Publications by authors named "A Mira"

283 Publications

Online interventions to prevent mental health problems implemented in school settings: the perspectives from key stakeholders in Austria and Spain.

Eur J Public Health 2021 Jul;31(Supplement_1):i71-i79

Ferdinand Porsche FernFH-Distance Learning University of Applied Sciences, Wiener Neustadt, Austria.

Background: Schools are key settings for delivering mental illness prevention in adolescents. Data on stakeholders' attitudes and factors relevant for the implementation of Internet-based prevention programmes are scarce.

Methods: Stakeholders in the school setting from Austria and Spain were consulted. Potential facilitators (e.g. teachers and school psychologists) completed an online questionnaire (N=50), policy makers (e.g. representatives of the ministry of education and health professional associations) participated in semi-structured interviews (N=9) and pupils (N=29, 14-19 years) participated in focus groups. Thematic analysis was used to identify experiences with, attitudes and needs towards Internet-based prevention programmes, underserved groups, as well as barriers and facilitators for reach, adoption, implementation and maintenance.

Results: Experiences with Internet-based prevention programmes were low across all stakeholder groups. Better reach of the target groups was seen as main advantage whereas lack of personal contact, privacy concerns, risk for misuse and potential stigmatization when implemented during school hours were regarded as disadvantages. Relevant needs towards Internet-based programmes involved attributes of the development process, general requirements for safety and performance, presentation of content, media/tools and contact options of online programmes. Positive attitudes of school staff, low effort for schools and compatibility to schools' curriculum were seen as key factors for successful adoption and implementation. A sound implementation of the programme in the school routine and continued improvement could facilitate maintenance of online prevention initiatives in schools.

Conclusions: Attitudes towards Internet-based mental illness prevention programmes in school settings are positive across all stakeholder groups. However, especially safety concerns have to be considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266540PMC
July 2021

Online prevention programmes for university students: stakeholder perspectives from six European countries.

Eur J Public Health 2021 Jul;31(Supplement_1):i64-i70

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London, UK.

Background: Students beginning university are at a heightened risk for developing mental health disorders. Online prevention and early intervention programmes targeting mental health have the potential to reduce this risk, however, previous research has shown uptake to be rather poor. Understanding university stakeholders' (e.g. governing level and delivery staff [DS] and students) views and attitudes towards such online prevention programmes could help with their development, implementation and dissemination within university settings.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews, focus groups and online surveys were completed with staff at a governing level, university students and DS (i.e. student health or teaching staff) from six European countries. They were asked about their experiences with, and needs and attitudes towards, online prevention programmes, as well as the factors that influence the translation of these programmes into real-world settings. Results were analyzed using thematic analysis.

Results: Participating stakeholders knew little about online prevention programmes for university settings; however, they viewed them as acceptable. The main themes to emerge were the basic conditions and content of the programmes, the awareness and engagement, the resources needed, the usability and the responsibility and ongoing efforts to increase reach.

Conclusions: Overall, although these stakeholders had little knowledge about online prevention programmes, they were open to the idea of introducing them. They could see the potential benefits that these programmes might bring to a university setting as a whole and the individual students and staff members.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab040DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of Clinical, Biochemical and Microbiological Markers Related to Dental Caries.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 4;18(11). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

FISABIO Foundation, Center for Advanced Research in Public Health, 46020 Valencia, Spain.

Our aim was to evaluate clinical, biochemical and microbiological markers related to dental caries in adults. A sample that consisted of 75 volunteers was utilized. The presence of caries and the presence of plaque and gingival indices were determined. Unstimulated salivary flow, pH, lactate, and were measured in the participants' plaque and saliva samples before and after rinsing with a sugar solution. Lactate in plaque was found to be significantly related to age, gender, tooth-brushing frequency, the presence of cavitated caries lesions and plaque and gingival indices ( < 0.05). The levels of in plaque increased significantly with tooth-brushing frequency ( = 0.03). Normalized plaque values and the percentage of were slightly higher in patients with basal lactic acid levels ≤ 50 mg/L. After rinsing with a sugary solution, the percentage of levels in plaque were higher in patients with lactic acid levels > 350 mg/L ( = 0.03). Tooth-brushing frequency was the factor which was most associated with oral health. Women reflected better clinical and biochemical parameters than men. Low pH and high lactic acid levels tended to be associated with high caries rates. No association was found between bacteria levels and caries indices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200118PMC
June 2021

A Single Dose of Nitrate Increases Resilience Against Acidification Derived From Sugar Fermentation by the Oral Microbiome.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 3;11:692883. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Health and Genomics, Center for Advanced Research in Public Health, FISABIO Foundation, Valencia, Spain.

Tooth decay starts with enamel demineralization due to an acidic pH, which arises from sugar fermentation by acidogenic oral bacteria. Previous work has demonstrated that nitrate limits acidification when incubating complex oral communities with sugar for short periods (e.g., 1-5 h), driven by changes in the microbiota metabolism and/or composition. To test whether a single dose of nitrate can reduce acidification derived from sugar fermentation , 12 individuals received a nitrate-rich beetroot supplement, which was compared to a placebo in a blinded crossover setting. Sucrose-rinses were performed at baseline and 2 h after supplement or placebo intake, and the salivary pH, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and lactate were measured. After nitrate supplement intake, the sucrose-induced salivary pH drop was attenuated when compared with the placebo (p < 0.05). Salivary nitrate negatively correlated with lactate production and positively with ΔpH after sucrose exposure (r= -0.508 and 0.436, respectively, both p < 0.05). Two additional pilot studies were performed to test the effect of sucrose rinses 1 h (n = 6) and 4 h (n = 6) after nitrate supplement intake. In the 4 h study, nitrate intake was compared with water intake and bacterial profiles were analysed using 16S rRNA gene Illumina sequencing and qPCR detection of . Sucrose rinses caused a significant pH drop (p < 0.05), except 1 h and 4 h after nitrate supplement intake. After 4 h of nitrate intake, there was less lactate produced compared to water intake (p < 0.05) and one genus; , increased in abundance. This small but significant increase was confirmed by qPCR (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of and negatively correlated with lactate production (r = -0.601 and -0.669, respectively) and positively correlated with pH following sucrose intake (r = 0.669, all p < 0.05). Together, these results show that nitrate can acutely limit acidification when sugars are fermented, which appears to result from lactate usage by nitrate-reducing bacteria. Future studies should assess the longitudinal impact of daily nitrate-rich vegetable or supplement intake on dental health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.692883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238012PMC
July 2021

The Mechanism of Citrus Host Defense Response Repression at Early Stages of Infection by Feeding of Transmitting Liberibacter asiaticus.

Front Plant Sci 2021 8;12:635153. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, FL, United States.

Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most devastating disease of citrus, presumably caused by " Liberibacter asiaticus" (Las). Although transcriptomic profiling of HLB-affected citrus plants has been studied extensively, the initial steps in pathogenesis have not been fully understood. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to compare very early transcriptional changes in the response of Valencia sweet orange (VAL) to Las after being fed by the vector, (Asian citrus psyllid, or ACP). The results suggest the existence of a delayed defense reaction against the infective vector in VAL, while the attack by the healthy vector prompted immediate and substantial transcriptomic changes that led to the rapid erection of active defenses. Moreover, in the presence of Las-infected psyllids, several downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified on the pathways, such as signaling, transcription factor, hormone, defense, and photosynthesis-related pathways at 1 day post-infestation (dpi). Surprisingly, a burst of DEGs (6,055) was detected at 5 dpi, including both upregulated and downregulated DEGs on the defense-related and secondary metabolic pathways, and severely downregulated DEGs on the photosynthesis-related pathways. Very interestingly, a significant number of those downregulated DEGs required ATP binding for the activation of phosphate as substrate; meanwhile, abundant highly upregulated DEGs were detected on the ATP biosynthetic and glycolytic pathways. These findings highlight the energy requirement of Las virulence processes. The emerging picture is that Las not only employs virulence strategies to subvert the host cell immunity, but the fast-replicating Las also actively rewires host cellular metabolic pathways to obtain the necessary energy and molecular building blocks to support virulence and the replication process. Taken together, the very early response of citrus to the Las, vectored by infective ACP, was evaluated for the first time, thus allowing the changes in gene expression relating to the primary mechanisms of susceptibility and host-pathogen interactions to be studied, and without the secondary effects caused by the development of complex whole plant symptoms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.635153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218908PMC
June 2021