Publications by authors named "A Muhammad"

526 Publications

Targeting of Protein's Messenger RNA for Viral Replication, Assembly and Release in SARS-CoV-2 Using Whole Genomic Data From South Africa: Therapeutic Potentials of L.

Front Pharmacol 2021 2;12:736511. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

The possible evolutionary trend of COVID-19 in South Africa was investigated by comparing the genome of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from a patient in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa with those isolated from China, Spain, Italy, and United States, as well as the genomes of Bat SARS CoV, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV), and Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed a strong homology (96%) between the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and those isolated from the study countries as well as those isolated from bat SARS CoV, MERS-CoV, MHV and IBV. The ability of phytocannabinoids from infusion to interact with gene segments (mRNAs) coding for proteins implicated in viral replication, assembly and release were also investiagted using computational tools. Hot water infusion of leaves was freeze-dried and subjected to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis which revealed the presence of tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabispiran, cannabidiol tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabigerol, and cannabinol. Molecular docking analysis revealed strong binding affinities and interactions between the phytocannabinoids and codon mRNAs for ORF1ab, Surface glycoprotein, Envelope protein and Nucleocapsid phosphoprotein from SARS-CoV-2 whole genome which may be due to chemico-biological interactions as a result of nucleophilic/electrophilic attacks between viral nucleotides and cannabinoids. These results depict the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is intercontinental and might have evolved from other coronaviruses. The results also portray the phytocannabinoids of infusion as potential therapies against COVID-19 as depicted by their ability to molecularly interact with codon mRNAs of proteins implicated in the replication, translation, assembly, and release of SARS-CoV-2. However, further studies are needed to verify these activities in pre-clinical and clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.736511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8448283PMC
September 2021

Constraints on the Initial State of Pb-Pb Collisions via Measurements of Z-Boson Yields and Azimuthal Anisotropy at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(10):102002

Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerpen, Belgium.

The CMS experiment at the LHC has measured the differential cross sections of Z bosons decaying to pairs of leptons, as functions of transverse momentum and rapidity, in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02  TeV. The measured Z boson elliptic azimuthal anisotropy coefficient is compatible with zero, showing that Z bosons do not experience significant final-state interactions in the medium produced in the collision. Yields of Z bosons are compared to Glauber model predictions and are found to deviate from these expectations in peripheral collisions, indicating the presence of initial collision geometry and centrality selection effects. The precision of the measurement allows, for the first time, for a data-driven determination of the nucleon-nucleon integrated luminosity as a function of lead-lead centrality, thereby eliminating the need for its estimation based on a Glauber model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.102002DOI Listing
September 2021

Serological Screening of Suspected COVID-19 Patients in Pakistan.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 01;31(1):S71-S74

Department of Pathology, Mardan Medical Complex, Mardan, Pakistan.

Objective: To determine the antibody levels (IgM and IgG), using ELISA in suspected patients of COVID-19.

Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place & Duration of Study: Real Time PCR Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, from May to July 2020.

Methodology: A total of 94 blood specimens were collected from suspected COVID-19 patients. The antibody levels (IgG and IgM) were determined, using a COVID-19 ELISA IgG and IgM kit.

Results: Out of a total 94 serum specimens, specimens were predominantly collected from males (70.2%, n=66) as compared to females (29.8%, n=28). Amongst six different age groups, the majority of the samples were found in the 31-45 years, 16-30 years, and 46-60 years groups, 42.6% (n=40), 23.4% (n=22) and 22.3% (n=21), respectively. Of the 94 suspected COVID-19 patients' serum specimens, IgG and IgM were detected in 29.8% (n=28) and 39.4% (n=37), specimens, respectively. The IgG antibodies were detected more in males (60.0%, n=18) than females (40.0%, n=12) samples. Similarly, IgM antibodies were also found more frequently in males (61.1%, n=22) as compared to females (38.9%, n=14).

Conclusion: Detection of antibodies in COVID-19 infected patients provides vital clinical information for clinicians and could be used for the identification of suspected cases. Moreover, males were more prone to disease compared to females, and the 31-45 years age group was also more affected. Key Words: Serological assays, IgG, IgM, Peshawar, Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2021.Supp3.S71DOI Listing
January 2021

The cytochrome P450 CYP325A is a major driver of pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Central Africa.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Sep 14;138:103647. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Centre for Research in Infectious Diseases (CRID), P.O. BOX 13591, Yaoundé, Cameroon; Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK. Electronic address:

The overexpression and overactivity of key cytochrome P450s (CYP450) genes are major drivers of metabolic resistance to insecticides in African malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus s.s. Previous RNAseq-based transcription analyses revealed elevated expression of CYP325A specific to Central African populations but its role in conferring resistance has not previously been demonstrated. In this study, RT-qPCR consistently confirmed that CYP325A is highly over-expressed in pyrethroid-resistant An. funestus from Cameroon, compared with a control strain and insecticide-unexposed mosquitoes. A synergist bioassay with PBO significantly recovered susceptibility for permethrin and deltamethrin indicating P450-based metabolic resistance. Analyses of the coding sequence of CYP325A Africa-wide detected high-levels of polymorphism, but with no predominant alleles selected by pyrethroid resistance. Geographical amino acid changes were detected notably in Cameroon. In silico homology modelling and molecular docking simulations predicted that CYP325A binds and metabolises type I and type II pyrethroids. Heterologous expression of recombinant CYP325A and metabolic assays confirmed that the most-common Cameroonian haplotype metabolises both type I and type II pyrethroids with depletion rate twice that the of the DR Congo haplotype. Analysis of the 1 kb putative promoter of CYP325A revealed reduced diversity in resistant mosquitoes compared to susceptible ones, suggesting a potential selective sweep in this region. The establishment of CYP325A as a pyrethroid resistance metabolising gene further explains pyrethroid resistance in Central African populations of An. funestus. Our work will facilitate future efforts to detect the causative resistance markers in the promoter region of CYP325A to design field applicable DNA-based diagnostic tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2021.103647DOI Listing
September 2021
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