) and Ni from 0.25 to 0.5 mM. Further, E. faecium treated TE was less phytotoxic on the fenugreek plant than the TE treated by non-biofilm forming isolate. The toxicity of TE could be reduced by the potentially biofilm-forming bacteria, which may be used in the bioremediation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125586DOI Listing
July 2021

Complete Obturation-Cold Lateral Condensation vs. Thermoplastic Techniques: A Systematic Review of Micro-CT Studies.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 18;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia.

To prevent re-infection and provide a hermetic seal of the root canal system, an endodontist must aim to produce a void-free obturation. This review aimed to compare the completeness of root canal obturation between the two most prevalent methods-cold lateral condensation and warm gutta-percha techniques-using micro-CT (PROSPERO reg no. 249815).

Materials And Methods: A search of Scopus, Embase, PubMed (Medline via PubMed), and Web of Science databases was done without any time restriction according to the PRISMA protocol. Articles that compared both techniques and were published in English were included. Data was extracted and the risk of bias was assessed using an adapted tool based on previous studies.

Results: A total of 141 studies were identified by the search. Following the screening and selection of articles, 9 studies were included for review. Data was extracted manually and tabulated. Most studies had a moderate risk of bias. None determined operator skill in both methods before comparison. The data extracted from the included studies suggests that both techniques produce voids in the obturation. The thermoplasticized gutta-percha techniques may result in fewer voids compared to cold lateral condensation.

Conclusion: Considering the limitations of the included studies, it was concluded that neither technique could completely obturate the root canal. Thermoplasticized gutta-percha techniques showed better outcomes despite a possible learning bias in favor of cold lateral condensation. Establishing operator skills before comparison may help reduce this bias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14144013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304925PMC
July 2021
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