Publications by authors named "A Mohd Kamil"

108 Publications

Vitamin D exerts neuroprotection via SIRT1/nrf-2/ NF-kB signaling pathways against D-galactose-induced memory impairment in adult mice.

Neurochem Int 2021 01 4;142:104893. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Biotechnology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Vitamin D (Vt. D) is one of the vital hormone having multiple functions in various tissues, including brain. Several evidences reported that Vt. D plays a significant part in memory and cognition as its inadequate amount may accelerate cognitive impairment. This study shows for the first time the antioxidant potential of Vt. D against D-Galactose (D-gal) induced oxidative stress mediated Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in male adult albino mice. The result reveals that the mice exposed to D-gal (120 mg/kg) for eight weeks have pre-and post-synaptic dysfunction and impaired memory investigated through Morris water maze and Y-maze tests. This is followed by the suppressed Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and elevated expressions of Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-kB), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) proteins in the brain homogenates evaluated through western blotting technique. On the other hand Vt. D (100 μg/kg) administration (three times a week for 4 weeks) activated Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) and significantly improved both the neuronal synapse and memory, reduced oxidative stress by upregulating NRF-2 and HO-1 and downregulating NF-kB, TNF-α and IL-1β proteins expression. Most importantly, Vt. D significantly abrogate the amyloidogenic pathway of amyloid beta (Aβ) production against D-gal in the brains of adult male albino mice. These results reveal that Vt. D being an antioxidant agent plays a vital role in reducing the AD pathophysiology in D-gal induced animal model of aging, therefore act as a potential drug candidate in neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2020.104893DOI Listing
January 2021

Benign cyst with xanthogranulomatous inflammation involving the transverse colon and the common iliac artery.

J Surg Case Rep 2020 Sep 14;2020(9):rjaa295. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, University Hospital Galway, H91 YR71 Galway, Republic of Ireland.

Xanthogranulomatous inflammation (XGI) is a rare process. Colonic XGI is extremely rare. We present a case report of XGI arising within an intra-abdominal cyst involving the transverse colon. A 28-year-old man presented with abdominal discomfort. He underwent a computed tomography abdomen-pelvis, which found three subcutaneous collections and a large cystic intra-abdominal structure. The decision was made for resection. Intraoperatively, the cyst originated from the pelvis and was adherent to the surrounding tissues. Histology from the lesion revealed XGI extending into the surrounding tissue. XGI is a rare inflammatory condition. Clinically, it can be difficult to distinguish XGI from an infiltrative malignancy. Therefore, it is usually necessary to obtain a pathological diagnosis of XGI. This case describes an atypical cystic lesion with XGI involving the transverse colon. Although rare, it should be considered in the potential differential diagnosis of an infective or malignant mesenteric cyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjaa295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490217PMC
September 2020

Household financial vulnerability in Indonesia: Measurement and determinants.

Econ Model 2021 Mar 2;96:433-444. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia.

This study assesses the level of financial vulnerability of Indonesian households using data from the Household's Balance Sheet Survey (Survei Neraca Rumah Tangga/SNRT) 2016 and 2017. The SNRT are micro-unit of household data that contains information on preferences and behavior. Through both objective and subjective measurements of the Household Financial Vulnerability Index (FVI), we find that the financial vulnerability of Indonesian households is not only strongly influenced by income factors, but also by finance-related behavioral characteristics and several socio-economic factors. As a consistency and robustness check, we also estimate econometric models using the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) panel data for the periods 1993, 1997, 2000, 2007 and 2014. Our study then conclude that the level of household financial vulnerability decreased in 2017. Moreover, the study suggests that we should carefully monitor the behaviour of middle income group as they contribute significantly to the household financial vulnerability in Indonesia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2020.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255276PMC
March 2021

The future of general surgery in Ireland: factors influencing career decisions of medical students.

Ir J Med Sci 2020 Aug 19. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Surgery, University Hospital Galway, Galway, Ireland.

Introduction: The decline in popularity of general surgery as a career has been well described. A number of factors have been put forward to explain this, for example, trainee burnout and perceived difficulty with work/life balance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the reasons for this among medical students in Ireland.

Method: A questionnaire was distributed to clinical year medical students in Ireland using an online survey via SurveyMonkey™. Domains assessed included demographics, career plan and associated rationale. Anonymised responses were collated and evaluated.

Results: There were 307 responses (response 23%). Females accounted for 66% (202). Mean age was 24 years (SD = 2.89). One hundred twelve responses (36%) were contemplating becoming surgeons. One hundred nine-five responses were not considering surgery: however 87 had previously considered. Of the 87, 41 (47%) attributed the decision to work/life balance, 30 (35%) to impact on personal relationships and 10 (11%) blamed unclear career projection. Students interested in surgery were asked to quantify their knowledge of the application process-17 (15%) good, 39 (35%) fair and 56 (50%) poor.

Conclusion: A small proportion of respondents plan to pursue a career in general surgery. This is concerning in view of attrition rates through junior years. Although lifestyle factors are significant, clarity regarding training pathways was also reported. Undergraduate education regarding career trajectory, quality of life and practicalities of a career in general surgery may increase applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11845-020-02347-8DOI Listing
August 2020

Global review of heart health claims for oat beta-glucan products.

Nutr Rev 2020 08;78(Suppl 1):78-97

PepsiCo Inc, Barrington, Illinois, USA.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death globally. Consumption of whole grains and cereal fiber, as part of a healthy diet, can lower the risk of CHD. Health claims on food products are effective in helping consumers select healthful diets. The US Food and Drug Administration was the first to approve a health claim, in 1997, between beta-glucan soluble fiber from whole oats, oat bran, and whole oat flour and reduced risk of CHD. Only a few countries have approved similar claims. Since 1997, a significant amount of additional evidence has been published on the relationship between oat beta-glucan and CHD. To assist other jurisdictions in potentially utilizing this claim, the full extent of data that supports this claim (ie, the evidence utilized by the US Food and Drug Administration to substantiate the claim, as well as the results of 49 clinical trials published since 1997) are reviewed here. The complexities involved in authoring evidence-based health claims, including the impact of processing on beta-glucan cholesterol-lowering efficacy in approving eligible beta-glucan products, are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuz069DOI Listing
August 2020

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Nutr Rev 2020 Aug;78(Suppl 1):77-99

R Mathews & Associates ,.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa052DOI Listing
August 2020

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in male schoolchildren in the upper and lower Dir districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and a review of previous record in Pakistan.

Acta Trop 2020 Sep 10;209:105578. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Documented reports are limited, showing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as a severe threat to schoolchildren in Pakistan. The present study aimed to investigate the clinico-epidemiology and associated risk factors of CL in local and Afghan male schoolchildren between 6 and 16 years of age. The experimental strategy involved a questionnaire for the collection of information and clinical diagnosis (microscopy and semi-nested PCR) of 113 CL symptomatic schoolchildren out of 8,833 schoolchildren (7,175 local and 1,658 Afghan refugees) studying in nineteen schools of the Upper and Lower Dir Districts, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Previous records of CL in Pakistan was studied, and spatial analysis was performed on elevation and agro-ecological maps using Arc-GIS v10.3.1. Active lesions were found predominant (n=113, 1.2%: cutaneous lesions, 97, 86%, and lesions with mucosal involvement, 16, 14%) than scars (20, 0.25%). Active lesions of both local (100, 88%) and Afghan refugees (13, 12%), and infected age groups were found significantly different. Majority of the lesions were dry crusted (98, 86.7%), single (83, 73%), and frequently infecting facial region (59, 52%). Avoiding bed nets, living in mud houses and animal shelters were highly associated with CL infection. Temergara (30, 26.5%) and Rabath (14, 12.3%) were hyperendemic CL foci. Microscopically, 71 (63%) cases were positive, while the PCR assay revealed Leishmania tropica in 110 (97.3%) cases. Previous record revealed that L. tropica is dominant throughout Pakistan, and dry mountains and plateaus of northwestern and southwestern regions are spatially at high-risk. Measures should be taken to reduce CL infection by eliminating the associated risk factors, promoting PCR-based diagnosis and basic medical facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105578DOI Listing
September 2020

The Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of Oats and Oat Beta Glucan: Modes of Action and Potential Role of Bile Acids and the Microbiome.

Front Nutr 2019 27;6:171. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Consumption of sufficient quantities of oat products has been shown to reduce host cholesterol and thereby modulate cardiovascular disease risk. The effects are proposed to be mediated by the gel-forming properties of oat β-glucan which modulates host bile acid and cholesterol metabolism and potentially removes intestinal cholesterol for excretion. However, the gut microbiota has emerged as a major factor regulating cholesterol metabolism in the host. Oat β-glucan has been shown to modulate the gut microbiota, particularly those bacterial species that influence host bile acid metabolism and production of short chain fatty acids, factors which are regulators of host cholesterol homeostasis. Given a significant role for the gut microbiota in cholesterol metabolism it is likely that the effects of oat β-glucan on the host are multifaceted and involve regulation of microbe-host interactions at the gut interface. Here we consider the potential for oat β-glucan to influence microbial populations in the gut with potential consequences for bile acid metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, bacterial metabolism of cholesterol and microbe-host signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6892284PMC
November 2019

Protective effect of the solvent extracts of against acidified ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rabbits.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2019 Nov 19:1-10. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Pakistan.

L. has been used for treatment of different ailments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and possible mechanism of action involved in the anti gastric ulcerogenic effect of Methanolic extract & subsequent fractions (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of () were administered orally to experimental rabbits one hour before oral administration of HCl/ethanol (40:60). Anti gastric ulcerogenic potential of was evaluated by assessment of gastric pH, pepsin, free acidity, ulcer index, mucus content and total acidity. For the investigation of possible mechanism of action malondialdehyde (MDA), histamine, and H + K + ATPase content were determined in the stomach homogenate. Histopathological study of stomach tissue was carried out by H&E dye. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of was the most potent fraction among all fractions that exhibited efficient protection against acidified ethanol mediated gastric-ulcer. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) significantly increased the pH of gastric juice, while pepsin and histamine was observed to decrease significantly in comparison to acidified ethanol group (*** ≤ 0.001). The EAF showed moderately H + K + ATPase inhibitory activity. Moreover, it was also observed that EAF decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the stomach tissue homogenate showing antioxidant effect. Histopathological studies showed that among the tested fractions, EAF significantly prevented acidified ethanol induced gastric mucosal damage. These results showed that mechanism of anti gastric ulcerogenic potential of could be associated with the reduction in histamine level, H + K + ATPase inhibition and reduced MDA level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2019.1691584DOI Listing
November 2019

High tuberculosis incidence among people living with diabetes in Indonesia.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2020 02;114(2):79-85

Infectious Disease Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

Background: Data regarding the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) among people living with diabetes (PLWD) in TB-endemic settings are scarce. We examined TB incidence among PLWD in Indonesia who had previously been screened for latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease.

Methods: PLWD (≥18 y of age) in an urban setting were examined a mean 3.4 y after they had been screened for active TB and LTBI. Data on subsequent TB diagnosis were collected by interview and with chest X-ray, sputum smear and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture. TB incidence rates were stratified for baseline LTBI status, as determined by the QuantiFERON interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA).

Results: Of 590 PLWD, 101 had died and 163 could not be contacted or refused. Among the 326 who were re-examined, 6 (1.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7 to 4.0) reported being diagnosed already and a further 5 were diagnosed with active TB (1.5%; 95% CI 0.50 to 3.5). The TB incidence rate was 9.85 (95% CI 4.03 to 15.68) per 1000 person-years. TB incidence was higher among PLWD with baseline LTBI (17.13; 95% CI 5.25 to 29.00/1000 person-years) compared with those without LTBI (4.79; 95% CI -0.63 to 10.21), with an incidence rate ratio of 3.57 (95% CI 0.86 to 20.92; p=0.054).

Conclusions: PLWD with LTBI in Indonesia and similar settings are likely to benefit from TB preventive therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trz100DOI Listing
February 2020

Isolation and characterization of bacteriophage to control multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa planktonic cells and biofilm.

Biologicals 2020 Jan 2;63:89-96. Epub 2019 Nov 2.

Department of Biotechnology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, 23200, Pakistan.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is Gram-negative bacterium, one of the leading cause of drug-resistant nosocomial infections in developing countries. This bacterium possesses chromosomally encoded efflux pumps, poor permeability of outer-membrane and high tendency for biofilm formation which are tools to confer resistance. Bacteriophages are regarded as feasible treatment option for control of resistant P. aeruginosa. The aim of the current study was isolate and characterized a bacteriophage against P. aeruginosa with MDR and biofilm ability. A bacteriophage MA-1 with moderate host range was isolated from waste water. The phage was considerable heat and pH stable. Electron microscopy revealed that phage MA-1 belongs to Myoviridae family. Its genome was dsDNA (≈50 kb), coding for eighteen different proteins (ranging from 12 to 250 KDa). P. aeruginosa-2949 log growth phase was significantly reduced by phage MA-1 (2.5 × 10 CFU/ml) as compared to control (without phage). Phage MA-1 also showed significant reductions of 2.0, 2.5 and 3.2 folds in 24, 48, and 74 h old biofilms after 6 h treatment with phage respectively as compared to control. It was concluded from this study that phage MA-1 has capability of killing P. aeruginosa planktonic cells and biofilm, but for complete eradication cocktail will more effective to avoid resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biologicals.2019.10.003DOI Listing
January 2020

Silver nanoparticles elicited in vitro callus cultures for accumulation of biomass and secondary metabolites in Caralluma tuberculata.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2019 Dec;47(1):715-724

a Department of Botany , PMAS, Arid Agriculture University , Rawalpindi , Pakistan.

Elicited plant in vitro cultures are gaining more interest worldwide for their potential in the uniform production of industrially important secondary metabolites. In the present study, different ratios of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and plant growth regulators (PGRs) were supplemented to in vitro cultures for the sustainable production of biomass and antioxidant secondary metabolites through callus cultures of Caralluma tuberculata. Results indicated that various concentrations of AgNPs significantly affected the callus proliferation and substantially increased the callus biomass, when combined with PGRs in the MS (Murashige and Skoog) media. The highest fresh (0.78 g/l) and dry (0.051 g/l) biomass accumulation of callus was observed in the cultures raised in vitro at 60 µg/l AgNPs in combination with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D plus 3.0 mg/l BA. Phytochemical analysis of the callus cultures showed higher production of phenolics (TPC:3.0 mg), flavonoids (TFC:1.8 mg), phenylalanine ammonialyase activity (PAL: 5.8 U/mg) and antioxidant activity (90%), respectively, in the callus cultures established on MS media in the presence of 90 ug/l AgNPs. Moreover, enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: 4.8 U/mg), peroxidase (POD: 3.3 U/mg), catalase (CAT: 2.5 U/mg) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX: 1.9 U/mg) were detected at higher level (90 ug/l) of AgNPs tested alone for callus proliferation in the MS media. It may be concluded that the AgNPs can be effectively utilized for the enhancement of bioactive antioxidants in the callus cultures of C. tuberculata, a highly medicinal and threatened plant. This protocol can be scaled up for the industrial production of plant biomass and pharmacologically potent metabolites in C. tuberculata.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2019.1577884DOI Listing
December 2019

Different Oat Ingredients Stimulate Specific Microbial Metabolites in the Gut Microbiome of Three Human Individuals in Vitro.

ACS Omega 2018 Oct 2;3(10):12446-12456. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

ProDigest bvba, Technologiepark 3, 9052 Ghent, Belgium.

We used a standardized in vitro simulation of the intestinal environment of three human donors to investigate the effect of six oat ingredients, which were produced by the application of different processing techniques, on the gut microbial community. Fructooligosaccharide was used as the positive control. Consistent changes in pH and gas production, on average -0.4 pH units and +32 kPa, indicated the high fermentability of the oat ingredients, and the resulting increased production of metabolites that are considered as beneficial for human health. These metabolites included acetate and lactate, but mostly propionate (+13.6 mM on average). All oat ingredients resulted in increased bifidobacteria levels with an average increase of 0.73 log. Moreover, a decreased production of proteolytic markers was observed, including branched short-chain fatty acids and ammonium. The results were donor-specific and product-specific. The results suggested an association between the total amounts of dietary fiber and the prebiotic potentials of different ingredients. Furthermore, as mechanical processing of oat products has previously been linked to increased extractability of dietary fibers, the obtained results suggest that different processing techniques might have impacted the potential functional properties of the final ingredients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b01360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6217528PMC
October 2018

A Comparison of Vitamin E Status and Associated Pregnancy Outcomes in Maternal⁻Infant Dyads between a Nigerian and a United States Population.

Nutrients 2018 Sep 14;10(9). Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Pediatrics 981205 Nebraska Medical Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-1205, USA.

Oxidative stress is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and vitamin E has powerful anti-oxidant properties with the potential to impact health outcomes. Tocopherol isomers of vitamin E differ in their ability to modulate inflammation and vary in concentration in diets containing high proportions of processed versus unprocessed foods. The purpose of this study was to compare vitamin E status and associated pregnancy outcomes (mode of delivery, chorioamnionitis, APGARs (measure of appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration), gestational age at delivery, and fetal growth) between maternal⁻infant dyads in a developed and a developing nation to identify potentially modifiable differences that may impact pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and provide a way to improve maternal and neonatal health. Plasma tocopherol levels were evaluated in 189 Midwestern United States (US) mother⁻infant pairs and 99 Central Nigerian mother⁻infant pairs. Maternal and infant concentrations of α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol were measured using HPLC with diode-array detection. Descriptive statistics were calculated and tocopherol concentrations were associated with clinical outcomes such as mode of delivery, chorioamnionitis, APGARS, and fetal growth. Alpha- and γ-tocopherol levels were higher in the US mothers, (alpha: 12,357.9 (175.23⁻34,687.75) vs. 8333.1 (1576.59⁻16,248.40) (mcg/L); < 0.001) (gamma: 340.7 (224.59⁻4385.95) vs. 357.5 (66.36⁻1775.31) (mcg/L); < 0.001), while δ-tocopherol levels were higher in the Nigerian mothers (delta: 261.7 (24.70⁻1324.71) vs. 368.9 (43.06⁻1886.47) (mcg/L); < 0.001). US infants had higher γ-tocopherol levels than Nigerian infants (203.1 (42.53⁻1953.23) vs. 113.8 (0.00⁻823.00) (mcg/L); < 0.001), while both the Nigerian mothers and infants had higher α:γ-tocopherol ratios (8.5 vs. 26.2, and 8.9 vs. 18.8, respectively; < 0.001). Our results in both populations show associations between increased circulating γ-tocopherol and negative outcomes like Caesarian sections, in contrast to the associations with positive outcomes such as vaginal delivery seen with increased α:γ-tocopherol ratios. Growth was positively associated with α- and γ-tocopherols in cord blood in the US population, and with cord blood δ-tocopherols in the Nigerian population. Tocopherol levels likely impact health outcomes in pregnancy in a complicated metabolism across the maternal⁻fetal axis that appears to be potentially influenced by culture and available diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10091300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163868PMC
September 2018

Leucine, Not Total Protein, Content of a Supplement Is the Primary Determinant of Muscle Protein Anabolic Responses in Healthy Older Women.

J Nutr 2018 07;148(7):1088-1095

Department of Kinesiology, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Older adults show a blunted muscle protein synthesis (MPS) response to postprandial hyperaminoacidemia relative to younger adults. Evidence suggests that this anabolic resistance can be overcome by consuming greater quantities of leucine.

Objective: The purpose of this trial was to determine whether the addition of leucine to a smaller dose (10 g) of milk proteins would, when compared with a larger dose (25 g) of whey protein isolate (WPI), result in similar increases in acute (hourly) and integrated (daily) myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS).

Methods: Healthy older (mean ± SD age: 69 ± 1 y) women (n = 11/group) were randomly assigned with the use of a single-blind, parallel-group design to twice-daily consumption of either WPI [25 g WPI (3 g l-leucine)] or leucine (LEU; 10 g milk protein with 3 g total l-leucine) for 6 d. Participants performed unilateral resistance exercise to allow assessment of the impact of the supplement alone and with resistance exercise. We determined acute (13C6-phenylanine) and integrated [using deuterated water (D2O)] rates of myoPS in the fasting (acute), basal (integrated), nonexercised, and exercised states.

Results: Acute myoPS increased in both legs in response to LEU (fed: 45%; fed+exercise: 71%; P < 0.001) and WPI (fed: 29%; fed+exercise: 47%; P < 0.001) compared with fasting; the increase was greater with LEU than with WPI in the exercised leg (46%; P = 0.04) but not in the rested leg (P = 0.07). The acute myoPS response was greater in the exercised leg than in the rested leg for both WPI (63%) and LEU (58%) (P < 0.001). Integrated myoPS increased with WPI and LEU in the exercised leg (both 9%; P < 0.001) during supplementation, and with WPI (3%; P = 0.02) but not LEU (2%, P = 0.1) in the rested leg compared with the basal state.

Conclusions: A lower-protein (10 compared with 25 g/dose), leucine-matched beverage induced similar increases in acute and integrated myoPS in healthy older women. Lower-protein supplements with added leucine may represent an advantageous approach in older adults to maintain skeletal muscle anabolic sensitivity and attenuate muscle loss; however, further work is needed using longer-term interventions to substantiate these findings. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02282566.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy091DOI Listing
July 2018

Consuming Lower-Protein Nutrition Bars with Added Leucine Elicits Postprandial Changes in Appetite Sensations in Healthy Women.

J Nutr 2018 05;148(5):693-701

PepsiCo R&D Nutrition Sciences, Barrington, IL.

Background: Higher-protein meals (>25 g protein/meal) have been associated with enhanced satiety but the role of amino acids is unclear. Leucine has been proposed to stimulate satiety in rodents but has not been assessed in humans.

Objective: We assessed the acute effects of lower-protein nutrition bars, enhanced with a leucine peptide (LP), on postprandial appetite sensations in combination with plasma leucine and peptide YY (PYY) in healthy women.

Methods: Utilizing a double-blind randomized crossover design, 40 healthy women [28 ± 7.5 y; body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2): 23.5 ± 2.4] consumed the following isocaloric (180 kcal) pre-loads on 3 separate visits: control bar [9 g protein with 0 g added LP (0-g LP)] or treatment bars [11 g protein with 2 g added LP (2-g LP) or 13 g protein with 3 g added LP (3-g LP)]. Pre- and postprandial hunger, desire to eat, prospective food consumption (PFC), fullness, and plasma leucine were assessed every 30 min for 240 min. Plasma PYY was assessed hourly for 240 min (n = 24).

Results: Main effects of time (P < 0.0001) and treatment (P < 0.03) were detected for postprandial hunger, desire to eat, PFC, and fullness. Post hoc analyses revealed that the 2-g and 3-g LP bars elicited greater increases in fullness and greater decreases in PFC compared with 0-g LP (all, P < 0.05) with no differences between the 2-g and 3-g LP bars. The 2-g bar elicited greater decreases in hunger and desire to eat compared with the 0-g LP bar (both, P ≤ 0.01), whereas 3-g LP did not. Appetite incremental areas under the curves (iAUCs) and PYY outcomes were not different between bars. A treatment × time interaction was detected for plasma leucine with increases occurring in a leucine-dose-dependent manner (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Despite the dose-dependent increases in plasma leucine following the consumption of lower-protein bars enhanced with LP, only the 2-g LP bar elicited consistent postprandial changes in select appetite sensations compared with the 0-g LP bar. This study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02091570.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy023DOI Listing
May 2018

Valentine's day misadventure: Missing vagina for urethra.

Urol Case Rep 2018 May 1;18:89-90. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

Galway University Hospital, Galway, Ireland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eucr.2018.03.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5958924PMC
May 2018

Successful management of extremely high-output refractory congenital chylothorax with chemical pleurodesis using 4% povidone-iodine and propranolol: a case report.

Clin Case Rep 2018 04 27;6(4):702-708. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Pediatrics University of Nebraska Medical Center Omaha Nebraska.

First-line therapy for congenital chylothorax is conservative treatment. However, surgical intervention or chemical pleurodesis is required for refractory cases. With all the concerns regarding its complications, povidone-iodin provided a successful management for a high-output congenital chylothorax. However, renal and thyroid function must be monitored during treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.1449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5889237PMC
April 2018

Protein leucine content is a determinant of shorter- and longer-term muscle protein synthetic responses at rest and following resistance exercise in healthy older women: a randomized, controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 02;107(2):217-226

Department of Kinesiology, and Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: Older women may not be consuming enough protein to maintain muscle mass. Augmentation of protein intake with leucine may enhance the muscle protein synthetic response in older women to aid in maintaining muscle mass.

Objective: We measured the acute (hourly) and integrated (daily) myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS) response to consumption of a high-quality mixed protein beverage compared with an isonitrogenous protein beverage with added leucine.

Design: In a parallel design, free-living, healthy older women (aged 65-75 y, n = 11/group) consumed a fixed, weight-maintaining diet with protein at 1.0 g · kg-1 · d-1 and were randomly assigned to twice-daily consumption of either 15 g milk protein beverage containing 4.2 g leucine (LEU) or 15 g mixed protein (milk and soy) beverage containing 1.3 g leucine (CON). Unilateral leg resistance exercise allowed a determination of acute ([13C6]-phenylalanine infusion, hourly rate) and integrated (deuterated water ingestion, daily rate) exercised and rested myoPS responses.

Results: Acute myoPS increased in response to feeding in the rested (CON: 13% ± 4%; LEU: 53% ± 5%) and exercised (CON: 30% ± 4%; LEU: 87% ± 7%) leg in both groups, but the increase was greater in LEU (P < 0.001). Integrated myoPS increased during the supplementation period in both legs (rested: 9% ±1%; exercised: 17% ± 2%; P < 0.001) in LEU, but in the exercised leg only (7% ± 2%; P < 0.001) in CON.

Conclusions: A 15-g protein-containing beverage with ∼4 g leucine induced greater increases in acute and integrated myoPS than did an isonitrogenous, isoenergetic mixed-protein beverage. Declines in muscle mass in older women may be attenuated with habitual twice-daily consumption of a protein beverage providing 15 g protein and higher (4.2 g/serving) amounts of leucine. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02282566.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqx028DOI Listing
February 2018

Vitamin E status and associations in maternal-infant Dyads in the Midwestern United States.

Clin Nutr 2019 04 20;38(2):934-939. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, 981205 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-1205, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Oxidative stress has been associated with adverse neonatal outcomes, and vitamin E has powerful anti-oxidant properties. Vitamin E occurs in several different isoforms which differ in their ability to modulate inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherol in maternal-infant pairs, and the impact on maternal-newborn outcomes.

Methods: Vitamin E status was evaluated in 189 mother-infant pairs. Concentrations of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherol were measured using HPLC. Descriptive statistics were calculated and Spearman coefficients were used to assess correlations between maternal and cord measurements. Linear and logistic regression models were used to adjust for relevant confounders. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Maternal and cord serum tocopherol concentrations were positively correlated for γ-tocopherol (r = 0.32, p ˂ 0.001) and δ-tocopherol (r = 0.46, p ˂ 0.001) but not for α-tocopherol. After adjustment for confounders, maternal concentrations of tocopherols were positively associated with Apgar scores (p = 0.02) and infant growth parameters at birth. Conversely, cord tocopherol levels were inversely associated with Apgar scores (p = 0.02) and infant growth. Cord concentrations of α-tocopherol were higher in infants born to mothers with a diagnosis of pre-eclampsia (p = 0.04).

Conclusion: Maternal-fetal transfer of γ- and δ-tocopherols is higher than α-tocopherol and may be mediated by either different or more efficient methods, conversely tissue uptake of α-tocopherol by the developing fetus may be higher. As serum levels of maternal tocopherols are positively associated with outcomes while higher cord levels show a negative impact, uptake and tissue deposition of vitamin E by the fetus may be crucial in growth and development. More research into the role of maternal diet, placental regulation, and fetal uptake of vitamin E tocopherols in relation to clinical outcomes is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.02.003DOI Listing
April 2019

Three new anthraquinone derivatives isolated from Symplocos racemosa and their antibiofilm activity.

Chin J Nat Med 2017 Dec;15(12):944-949

Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad-22060, Pakistan.

Three new alkyl substituted anthraquinone derivatives, trivially named as symploquinones A-C (Compounds 1-3) were isolated from Symplocos racemosa. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, Mass, H- and C-NMR, and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques). The resulting data were also compared with the reported literature. These compounds were then subjected to antibacterial or antibiofilm testing. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited good antibacterial activity in the concentration range of 160-83 μg·mL against Streptococcus mutans, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. Both compounds were further screened for anti-biofilm activity, which revealed promising activities at sub-MIC concentrations. None of the compounds were found to be active against Klebsiella pneumoniae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(18)30011-6DOI Listing
December 2017

Effects of sun compass error on spatial search by Clark's nutcrackers.

Integr Zool 2019 Mar;14(2):172-181

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, USA.

Animals employ compasses during navigation, but little attention has been paid to how accuracy is maintained in the face of compass error, which is inevitable in biological systems. The use of multiple landmarks may minimize the effect of compass error. We allowed Clark's nutcrackers to cache seeds in an outdoor aviary with either one or four landmarks present, and subsequently subjected them to small clock-shifts mimicking the effects of compass error. As predicted, the results showed a significant decrease in search accuracy following the clock-shift when one landmark was present but not when four landmarks were present. These results support that nutcrackers encode information from the sun as well as terrestrial landmarks, and these spatial cues are used in a flexible manner. Overall, our results are important as they support the hypothesis that multiple landmarks may be used during situations where the sun compass has even a small amount of error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12302DOI Listing
March 2019

Elevation in tropical sky islands as the common driver in structuring genes and communities of freshwater organisms.

Sci Rep 2017 11 23;7(1):16089. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Tropical mountains are usually characterized by a vertically-arranged sequence of ecological belts, which, in contrast to temperate habitats, have remained relatively stable in space across the Quaternary. Such long-lasting patterning of habitats makes them ideal to test the role of environmental pressure in driving ecological and evolutionary processes. Using Sumatran freshwater mayfly communities, we test whether elevation, rather than other spatial factors (i.e. volcanoes, watersheds) structures both species within communities and genes within species. Based on the analysis of 31 mayfly (Ephemeroptera) communities and restriction-site-associated-DNA sequencing in the four most ubiquitous species, we found elevation as the major spatial component structuring both species and genes in the landscape. In other words, similar elevations across different mountains or watersheds harbor more similar species and genes than different elevations within the same mountain or watershed. Tropical elevation gradients characterized by environmental conditions that are both steep and relatively stable seasonally and over geological time scales, are thus responsible for both ecological and genetic differentiation. Our results demonstrate how in situ ecological diversification at the micro-evolutionary level might fuel alpha- and beta- components of diversity in tropical sky islands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-16069-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700956PMC
November 2017

Modified Dioscorea hispida starch-based hydrogels and their in-vitro cytotoxicity study on small intestine cell line (FHS-74 Int).

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Feb 19;107(Pt B):2412-2421. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Starch-based hydrogels are promising smart materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, which offer exciting perspectives in biophysical research at molecular level. This work was intended to develop, characterize and explore the properties of hydrogel from starch extracted from new source, Dioscorea hispida Dennst. Starch-mediated hydrogels were successfully synthesized via free radical polymerization method with varying concentrations of acrylic acid (AA),N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in aqueous system. The grafting reaction between starch and AA was examined by observing the decline in intensity peak of hydrogel FTIR spectrum at 3291cm and peak around 1600-1680cm, indicating the stretching of hydroxyl group (OH) and stretching of carbon-carbon double bond (CC) respectively. The effects of cross-linker, monomer and NaOH concentration on swelling ratio and gel content in different medium and conditions were also evaluated. The thermal stability and structural morphology of as-synthesized hydrogels were studied by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In-vitro cytotoxicity study using small intestine cell line (FHS-74 Int) revealed that the as-formulated eco-friendly-hydrogel was free from any harmful material and safe to use for future product development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.10.125DOI Listing
February 2018

Comparative role of pregabalin and carbamazepine regarding efficacy in painful diabetic neuropathy.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Jul;30(4):1275-1278

Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Neuropathic pain is the most severe and resistant type of pain which has impact on quality of life and behaviour; it most commonly occurs at night causing disturbed sleep. Diabetes mellitus is a common cause of painful neuropathy. In this study, we are comparing the effectiveness of old treatment Carbamazepine with Pregabalin in painful diabetic neuropathy. The study was an open-label trial conducted in Diabetic Clinic of Medical Unit-III, Jinnah Post-graduate Medical Center, Karachi. The duration of the study was 90 days, from December 2010 to March 2011. The study has been approved from ethical committee of JPMC, Karachi with the reference NO.F.2-81/2010-GENL/195/JPMC. 60 established patients of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy from Diabetic Clinic of Medical Unit-III OPD were included in the 90-day study, irrespective of gender, with duration of diabetes more than 10 years. All subjects are placed into two groups. In group A, comprising of 30 patients (n=30), Pregabalin was administered and in group B, also comprising of 30 patients (n=30), Carbamazepine. The intensity of pain was compared on visual analog scale of McGill pain questionnaire. In group A (Pregabalin), the mean pain score fell from 6.17±0.14 to 3.50±0.15 from day 0 to day 90 (p-value=0.001) and the percentage of change also in visual analog scale of McGill pain questionnaire was -43.31%. In group B (Carbamazepine), the changes in pain score from initially 6.07±0.14 falling to 4.23±0.13 from day 0 to day 90 (p-value=0.001) and the percentage of change was -30.31%. Pregabalin was observed to be more potent. Both drugs were well tolerated by all participants that also completed the entire duration of the trial.
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July 2017

Dietary fiber and digestive health in children.

Nutr Rev 2017 04;75(4):241-259

R. Korczak and J.L. Slavin are with the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. A. Kamil and L. Fleige are with the Quaker Oats Center of Excellence, PepsiCo R&D Nutrition, Barrington, Illinois, USA. S.M. Donovan is with the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

Digestive health is an expanding area in nutrition research due to the interest in how food components such as fiber affect gastrointestinal tolerance, stool form, defecation frequency, transit time, and gut microbial composition and metabolic activity. In children, however, digestive health studies that intervene with dietary fiber are limited due to legal and ethical concerns. To better understand if fiber improves digestive health in children, a literature review was conducted to answer the following research question: What are the effect(s) of fiber-containing foods and/or supplements on digestive health outcomes in children? A search of the PubMed database identified a total of 12 studies that fit the inclusion criteria established for this review. Most of the evidence in children shows beneficial effects of partially hydrolyzed guar gum, glucomannan, and bran on digestive health outcomes; however, the existing evidence is not conclusive. Furthermore, limited data exists on the effect of whole-grain sources of dietary fiber, such as oats. Additional well-designed intervention trials are needed to determine whether outcomes of digestive health such as stool form, gastrointestinal tolerance, and stool frequency are improved by increasing the fiber content of children's diets with whole-grain sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuw068DOI Listing
April 2017

Orange Pomace Improves Postprandial Glycemic Responses: An Acute, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial in Overweight Men.

Nutrients 2017 Feb 13;9(2). Epub 2017 Feb 13.

Antioxidants Research Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

Orange pomace (OP), a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. We hypothesized that OP would diminish postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and lunch. We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial with 34 overweight men who consumed either a 255 g placebo (PLA), a low (35% OP (LOP)), or a high (77% (HOP)) dose OP beverage with breakfast. Blood was collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, and 8 h. Lunch was consumed after the 5.5-h blood draw. OP delayed the time (T1) to the maximum concentration (C1) of serum glucose during the 2-h period post breakfast by ≥36% from 33 (PLA) to 45 (HOP) and 47 (LOP) min ( = 0.055 and 0.013, respectively). OP decreased post-breakfast insulin C1 by ≥10% and LOP delayed the T1 by 14 min, compared to PLA at 46 min ( ≤ 0.05). HOP reduced the first 2-h insulin area under concentration time curve (AUC) by 23% compared to PLA. Thus, OP diminishes postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and the second meal in overweight men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9020130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5331561PMC
February 2017

Cognition-mediated evolution of low-quality floral nectars.

Science 2017 01;355(6320):75-78

Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.

Plants pollinated by hummingbirds or bats produce dilute nectars even though these animals prefer more concentrated sugar solutions. This mismatch is an unsolved evolutionary paradox. Here we show that lower quality, or more dilute, nectars evolve when the strength of preferring larger quantities or higher qualities of nectar diminishes as magnitudes of the physical stimuli increase. In a virtual evolution experiment conducted in the tropical rainforest, bats visited computer-automated flowers with simulated genomes that evolved relatively dilute nectars. Simulations replicated this evolution only when value functions, which relate the physical stimuli to subjective sensations, were nonlinear. Selection also depended on the supply/demand ratio; bats selected for more dilute nectar when competition for food was higher. We predict such a pattern to generally occur when decision-makers consider multiple value dimensions simultaneously, and increases of psychological value are not fully proportional to increases in physical magnitude.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aah4219DOI Listing
January 2017

Odontogenic Keratocyst in Children: A Review.

Open Dent J 2016 30;10:117-23. Epub 2016 Apr 30.

Department of Oral Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Alfarabi College of Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Is to highlight the characteristics and management of odontogenic keratocyst in children only.

Material And Method: Computerized search in pubmed between (2005-2015) using specific words such as odontogenic keratocyst in children, odontogenic keratocyst association with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome with abstract written in English only.

Result: During computerized literature search 77 articles in the years (2005-2015) were found. All these publications were miscellaneous studies including case series and case reports. Only 35 papers were selected which conform to our criteria. Most of the papers indicate that the histological type of keratocyst prevalent in children was parakeratinized variant, and most of the cases occurred in maxilla rather than mandible.

Conclusion: We recommend that the surgeons who treat keratocysts in children take into consideration the late presentation in addition to the destructive nature and high recurrence rate. General practitioners face difficulty in early detection and referral of children with keratocysts or Gorlin syndrome. Treatment by multidiscplinary team is important if associated with Gorlin's syndrome Postoperative follow up is advised every 6 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874210601610010117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891985PMC
June 2016

Context-dependent seed dispersal by a scatter-hoarding corvid.

J Anim Ecol 2016 05 6;85(3):798-805. Epub 2016 Mar 6.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 348 Manter Hall, Lincoln, NE, 68588-0118, USA.

Corvids (crows, jays, magpies and nutcrackers) are important dispersers of large-seeded plants. Studies on captive or supplemented birds suggest that they flexibly adjust their scatter-hoarding behaviour to the context of social dynamics and relative seed availability. Because many corvid-dispersed trees show high annual variation in seed production, context-dependent foraging can have strong effects on natural corvid scatter-hoarding behaviour. We investigated how seed availability and social dynamics affected scatter-hoarding in the island scrub jays (Aphelocoma insularis). We quantified rates of scatter-hoarding behaviour and territorial defence of 26 colour-marked birds over a three-year period with variable acorn crops. We tested whether caching parameters were correlated with variation in annual seed production of oaks as predicted by the predator dispersal hypothesis, which states that caching rates and distances should vary with seed abundance in ways that benefit tree fitness. We also tested whether antagonistic interactions with conspecifics would affect scatter-hoarding adversely, as found in experimental studies. Caching behaviour varied with acorn availability. Caching distances correlated positively with annual acorn crop size, increasing by as much as 40% between years. Caching rates declined over time in years with small acorn crops, but increased when crops were large. Acorn foraging and caching rates were also negatively correlated with rates of territorial aggression. Overall foraging rates, however, were not associated with aggression, suggesting that reduced dispersal rates were not simply due to time constraints. Our field results support laboratory findings that caching rates and distances by scatter-hoarding corvids are context-dependent. Furthermore, our results are consistent with predictions of the predator dispersal hypothesis and suggest that large seed crops and social interactions among scatter-hoarders affect dispersal benefits for oaks and other masting tree species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12501DOI Listing
May 2016