Publications by authors named "A N Galvin"

83 Publications

LOW PREVALENCE OF HAEMOSPORIDIANS IN BLOOD AND TISSUE SAMPLES FROM HUMMINGBIRDS.

J Parasitol 2021 Sep;107(5):794-798

Department of Biology, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132.

Hummingbirds are vital members of terrestrial ecosystems, and because of their high metabolic requirements, they serve as indicators of ecosystem health. Monitoring the parasitic infections of hummingbirds is thus especially important. Haemosporidians, a widespread group of avian blood parasites, are known to infect hummingbirds, but little is known about the prevalence and diversity of these parasites in hummingbirds. The prevalence of haemosporidians in several hummingbird species was examined and we compared 4 different tissue types in detecting parasites by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blood samples from 339 individuals of 3 different hummingbird species were tested, and 4 individuals were found positive for haemosporidian infection, a prevalence of 1.2%. Hummingbird carcasses (n = 70) from 5 different hummingbird species were also sampled to assess differences in detection success of haemosporidians in heart, kidney, liver, and pectoral muscle tissue samples. Detection success was similar among tissue types, with haemosporidian prevalence of 9.96% in heart tissue, 9.52% in kidney tissue, 10.76% in liver tissue, and 11.76% in pectoral muscle tissue. All tissue samples positive for haemosporidian infection were from the Black-chinned Hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri). Possible reasons for low prevalence of these blood parasites could include low susceptibility to insect vectors or parasite incompatibility in these hummingbirds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/20-168DOI Listing
September 2021

Quality over quantity: human papillomavirus vaccine information on social media and associations with adult and child vaccination.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 10 4;17(10):3587-3594. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for adults aged 27-45 as a shared clinical decision with their healthcare provider. With the rise of social media as a vaccine information source, this study examined the extent of exposure to HPV vaccine content by social media platform and evaluated associations between HPV vaccine content on social media and HPV vaccine intent among both 27-45 year olds and their eligible children. U.S. participants (51% women, 9% Black, 8% Hispanic/Latinx), aged 27-45, were cross-sectionally surveyed online from April to May 2020 (n = 691). Outcomes included HPV vaccination intention (intend/do not intend) for themselves and, among participants with unvaccinated children aged 9-17 (n = 223), their eligible children. Adjusted odds ratios for HPV vaccine content and both outcomes were calculated. Extent of HPV vaccination exposure on social media was not associated with intention to vaccinate for HPV. Seeing mostly negative/mixed information about the HPV vaccine on social media was associated with lower odds of vaccination intention for adults (aOR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.15, 0.79) and adolescents (aOR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.21, 0.53). Viewing HPV vaccine information from social media as not credible was associated with lower odds of vaccine intent for adults (aOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.07, 0.41) and adolescents (aOR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.10, 0.29). Although extent of HPV vaccine exposure on social media was not associated with vaccination outcomes, findings support developing quality social media strategies that increase the dissemination of positive and credible information in favor of HPV vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1932219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8437469PMC
October 2021

Palliative care referral in cancer patients with regard to initial cancer prognosis: a population-based study.

Public Health 2021 Jun 24;195:24-31. Epub 2021 May 24.

Epicene team, University of Bordeaux, Inserm, Bordeaux Population Health Research Centre, Epicene Team, UMR 1219, 33000, Bordeaux, France; Unité d'épidémiologie et de recherche cliniques, Institut Bergonié, 33000, Bordeaux, France.

Objectives: More than half of cancer patients require palliative care; however, inequality in access and late referral in the illness trajectory are major issues. This study assessed the cumulative incidence of first hospital-based palliative care (HPC) referral, as well as the influence of patient-, tumor-, and care-related factors.

Study Design: This is a retrospective population-based study.

Methods: The study included patients from the 2014 population-based cancer registry of Gironde, France. International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, coding for palliative care identified HPC referrals from 2014 to 2018. The study included 8424 patients. Analyses considered the competing risk of death and were stratified by initial cancer prognosis (favorable vs unfavorable [if metastatic or progressive cancer]).

Results: The 4-year incidence of HPC was 16.7% (95% confidence interval, 16.6-16.8). Lung cancer led to more referrals, whereas breast, colorectal, and prostatic locations were associated to less frequent HPC compared with other solid tumors. Favorable prognosis central nervous system tumors and unfavorable prognosis hematological malignancies also showed less HPC. The incidence of HPC was higher in tertiary centers, particularly for older patients. In the favorable prognosis subgroup, older and non-deprived patients received more HPC. In the unfavorable prognosis subgroup, the incidence of HPC was lower in patients who lived in rural areas than those who lived in urban areas.

Conclusions: One-sixth of cancer patients require HPC. Some factors influencing referral depend on the initial cancer prognosis. Our findings support actions to improve accessibility, especially for deprived patients, people living in rural areas, those with hematological malignancies, and those treated outside tertiary centers. In addition, consideration of age as factor of HPC may allow for improved design of the referral system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2021.03.020DOI Listing
June 2021

Decision support needs for shared clinical decision-making regarding HPV vaccination among adults 27-45 years of age.

Patient Educ Couns 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Health Behavior and Health Systems, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd Fort Worth, TX 76107 USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Identify HPV information needs and shared clinical decision-making preferences among adults 27-45 and describe differences in needs and preferences among underserved and vulnerable populations.

Methods: Participants 27-45 years old with no history of HPV vaccination completed a cross-sectional web-based survey between April-May 2020 (N = 702). Preferred role in shared clinical decision making was described across demographic groups and sociodemographic correlates of HPV vaccine information needs.

Results: Most (77.6%) reported a preference to make a medical decision on their own or after consulting with a healthcare provider, while the remaining respondents preferred to make a joint decision (17.0%) or for their doctor to make the decision (5.4%). Over 80% needed more information about safety, effectiveness, personal benefit, provider recommendation, side effects, and risks. Education was the strongest demographic factors associated with higher information needs (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The majority of individuals across demographic groups were individually focused with regard to their healthcare decisions and wanted more information about HPV vaccine safety, side effects, and risks, in addition to personalized information about benefits from HPV vaccination.

Practical Implications: Patient-centered interventions are needed to engage adults in shared decision-making regarding HPV vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2021.04.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Utilizing a Multidimensional Health Literacy Framework to Assess Cervical Cancer Screening Nonadherence.

Health Educ Behav 2021 Oct 8;48(5):710-718. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Health literacy is an amenable factor that can improve screening uptake. However, associations between the multidimensional health literacy domains and cervical cancer screening nonadherence are not known and should be considered to improve screening rates. The current quantitative study assessed the associations of multiple health literacy domains with cervical cancer screening nonadherence. Women aged 30 to 65 years without a hysterectomy were surveyed online ( = 812). Assessing, understanding, and appraising measures from the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire were adapted for cervical cancer screening. The outcome variable measured the application of cervical cancer information regarding adherence to the 2012 cervical cancer screening guidelines (yes/no). Adjusted logistic regression odds ratios (aORs) estimated nonadherence. Most of the women were non-Hispanic (81.4%) or White (68.1%), and aged 30 to 39 years (40%). The majority of the women (71%) were adherent to screening recommendations. The model with all domains of health literacy had the best model fit statistics compared with other models with different health literacy components. Older age and lack of insurance were statistically significant for screening nonadherence. Difficulty understanding health information (aOR = 3.15; 95% confidence interval [CI; 1.80, 5.51]) and less worry about cervical cancer (aOR = 1.74; 95% CI [1.03, 2.94]) were associated with higher odds of nonadherence. Higher cervical cancer knowledge (aOR = 0.93; 95% CI [0.87, 0.98]) and Hispanic ethnicity (aOR = 0.36; 95% CI [0.21, 0.61)] were associated with lower odds of nonadherence. Incorporating a multidimensional health literacy framework may better inform the need to develop easily understood interventions that address cervical cancer perceived vulnerability and acknowledge systemic sociodemographic influences on screening perceptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10901981211001851DOI Listing
October 2021
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