Publications by authors named "A P Sclafani"

452 Publications

Adverse Event Reporting in Otolaryngology.

Laryngoscope 2021 03 6;131(3):509-512. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Objectives: Adverse events are common occurrences in hospitals that detract from quality of care. There are few data on errors in otolaryngology (ENT) and even fewer data comparing ENT to other services.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed adverse event data collected across a regional hospital network from July 2014 to August 2017. We examined categories of adverse events that occurred most commonly in ENT and compared the number of adverse events reported in ENT to those reported across all other departments. Descriptive analysis and the paired t test were used to analyze the data.

Results: Two hundred ninety-one adverse events were reported in ENT departments during the period studied compared to 58,219 events reported across all other specialties. In ENT, the most commonly reported adverse events occurred in the perioperative setting, followed by issues regarding equipment and medical devices and, lastly, airway management. Across all other departments, the most common categories included medication and fluid errors, falls, and safety and security events. ENT departments had significantly higher proportions of perioperative and airway management errors and significantly lower proportions of events related to diagnosis and treatment (P = .004), falls (P < .001), lab results and specimens (P = .001), medication and fluids (P < .001), and safety and security (P < .001).

Conclusion: Perioperative and airway management errors occur with a statistically higher frequency in ENT compared to other in-patient and out-patient departments across hospitals. It is important to analyze adverse event reporting in surgical specialties to ensure the development of appropriate quality initiatives.

Level Of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:509-512, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28861DOI Listing
March 2021

Fat preference deficits and experience-induced recovery in global taste-deficient Trpm5 and Calhm1 knockout mice.

Physiol Behav 2022 03 6;246:113695. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Psychology, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11210, United States of America.

There is much evidence that gustation mediates the preference for dietary fat in rodents. Several studies indicate that mice have fat taste receptors that activate downstream signaling elements, including TRPM5 and CALHM1 ion channels and P2×2/P2×3 purinergic gustatory nerve receptors. Experiment 1 further documented the involvement of TRPM5 in fat appetite by giving Trpm5 knockout (KO) mice, which show global taste deficits, 24-h two-bottle choice tests with ascending concentrations of soybean oil (0.1 - 10% Intralipid) vs. water. Unlike wildtype (WT) mice, naive Trpm5 KO mice were indifferent to 0.5 - 2.5% fat. They preferred 5-10% fat but consumed much less than WT mice. The same KO mice preferred all fat concentrations in a second test series, which is attributed to a postoral fat conditioned attraction to the non-taste flavor qualities of the Intralipid, although they consumed less fat than the WT mice. The fat preference deficits of the Trpm5 KO mice were as great or greater than those observed in Calhm1 KO mice, another KO line with global taste deficits. Experiment 2 examined experience-enhanced fat preferences in Trpm5 KO and Calhm1 KO mice by giving them one-bottle training with 1%, 2.5%, and 5% fat prior to two-bottle fat vs. water tests. The KO mice displayed increased two-bottle preferences for all concentrations, although they still consumed less 1% and 2.5% fat than WT mice. Thus, the postoral actions of fat induce robust preferences for fat in taste-deficient mice, but do not stimulate the high fat intakes observed in WT mice with normal fat taste signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2022.113695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8826513PMC
March 2022

Differential fructose and glucose appetition in DBA/2, 129P3 and C57BL/6 × 129P3 hybrid mice revealed by sugar versus non-nutritive sweetener tests.

Physiol Behav 2021 11 10;241:113590. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Psychology, Queens College, CUNY, 65-30 Kissena Blvd., Flushing, NY 11367, United States; Psychology Doctoral Program and CUNY Neuroscience Collaborative, CUNY, United States. Electronic address:

Inbred mouse strains differ in their postoral appetite stimulating response (appetition) to fructose as demonstrated in intragastric (IG) sugar conditioning and oral sugar vs. nonnutritive conditioning experiments. For example, FVB and SWR strains show experience-induced preferences for 8% fructose over a 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S + S) solution, whereas C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c strains do not. All strains, however, learn to prefer 8% glucose to S + S after experience, which is attributed to the potent appetition actions of this sugar. The present study extended this analysis to DBA/2 (DBA) and 129P3 (129) inbred mice. In Experiment 1A, ad libitum fed DBA and 129 mice preferred S + S to fructose before and after separate experience with the two sweeteners, indicating an indifference to the postoral nutrient effects of the sugar. When food restricted (Experiment 1B), 129 mice continued to prefer S + S to fructose while DBA mice showed equal preference for the sweeteners after experience, indicating some sensitivity to fructose appetition. In Experiment 1C, both strains acquired significant preferences for glucose over S + S after experience, confirming their sensitivity to postoral glucose appetition. Experiment 2 revealed that C57BL/6 × 129P3 (B6:129) hybrid mice responded like inbred B6 mice and 129 mice in acquiring a preference for glucose but not fructose over S + S. This is of interest because sweet "taste-blind" P2 × 2 / P2 × 3 double-knockout (DKO) mice on a B6:129 genetic background prefer fructose to water in 24 h tests, which is indicative of fructose appetition. Whether differences in the genetic makeup of DKO and B6:129 hybrid mice or other factors explain the fructose appetition of the DKO mice remains to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2021.113590DOI Listing
November 2021

Introduction by the Editors-in-Chief.

Facial Plast Surg 2021 Oct 3;37(5):555. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital Lewisham, Lewisham, London, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1733854DOI Listing
October 2021

Collaboration in Facial Plastic Surgery.

Facial Plast Surg 2021 Oct 3;37(5):553-554. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Facial Plastic Surgery & Aesthetic Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1732479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492108PMC
October 2021
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