Publications by authors named "A Salama"

1,122 Publications

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A cohort study to investigate sex-specific differences in ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis outcomes.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 22;11(1):13080. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Trinity Health Kidney Centre, Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Data surrounding sex-specific differences in ANCA-associated vasculitis glomerulonephritis (ANCA-GN) outcomes is sparse. We hypothesised that the previously observed increased risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in males is driven by sex-specific variation in immunosuppression dosing. Patients were recruited to the Irish Rare Kidney Disease Registry or followed by the Royal Free Hospital vasculitis team (2012-2020). Inclusion criteria: prior diagnosis of ANCA-GN (biopsy proven pauci-immune glomerulonephritis) and positive serology for anti-MPO or -PR3 antibodies. Renal and patient survival, stratified by sex and Berden histological class, was analysed. The cumulative- and starting dose/kilogram of induction agents and prednisolone, respectively, was compared between sexes. 332 patients were included. Median follow-up was time 40.2 months (IQR 17.3-69.2). 73 (22%) reached ESKD and 47 (14.2%) died. Overall 1- and 5-year renal survival was 82.2% and 76.7% in males and 87.1% and 82.0% in females, respectively (p 0.13). The hazard ratio for ESKD in males versus females, after adjustment for age, ANCA serology, baseline creatinine and histological class was 1.07 (95% CI 0.59-1.93). There was no difference between sexes in the dose/kilogram of any induction agent. We did not observe a strong impact of sex on renal outcome in ANCA-GN. Treatment intensity does not vary by sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92629-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Revisiting ageless antiques; synthesis, biological evaluation, docking simulation and mechanistic insights of 1,4-Dihydropyridines as anticancer agents.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jun 4;114:105054. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Postal code: 31527, Tanta, Egypt.

The historic DHP nucleus was serendipitously discovered by Arthur Hantzsch about 130 years ago and is still considered a hidden treasure for various pharmacological activities. Twenty-one DHP analogues were synthesized using the expedient one pot Hantzsch synthesis for screening as anticancer agents. Initially, the in vitro anti-proliferative single dose against a panel of 18 cancer cell lines showed that compounds 11b and 8f were the superlative candidates regarding their antitumor effect (GI% mean = 66.40% and 50.42%, correspondingly) compared to cisplatin (GI% mean = 65.58%) and doxorubicin (GI% mean = 74.56%). Remarkably, compound 11b showed a remarkable MDA-MB-468 anticancer activity (GI%=80.81%), higher than cisplatin (64.44%) and doxorubicin (76.72%), as well as strong antitumor activity against lung cancer A549 (GI%= 83.02%), more powerful than both cisplatin and doxorubicin. Compound 11b exhibited an exceptional anticancer activity against lung cancer cell line (A549) as its GI in nanomolar was (540 nM) with a 9-fold increase greater than cisplatin (GI = 4.93 µM) and with a selectivity index = 131 to cancer cells over normal cells. Further mechanistic investigations proved that DHPs anticipate simultaneously TOPI and RTKs (VEGFR-2, HER-2 and BTK) which can stimulate BAX/BAK and the executioner caspases via rtPCR studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105054DOI Listing
June 2021

Risk of COVID-19 Disease, Dialysis Unit Attributes, and Infection Control Strategy among London In-Center Hemodialysis Patients.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

A Salama, UCL Department of Renal Medicine, Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Background Patients receiving in-center hemodialysis treatment face unique challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically the need to attend for treatment that prevents self-isolation. Dialysis unit attributes and isolation strategies that might reduce dialysis center COVID-19 infection rates have not been previously examined. Methods We explored the role of variables including community disease burden, dialysis unit attributes (size, layout) and infection control strategies, on rates of COVID-19 among patients receiving in center hemodialysis in London, UK, between March 2nd 2020 and May 31st 2020. The two outcomes were defined as (i) a positive test for infection or admission with suspected COVID19 and (ii) admission to the hospital with suspected infection. Associations were examined using a discrete-time multi-level time-to-event analysis. Results Data on 5,755 patients, dialysing in 51 units were analysed. 990 (17%) tested positive and 465 (8%) were admitted with suspected COVID-19 between 2nd March and 31st May 2020. Outcomes were associated with age, diabetes, local community COVID-19 rates and dialysis unit size. Greater number of available side rooms and introduction of mask policies for asymptomatic patients were inversely associated with outcomes. No association was seen with sex, ethnicity, or deprivation indices nor with any of the different isolation strategies. Conclusions Rates of COVID-19 in the in center-hemodialysis population relate to individual factors, underlying community transmission, unit size and layout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03180321DOI Listing
June 2021

Olive Oil/Pluronic Oleogels for Skin Delivery of Quercetin: In Vitro Characterization and Ex Vivo Skin Permeability.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 31;13(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahram Canadian University, Giza 14756, Egypt.

The main objective of this study was to prepare and characterize oleogel as potential carrier for quercetin skin delivery. The formulations were prepared by adding olive oil (5-30%) to Pluronic F127 hydrogel and were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, viscosity in vitro quercetin release and stability, and were compared with that of Pluronic F127 hydrogel. The selected formulation was characterized for its interaction possibility, ex vivo skin permeation and skin histological changes and safety. The particle sizes ranged from 345.3 ± 5.3 nm to 401.5 ± 2.8 nm, and possessed negative charges. The viscosities of the formulations were found in the range of 6367-4823 cps with inverse proportionality to olive oil percentage while the higher percentages showed higher quercetin release. Percentages of 25% and 30% olive oil showed instability pattern under the conditions of accelerated stability studies. Differential scanning calorimetry verified the existence of quercetin in micellar aggregation and the network in the case of hydrogel and oleogel respectively. Ex vivo skin permeation showed an improved skin permeation of quercetin when 20% olive oil containing oleogel was used. Skin histology after 10 days of application showed stratum corneum disruption and good safety profile. Based on these findings, the proposed oleogel containing 20% olive oil denotes a potential carrier for topical delivery of quercetin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13111808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198417PMC
May 2021

Histologic evaluation of host immune microenvironment and its prognostic significance in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma: a comparative study on lymphocytic host response (LHR) and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs).

Pathol Res Pract 2021 May 10:153473. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Host immune microenvironment is a key component of anti-tumoral immune response, influencing tumor progression, regression, and treatment responses. There is a need for simple and reliable histologic measurements of host immune response in routine histopathologic diagnosis.

Methods: The prognostic value of lymphocytic host response (LHR), a qualitative histologic grading scheme, was compared to stromal/intratumoral TIL (sTIL/iTIL) percentage, a quantitative measurement in a retrospective study of 329 patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) of 4 cm or less in size.

Results: High sTIL predicted improved distant recurrence free survival on univariate survival analysis and was an independent prognostic factor for better overall survival on multivariate analysis. LHR and iTIL were not associated with the risk of nodal metastasis or outcome.

Conclusions: sTIL appears to be a superior quantitative histologic measurement for the host immune microenvironment compared with the qualitative LHR grading scheme. sTIL is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in OTSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2021.153473DOI Listing
May 2021