Publications by authors named "A O Adeniyi"

217 Publications

Clinical Utilities of Electrocardiography in the Diagnosis of Myocardial Ischemia in Children With Sickle Cell Anemia: Correlation With Serum Cardiac Troponin I.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Ekiti State University Department of Pediatrics, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Obafemi Awolowo University Departments of Pediatrics Chemical Pathology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is associated with recurrent vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) and the risk of myocardial ischemia (MI). This study investigated the utility of electrocardiography (ECG) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in diagnosing MI during VOC.

Materials And Methods: Children with SCA 5 to 15 years of age in VOC (patients) and age-matched and sex-matched steady-state controls were studied. Their ECG and cTnI levels were measured at contact and after 4 to 6 weeks.

Results: One hundred eighty-six children (93 patients and 93 controls) were studied. The mean (SD) ages of the patients and controls were 8.8 (3.2) and 9.0 (3.1) years, respectively. The mean MI score was significantly higher for the patients, 1.7 (1.2), than the controls, 1.3 (1.0), P=0.002. A significantly higher proportion of the patients, 18 (19.4%), also had significant ischemia compared with the controls, 8 (8.6%), P=0.016. The median (interquartile range) serum cTnI level was significantly higher in the patients than the controls, P=0.006. All 7 of the patients with elevated cTnI had VOC. No significant correlation was found between MI score and cTnI in both groups.

Conclusions: cTnI is elevated and ECG features of MI worsen during VOC. Longitudinal studies to investigate their evolvement over time are advocated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000002230DOI Listing
May 2021

Early childhood caries: Are maternal psychosocial factors, decision-making ability, and caries status risk indicators for children in a sub-urban Nigerian population?

BMC Oral Health 2021 05 4;21(1):73. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA.

Objective: Early childhood caries (ECC) is caries in children below the age of 72 months. The aim of the study was to determine the association of maternal psychosocial factors (general anxiety, dental anxiety, sense of coherence, parenting stress, fatalism, social support, depressive symptoms, and executive dysfunction), decision-making abilities, education, income and caries status with the prevalence and severity of ECC among children resident in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Methods: A dataset of 1549 mother-child (6-71-months-old) dyads collected through examinations and a household survey, using validated psychometric tools to measure the psychosocial factors, were analyzed. The DMFT for the mothers and the dmft for the child were determined. The association between maternal psychosocial factors, education, income, and decision-making ability, the prevalence of maternal caries, and the prevalence of ECC was determined using logistic regression analysis.

Results: The prevalence of maternal caries was 3.3%, and the mean (standard deviation-SD) DMFT was 0.10 (0.76). The ECC prevalence was 4.3%, and the mean (SD) dmft was 0.13 (0.92). There was no significant difference between the prevalence and severity of maternal caries and ECC by maternal age, education, income, or decision-making abilities. There was also no significant difference in maternal caries, ECC prevalence and ECC severity by maternal psychosocial factors. The only significant association was between the prevalence of caries in the mother and children: children whose mothers had caries were over six times more likely to have ECC than were children with mothers who had no caries (AOR: 6.67; 95% CI 3.23-13.79; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The significant association between ECC and maternal caries prevalence suggests that prenatal oral health care for mothers may reduce the risk for ECC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-01324-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8094474PMC
May 2021

Association between mental health, caries experience and gingival health of adolescents in sub-urban Nigeria.

BMC Oral Health 2021 04 30;21(1):223. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

International Research Center of Excellence, Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: This study assessed the association of mental health problems and risk indicators of mental health problems with caries experience and moderate/severe gingivitis in adolescents.

Methods: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Osun State, Nigeria. Data collected from 10 to 19-years-old adolescents between December 2018 and January 2019 were sociodemographic variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status); oral health indicators (tooth brushing, use of fluoridated toothpaste, consumption of refined carbohydrates in-between-meals, dental services utilization, dental anxiety and plaque); mental health indicators (smoking habits, intake of alcohol and use of psychoactive drugs) and mental health problems (low and high). Gingival health (healthy gingiva/mild gingivitis versus moderate/severe gingivitis) and caries experience (present or absent) were also assessed. A series of five logistic regression models were constructed to determine the association between presence of caries experience and presence of moderate/severe gingivitis) with blocks of independent variables. The blocks were: model 1-sociodemographic factors; model 2-oral health indicators; model 3-mental health indicators and model 4-mental health problems. Model 5 included all factors from models 1 to 4.

Results: There were 1234 adolescents with a mean (SD) age of 14.6 (2.7) years. Also, 21.1% of participants had high risk of mental health problems, 3.7% had caries experience, and 8.1% had moderate/severe gingivitis. Model 5 had the best fit for the two dependent variables. The use of psychoactive substances (AOR 2.67; 95% CI 1.14, 6.26) was associated with significantly higher odds of caries experience. The frequent consumption of refined carbohydrates in-between-meals (AOR: 0.41; 95% CI 0.25, 0.66) and severe dental anxiety (AOR0.48; 95% CI 0.23, 0.99) were associated with significantly lower odds of moderate/severe gingivitis. Plaque was associated with significant higher odds of moderate/severe gingivitis (AOR 13.50; 95% CI 8.66, 21.04). High risk of mental health problems was not significantly associated with caries experience (AOR 1.84; 95% CI 0.97, 3.49) or moderate/severe gingivitis (AOR 0.80; 95% CI 0.45, 1.44).

Conclusion: The association between mental problems and risk indicators with oral diseases in Nigerian adolescents indicates a need for integrated mental and oral health care to improve the wellbeing of adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01589-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086282PMC
April 2021

Factors associated with fatigue in hip and/or knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and best evidence synthesis.

Rheumatol Adv Pract 2021 26;5(1):rkab013. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Centre for Living, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK.

Objective: The aim was systematically to identify and evaluate factors related to fatigue in individuals with hip and/or knee OA.

Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, ProQuest and Web of Science Core Collections databases. Inclusion criteria comprised cross-sectional, case-control or longitudinal studies on patients with a diagnosis of hip and/or knee OA that included self-reported fatigue measures. Study quality was assessed using the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute quality appraisal tool, and factors were synthesized within a bio-behavioural framework. Study designs and quality were combined to determine current evidence levels using best evidence synthesis grading. The full review protocol is available from PROSPERO (PROSPERO 2019: CRD42019138571).

Results: Twenty-four studies were included, of which 19 were high, 4 moderate and 1 low quality. There was strong evidence of an association between poor self-reported physical function and high depressive symptoms with higher fatigue. Moderate evidence of an association was found between severe pain, high numbers of co-morbidities and low physical activity levels with higher fatigue. There was moderate or limited evidence of no association between most sociodemographic factors and radiographic OA severity with fatigue.

Conclusion: Targets for fatigue management might include improving physical function, reducing depressive symptoms, pain and co-morbidities, and increasing physical activity levels. There is a need for more rigorous longitudinal studies to understand the causal effect of fatigue determinants within the hip and knee OA populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rap/rkab013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068317PMC
February 2021

SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in Belarus revealed by genomic and incidence data analysis.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Since the emergence of COVID-19, a series of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) has been implemented by governments and public health authorities world-wide to control and curb the ongoing pandemic spread. From that perspective, Belarus is one of a few countries with a relatively modern healthcare system, where much narrower NPIs have been put in place. Given the uniqueness of this Belarusian experience, the understanding its COVID-19 epidemiological dynamics is essential not only for the local assessment, but also for a better insight into the impact of different NPI strategies globally. In this work, we integrate genomic epidemiology and surveillance methods to investigate the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the country. The observed Belarusian SARS-CoV-2 genetic diversity originated from at least eighteen separate introductions, at least five of which resulted in on-going domestic transmissions. The introduction sources represent a wide variety of regions, although the proportion of regional virus introductions and exports from/to geographical neighbors appears to be higher than for other European countries. Phylodynamic analysis indicates a moderate reduction in the effective reproductive number ℛ after the introduction of limited NPIs, with the reduction magnitude generally being lower than for countries with large-scale NPIs. On the other hand, the estimate of the Belarusian ℛ at the early epidemic stage is comparable with this number for the neighboring ex-USSR country of Ukraine, where much broader NPIs have been implemented. The actual number of cases by the end of May, 2020 was predicted to be 2-9 times higher than the detected number of cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.13.21255404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077579PMC
April 2021