Publications by authors named "A Samy Youssef"

956 Publications

The Protein Landscape of Mucinous Ovarian Cancer: Towards a Theranostic.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Nov 9;13(22). Epub 2021 Nov 9.

The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.

MOC is a rare histotype of epithelial ovarian cancer, and current management options are inadequate for the treatment of late stage or recurrent disease. A shift towards personalised medicines in ovarian cancer is being observed, with trials targeting specific molecular pathways, however, MOC lags due to its rarity. Theranostics is a rapidly evolving category of personalised medicine, encompassing both a diagnostic and therapeutic approach by recognising targets that are expressed highly in tumour tissue in order to deliver a therapeutic payload. The present review evaluates the protein landscape of MOC in recent immunohistochemical- and proteomic-based research, aiming to identify potential candidates for theranostic application. Fourteen proteins were selected based on cell membrane localisation: HER2, EGFR, FOLR1, RAC1, GPR158, CEACAM6, MUC16, PD-L1, NHE1, CEACAM5, MUC1, ACE2, GP2, and PTPRH. Optimal proteins to target using theranostic agents must exhibit high membrane expression on cancerous tissue with low expression on healthy tissue to afford improved disease outcomes with minimal off-target effects and toxicities. We provide guidelines to consider in the selection of a theranostic target for MOC and suggest future directions in evaluating the results of this review.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13225596DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8616050PMC
November 2021

Cytochrome 4Z1 Expression is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Colon Cancer Patients.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 12;14:5249-5260. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Sharif Eye Centers, Irbid, Jordan.

Purpose: Colon cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. It has a relatively poor prognosis; therefore, new therapies are needed. One of the tumour-related enzymes that has gained considerable interest is CYP4Z1. This enzyme has been expressed in many tumours and has been hypothesized as a potential biomarker or target for novel anticancer therapies.

Patients And Methods: CYP4Z1 overexpression was immunohistochemically examined in a large panel of colon tissue types including normal, benign, primary and metastatic ones, and the enzyme's relation to histopathological features and patient survival was evaluated.

Results: A high CYP4Z1 expression was observed in benign, primary and metastatic colon tissues compared to a weak or lack of expression in normal tissues. Importantly, there was a significant differential in CYP4Z1 expression where it was stronger in metastatic, primary and benign, respectively ( < 0.05). A significantly high rate of CYP4Z1 expression was found in high histological grades and late stages of the disease, where its expression was more evident in patients with metastasis in the lymph nodes ( < 0.05). Interestingly, CYP4Z1 expression was identified an independent prognostic predictor of poor overall survival of colon cancer patients (p = 0.003).

Conclusion: CYP4Z1 was distinctly overexpressed in benign, primary and metastatic colon tissues compared to corresponding normal tissues. This differential in CYP4Z1 expression across different types of colon tissues strongly supports CYP4Z1 as potential biomarker and target for novel anticancer therapy development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S332037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8595061PMC
November 2021

Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of a new Harvard MTA compared to MTA Flow and ProRoot MTA on human gingival fibroblasts.

Saudi Dent J 2021 Nov 6;33(7):679-686. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Biocompatibility is an essential property for any dental root repair material that may interact with the surrounding periodontal tissues. We hypothesise that the three mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) restorative brands ProRoot MTA, MTA Flow and Harvard MTA have similar biocompatibility. To test this hypothesis, we compared the cytotoxic effects of these materials on human gingival fibroblast (GF).

Methods: MTA cements were prepared, and after completion of setting, they were incubated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium for 1 day or 4 days to obtain low and high concentrations of MTA elutes respectively. The elutes of MTA supplemented with fetal bovine serum were added to GF and incubated for 3 days at 37 °C and 5% CO2. Untreated cells were used as control. The cell viability was assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at 24, 48 and 72 h.

Results: After 24 h, the MTT assay showed that both 1- and 4-day elutes of MTA flow and Harvard MTA reduced cell viability significantly compared to control (P < 0.05). After 48 h, the 1-day elute of ProRoot MTA induced GF proliferation (P = 0.0136) while MTA flow and Harvard MTA were similar to control. After 72 h, the 1-day elute of ProRoot MTA and Harvard MTA induced GF proliferation, while the elute of MTA flow was comparable to control. The 4-day elute of Harvard MTA continued to be cytotoxic to GF after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h incubation, while the 4-day elute of ProRoot MTA and MTA flow were similar to control.

Conclusion: ProRoot MTA and MTA Flow showed comparable biocompatibility. However, the 4-day elute of Harvard MTA was cytotoxic to GF. Further studied are required to assess the cell viability after direct contact with these materials versus eluent in vitro and compare these sealers in the clinical setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sdentj.2020.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8589600PMC
November 2021

Optimized scheme for paired transverse corrective forces in S-shaped scoliosis via ultrasound and application in Chêneau brace: a pilot study.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shantou Central Hospital, Shantou, China Department of Biomedical Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China Basic Science Department, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt Department of Medical Ultrasound, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: There is currently no consensus on the optimal positions of the transverse corrective forces (TCFs) for scoliosis braces.

Objectives: This study aimed to explore an optimal scheme of placing paired TCF for S-shaped adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and its feasibility in Chêneau brace (CB) treatment.

Study Design: Cross-over feasibility pilot trial.

Methods: Ten S-shaped adolescent idiopathic scoliosis participants were invited to receive four tests with different paired TCF positions under ultrasound. The positions of the paired TCF were test 1: thoracic apical vertebra (AV), lumbar AV; test 2: 2 cm inferior to thoracic AV, lumbar AV; test 3: thoracic AV, 2 cm superior to lumbar AV; and test 4: 2 cm inferior to thoracic AV, 2 cm superior to lumbar AV. The test scheme with the highest mean in-force correction rate (IFCR) for the thoracic spinous process angle (SPA) was further applied in the CB fabrication of 4 additional participants.

Results: A significant higher mean IFCR of the thoracic SPA of 63.6% was found in test 2 (P < 0.001), which also contributed to its higher overall IFCR of the SPA of 64.6% (P = 0.001). Moreover, the mean in-brace correction rates for the thoracic and overall curves in CB were 46.4% and 51.8%, respectively. No adverse events were reported.

Conclusions: Placing paired TCF at the lumbar AV and 2 cm inferior to the thoracic AV achieved better treatment efficacy than other schemes. The practical application of this scheme on the CB was feasible.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PXR.0000000000000064DOI Listing
November 2021

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and SALL4 and BMI-1 gene expression.

Pediatr Res 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Background: Sal-like protein 4 transcription factor (SALL4) and B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1) gene were reported to cause treatment failure and relapse in several malignancies. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of SALL4 and BMI-1 in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out on 60 children with ALL as the patient group and 60 age- and sex-matched children as the control group. We evaluated the expression pattern of both SALL4 and BMI-1 genes in the peripheral blood using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in children with ALL at initial diagnosis before chemotherapy. We followed up with the patient group for 2 years for relapse or death.

Results: Both SALL4 and BMI-1 were overexpressed in ALL children compared to the control group. Moreover, the expression of SALL4 and BMI-1 in patients with relapse was significantly higher than those with complete remission. The best cut-off of SALL4 and BMI-1 to predict relapse were >2.21 and 0.55 yielding sensitivity of 92.3% and 84.6%, respectively. Patients with overexpression of SALL4 and BMI-1 had significantly shorter overall and disease-free survival.

Conclusions: SALL4 and BMI-1 could be useful prognostic markers in children with ALL to predict relapse.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-021-01854-3DOI Listing
November 2021
-->