Publications by authors named "A Solomon Kurz"

741 Publications

Differential expression of gut miRNAs in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Jun 1;88:46-50. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Translational Brain Research, German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Munich, Germany; Department of Neurology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: In the present work, we aimed to investigate the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in routine colonic biopsies obtained from patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and to address their value as a diagnostic biomarker for PD and their mechanistic contribution to PD onset and progression.

Methods: Patients with PD (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 17) were prospectively recruited to undergo routine colonic biopsies for cancer screening. Total RNA was extracted from the biopsy material and the expression of miRNAs was quantified by Illumina High-Throughput Sequencing.

Results: Statistical analysis revealed a significant submucosal enrichment of the miRNA hsa-miR-486-5p in colonic biopsies from PD patients compared to the control subjects. The expression of miR-486-5p correlated with age and disease severity as measured by the UPDRS and Hoehn & Yahr scale. miRNA gene target analysis identified 301 gene targets that are affected by miR-486-5p. A follow-up associated target identification and pathway enrichment analysis further determined their role in distinct biological processes in the enteric nervous system (ENS).

Interpretation: Our work demonstrates an enrichment of submucosal miR-486-5p in routine colonic biopsies from PD patients. Our results will support the examination of miR-486-5p as a PD biomarker and help to understand the significance of the miR-486-5p gene targets for PD onset and progression. In addition, our data will support the investigation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of GI dysfunction in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2021.05.022DOI Listing
June 2021

Implementation of secondary reconstructions of flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT) and otological planning software for anatomically based cochlear implantation.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery and the Comprehensive Hearing Center, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg, Germany.

Purpose: For further improvements in cochlear implantation, the measurement of the cochlear duct length (CDL) and the determination of the electrode contact position (ECP) are increasingly in the focus of clinical research. Usually, these items were investigated by multislice computed tomography (MSCT). The determination of ECP was only possible by research programs so far. Flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT) and its secondary reconstructions (fpVCT) allow for high spatial resolution for the visualization of the temporal bone structures. Using a newly developed surgical planning software that enables the evaluation of CDL and the determination of postoperative ECP, this study aimed to investigate the combination of fpVCT and otological planning software to improve the implementation of an anatomically based cochlear implantation.

Methods: Cochlear measurements were performed utilizing surgical planning software in imaging data (MSCT, fpVCT and fpVCT) of patients with and without implanted electrodes.

Results: Measurement of the CDL by the use of an otological planning software was highly reliable using fpVCT with a lower variance between the respective measurements compared to MSCT. The determination of the inter-electrode-distance (IED) between the ECP was improved in fpVCT compared to MSCT.

Conclusion: The combination of fpVCT and otological planning software permits a simplified and more reliable analysis of the cochlea in the pre- and postoperative setting. The combination of both systems will enable further progress in the development of an anatomically based cochlear implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06924-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Isotopic composition of mercury deposited via snow into mid-latitude ecosystems.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 22;784:147252. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; School of the Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems has significant implications for human and animal exposure. Measurements of Hg isotopic composition can be utilized to trace sources of Hg, but outside of the Arctic there has been little Hg isotopic characterization of snow. To better understand deposition pathways at mid-latitudes, five time series of snowfall were collected at two sites (Dexter and Pellston, Michigan, USA) to investigate the Hg isotopic composition of snowfall, how it changes after deposition, and how it compares to rain. The Hg isotopic composition of a subset of fresh snow samples revealed the influence of reactive surface uptake of atmospheric Hg(0). The first time series collected at Dexter occurred during a polar vortex, demonstrating Hg isotopic fractionation dynamics similar to those in Arctic snow, with increasingly negative ΔHg as snow aged with exposure to sunlight. All other time series revealed an increase in ΔHg as snow aged, with values reaching up to 3.5‰. This characterization of Hg isotopes in snow suggests a strong influence of oxidants and binding ligands in snow that may mediate Hg isotope fractionation. Additionally, isotopic characterization of Hg in snow deposited to natural ecosystems at mid-latitudes allows for better understanding of atmospheric mercury sources that are deposited to lakes and forests and that may become available for methylation and transfer to food webs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147252DOI Listing
August 2021

Emerging role of human polyomaviruses 6 and 7 in human cancers.

Infect Agent Cancer 2021 May 17;16(1):35. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Pathology, GROW-School for Oncology & Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Currently 12 human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) have been identified, 6 of which have been associated with human diseases, including cancer. The discovery of the Merkel cell polyomavirus and its role in the etiopathogenesis in the majority of Merkel cell carcinomas has drawn significant attention, also to other novel HPyVs. In 2010, HPyV6 and HPyV7 were identified in healthy skin swabs. Ever since it has been speculated that they might contribute to the etiopathogenesis of skin and non-cutaneous human cancers.

Main Body: Here we comprehensively reviewed and summarized the current evidence potentially indicating an involvement of HPyV6 and HPyV7 in the etiopathogenesis of neoplastic human diseases. The seroprevalence of both HPyV6 and 7 is high in a normal population and increases with age. In skin cancer tissues, HPyV6- DNA was far more often prevalent than HPyV7 in contrast to cancers of other anatomic sites, in which HPyV7 DNA was more frequently detected.

Conclusion: It is remarkable to find that the detection rate of HPyV6-DNA in tissues of skin malignancies is higher than HPyV7-DNA and may indicate a role of HPyV6 in the etiopathogenesis of the respected skin cancers. However, the sheer presence of viral DNA is not enough to prove a role in the etiopathogenesis of these cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13027-021-00374-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130262PMC
May 2021

Determining the types of descending waves from transcranial magnetic stimulation measured with conditioned H-reflexes in humans.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Sport Science, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Non-invasive techniques are scarce with which human (motor) cortical mechanisms can be investigated. In a series of previous experiments, we have applied an advanced form of conditioning technique with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation by which excitability changes at the laminar level in the primary motor cortex can be estimated. This method builds on the assumption that the first of subsequent corticospinal waves from TMS which is assessed with H-reflexes (called early facilitation) results from indirect excitation of corticospinal neurons in motor cortex (I-wave) and not direct excitation of corticospinal axons (D-wave). So far, we have not provided strong experimental evidence that this is actually the case. In the present study, we therefore compared temporal differences of the early facilitation between transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation (TES). TES is known to excite the axons of corticospinal neurons. TES in our study caused a temporal shift of the early facilitation of H-reflexes in all subjects compared to TMS, which indicates that the early facilitation with TMS is indeed produced by an I-wave. Additionally, we investigated temporal shifts of the early facilitation with different TMS intensities and two TMS coils. It has long been known that TMS with higher intensities can induce a D-wave. Accordingly, we found that TMS with an intensity of 150% of resting motor threshold compared to 130%/110% results in a temporal shift of the early facilitation, indicating the presence of a D-wave. This effect was dependent on the coil type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.15308DOI Listing
May 2021