Publications by authors named "A Staples"

100 Publications

Partners: Keys to Success and Meeting Challenges in Tobacco Control in North Carolina.

N C Med J 2021 May-Jun;82(3):198-202

tobacco-free policy and health equity strategist, Division of Public Health, North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Raleigh, North Carolina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18043/ncm.82.3.198DOI Listing
May 2021

Presleep Arousal and Sleep in Early Childhood.

J Genet Psychol 2021 Jul-Aug;182(4):236-251. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Research suggests that arousal during the transition to sleep-presleep arousal-is associated with sleep disturbances. Although a robust literature has examined the role of presleep arousal in conferring risk for sleep disturbances in adults, substantially less research has examined the developmental origins of presleep arousal in early childhood. The authors examined presleep arousal using parent report and psychophysiological measures in a sample of preschoolers to explore the association between different measures of presleep arousal, and to examine how nightly presleep arousal is associated with sleep. Participants included 29 children assessed at 54 months of age. Presleep arousal was measured using parent reports of child arousal each night at bedtime and using a wearable device that took minute-by-minute recordings of heart rate, peripheral skin temperature, and electrodermal activity each night during the child's bedtime routine. This yielded a dataset with 4,550 min of ambulatory recordings across an average of 3.52 nights per child ( = 1.84 nights per child; range = 1-8 nights). Sleep was estimated using actigraphy. Findings demonstrated an association between parent-reported and psychophysiological arousal, including heart rate, peripheral skin temperature, and skin conductance responses during the child's bedtime routine. Both the parent report and psychophysiological measures of presleep arousal showed some associations with poorer sleep, with the most robust associations occurring between presleep arousal and sleep onset latency. Behavioral and biological measures of hyperarousal at bedtime are associated with poorer sleep in young children. Findings provide early evidence of the utility of wearable devices for assessing individual differences in presleep arousal in early childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2021.1905596DOI Listing
April 2021

Substance Use, Gambling, Binge-Eating, and Hypersexuality Symptoms Among Patients Receiving Opioid Agonist Therapies.

Am J Addict 2021 07 30;30(4):343-350. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan.

Background And Objectives: Patients receiving opioid agonist therapies have high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. Some data suggest that comorbidity is associated with poorer treatment outcomes. The current study assessed predictors of multiple putative addictive behaviors among patients receiving opioid agonist therapies.

Methods: Adults (N = 176) recruited from an outpatient clinic providing opioid agonist therapy completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, impulsivity, adverse childhood events, and the Recognizing Addictive Disorders (RAD) scale, which includes seven subscales assessing symptoms related to alcohol use, drug use, tobacco use, gambling, binge-eating, hypersexual behavior, and excessive video-gaming. Linear regression and hurdle models identified significant predictors of RAD subscales. Hurdle models included logistic regression estimation for the presence/absence of symptoms and negative binomial regression for estimation of the severity of symptoms.

Results: Most patients did not report significant symptoms beyond drug or tobacco use. However, 7% to 47% of participants reported some symptoms of other addictive behaviors (subscale score > 0). Higher impulsivity predicted the presence and/or increased severity of symptoms of drug use, gambling, binge-eating, and hypersexuality. Higher depression significantly predicted increased severity of drug use and binge-eating symptoms. Increased anxiety predicted lower severity of alcohol use and binge-eating and higher severity of smoking symptoms.

Conclusion And Scientific Significance: A broader range of potentially addictive symptoms may be present among patients engaged in treatment for opioid use disorder. Few studies have assessed symptoms of binge-eating, hypersexuality, and excessive video-gaming among patients receiving opioid agonist therapy. This study contributes to preliminary findings and highlights important future directions. (Am J Addict 2021;00:00-00).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajad.13149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243775PMC
July 2021

Frequency-specific, valveless flow control in insect-mimetic microfluidic devices.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 03 19;16(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Laboratory for Fluid Dynamics in Nature, Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, United States of America.

Inexpensive, portable lab-on-a-chip devices would revolutionize fields like environmental monitoring and global health, but current microfluidic chips are tethered to extensive off-chip hardware. Insects, however, are self-contained and expertly manipulate fluids at the microscale using largely unexplored methods. We fabricated a series of microfluidic devices that mimic key features of insect respiratory kinematics observed by synchrotron-radiation imaging, including the collapse of portions of multiple respiratory tracts in response to a single fluctuating pressure signal. In one single-channel device, the flow rate and direction could be controlled by the actuation frequency alone, without the use of internal valves. Additionally, we fabricated multichannel chips whose individual channels responded selectively (on with a variable, frequency-dependent flow rate, or off) to a single, global actuation frequency. Our results demonstrate that insect-mimetic designs have the potential to drastically reduce the actuation overhead for microfluidic chips, and that insect respiratory systems may share features with impedance-mismatch pumps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-3190/abe4bcDOI Listing
March 2021

Mothers' sleep deficits and cognitive performance: Moderation by stress and age.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(1):e0241188. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America.

There are well-known associations between stress, poor sleep, and cognitive deficits, but little is known about their interactive effects, which the present study explored in a sample of mothers of toddlers. Since certain types of cognitive decline start during the 20s and continue into later ages, we also explored whether mothers' age interacted with stress and sleep in the prediction of cognitive functioning. We hypothesized that poorer sleep [measured using one week of 24-hour wrist actigraphy data] and having more chronic stressors [e.g., life events, household chaos, work/family role conflict] would be linked with poorer cognitive performance [both executive function and standardized cognitive ability tasks], and that the interactive combination of poorer sleep and more stressors would account for the effect. We also explored whether this process operated differently for younger versus older women. In a socioeconomically and geographically diverse community sample of 227 women with toddler-age children [age, M = 32.73 yrs, SD = 5.15 yrs], poorer cognitive performance was predicted by greater activity during the sleep period, shorter sleep duration, and lower night-to-night consistency in sleep; it was not associated with higher levels of stress. The interactive effects hypothesis was supported for sleep activity [fragmented sleep] and sleep timing [when mothers went to bed]. The combination of more exposure to stressors and frequent night waking was particularly deleterious for older women's performance. For younger women, going to bed late was associated with poorer performance if they were experiencing high levels of stress; for those experiencing low levels of stress, going to bed late was associated with better performance.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241188PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790244PMC
April 2021
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