Publications by authors named "A Schlattau"

12 Publications

Association of infra-patellar fat pad size with age and body weight in children and adolescents.

Ann Anat 2020 Nov 2;232:151533. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Imaging and Functional Musculoskeletal Research, Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Salzburg, Austria; Department of Orthopedic Surgery & Traumatology, Landesklinik Tamsweg, Paracelsus Medical University, Tamsweg, Austria.

Background: The infra-patellar fat pad (IPFP) represents a potential mediator between obesity, low grade inflammation, and knee osteoarthritis via endocrine pathways. Yet, not only in adults, but also in childhood obesity negatively impacts knee structures.

Objective: The current study therefore investigated the sex-specific growth of the IPFP with age and body weight in healthy children and adolescents.

Materials And Methods: Thirty young healthy subjects (60% girls; age 4-17 years, body weight 14-90 kg in girls and 29-105 kg in boys; BMI 12.2-32.4 kg/m) without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) knee pathology were studied. The IPFP volume was determined from sagittal T-1 weighted and proton-density spectral attenuated inversion recovery MRIs. The primary analysis focused on the sex-specific IPFP volume/body weight ratio as dependent, and age as independent variable, using linear regression models. A secondary analytic focus was the slope of the age-dependence of IPFP volume, without normalization to body weight.

Results: There was no statistically significant association of the IPFP volume/body weight ratio with age in girls (p = 0.57) or boys (p = 0.31), the R of ranging from -0.32 to 0.14. The ratio was greater in boys (0.54 ± 0.10 cm/kg) than in girls (0.45 ± 0.07 cm/kg) (p < 0.01). The IPFP volume increased by approx. 2 cm per annum in both girls and boys, without any indication of a non-linear relationship.

Conclusion: Our findings reveal that the ratio of the IPFP volume and body weight remains constant between age 4 and 17 in both normal weight girls and boys, and that the IPFP volume increases linearly with age throughout this period.
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November 2020

The Functional Anatomy of the Deep Facial Fat Compartments: A Detailed Imaging-Based Investigation.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2019 01;143(1):53-63

From the Department of Medical Education, Albany Medical College; private practice; Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of California, Davis Medical Center; the Department for Hand, Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery, Ludwig Maximilian University; the Division of Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital Zurich; and the Department of Radiology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg.

Background: Injection of soft-tissue fillers into the facial fat compartments is frequently performed to ameliorate the signs of facial aging. This study was designed to investigate the functional anatomy of the deep facial fat compartments and to provide information on the effects of injected material in relation to age and gender differences.

Methods: Forty fresh frozen cephalic specimens of 17 male and 23 female Caucasian body donors (mean age, 76.9 ± 13.1 years; mean body mass index, 23.6 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)) were investigated. Computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging procedures were carried out using colored contrast-enhanced materials with rheologic properties similar to commercially available soft-tissue fillers. Anatomical dissections were performed to guide conclusions.

Results: No statistically significant influences of age or gender were detected in the investigated sample. Increased amounts of injected contrast agent did not correlate with inferior displacement of the material in any of the investigated compartments: deep pyriform, deep medial cheek, deep lateral cheek, deep nasolabial (located within the premaxillary space), and the medial and lateral sub-orbicularis oculi fat.

Conclusions: Increasing volume in the deep midfacial fat compartments did not cause inferior displacement of the injected material. This underscores the role of deep soft-tissue filler injections (i.e., in contact with the bone) in providing support for overlying structures and resulting in anterior projection.
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January 2019

Comparison of native myocardial T1 and T2 mapping at 1.5T and 3T in healthy volunteers : Reference values and clinical implications.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2019 Apr 5;131(7-8):143-155. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Radiology, Paracelsus Medical University, Müllner Hauptstraße 48, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Myocardial native T1 and T2 mapping are promising techniques for quantitative assessment of diffuse myocardial pathologies; however, due to conflicting data regarding normal values, routine clinical implementation of this method is still challenging.

Methods: To evaluate this situation during daily clinical practice the characteristics of normal values obtained in 60 healthy volunteers who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans on 1.5T and 3T scanners were studied. The T1 modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI; 5(3)3; modified for higher heart rates) and T2 navigator gated black-blood prepared gradient-spin-echo (GraSE) sequences were used.

Results: While age and body mass index did not affect relaxation times, a gender and heart rate dependency was found showing higher T1 and T2 values in females, whereas at higher heart rates a prolongation of T1 and a shortening of T2 relaxation times was found. Particularly prone to artifacts were T2 measurements at 3T and the inferolateral wall. In the individual setting mean relaxation times for T1 were 995.8 ± 30.9 ms at 1.5T and 1183.8 ± 37.5 ms at 3T and 55.8 ± 2.8 ms at 1.5T and 51.6 ± 3 ms at 3T for T2 indicating a high dependency of reference values on MRI protocol when compared to the literature. Furthermore, as presumed mean T1 and T2 values correlated in the same individual.

Conclusions: The T1 and T2 relaxation times depend on physiological factors and especially on MRI protocols. Therefore, reference values should be validated individually in every radiological institution before implementing mapping protocols in daily clinical practice. Correlation of mean T1 and T2 values in the same proband at both field strengths indicates intraindividual reproducibility.
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April 2019

Temporary Explant of a Transcutaneous Bone Conduction Hearing Implant for Imaging of the Pituitary Gland.

Otol Neurotol 2018 08;39(7):e557-e560

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery.

Objective: Clinical report on feasibility and outcome of a surgical procedure.

Patient: Nine-year-old child, supplied with a transcutaneous bone conduction hearing implant, requiring magnetic resonance imaging of the head to exclude a tumor of the pituitary gland.

Intervention: Temporal removal and subsequent reimplantation of the implant in a single surgical procedure.

Main Outcome Measure: Postoperative audiometric results.

Conclusion: Under specific clinical circumstances, temporary removal of the transcutaneous bone conduction implant described, is technically accomplishable.
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August 2018

The Functional Anatomy of the Superficial Fat Compartments of the Face: A Detailed Imaging Study.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 06;141(6):1351-1359

Munich, Germany; Salzburg, Austria; Sacramento, Calif.; Albany, N.Y.; and Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: The superficial (subcutaneous) facial fat compartments contribute to the signs of facial aging, but a comprehensive anatomical description of their location and their functional behavior during the application of soft-tissue fillers remains elusive.

Methods: The authors investigated 30 fresh frozen cephalic specimens from 13 male and 17 female Caucasian body donors (age, 78.3 ± 14.2 years; body mass index, 23.1 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)). Upright-position, contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scanning, and additional magnetic resonance imaging were performed. Three-dimensional reconstruction-based measures were conducted to evaluate the position of the applied contrast agent in each compartment separately. Successive anatomical dissections were performed to confirm the imaging findings.

Results: Positive correlations were detected between the amounts of injected material and the inferior displacement for the superficial nasolabial (rp = 0.92, p = 0.003), middle cheek (rp = 0.70, p = 0.05), and jowl (rp = 0.92, p = 0.03) compartments but not for the medial cheek (rp = 0.20, p = 0.75), lateral cheek (rp = 0.15, p = 0.75), or the superior (rp = -0.32, p = 0.41) or inferior superficial temporal compartment (rp = -0.52, p = 0.29).

Conclusion: This study confirms the presence of distinct subcutaneous fat compartments and provides evidence for an individual behavior when soft-tissue fillers are applied: inferior displacement of the superficial nasolabial, middle cheek, and jowl compartments, in contrast to an increase in volume without displacement (i.e., an increase in projection) of the medial cheek, lateral cheek, and both superficial temporal compartments.
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June 2018