Publications by authors named "A Lomax"

352 Publications

Experimental assessment of inter-centre variation in stopping-power and range prediction in particle therapy.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jul 27;163:7-13. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institute of Radiooncology - OncoRay, Dresden, Germany; Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), partner site Dresden, and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Purpose: Experimental assessment of inter-centre variation and absolute accuracy of stopping-power-ratio (SPR) prediction within 17 particle therapy centres of the European Particle Therapy Network.

Material And Methods: A head and body phantom with seventeen tissue-equivalent materials were scanned consecutively at the participating centres using their individual clinical CT scan protocol and translated into SPR with their in-house CT-number-to-SPR conversion. Inter-centre variation and absolute accuracy in SPR prediction were quantified for three tissue groups: lung, soft tissues and bones. The integral effect on range prediction for typical clinical beams traversing different tissues was determined for representative beam paths for the treatment of primary brain tumours as well as lung and prostate cancer.

Results: An inter-centre variation in SPR prediction (2σ) of 8.7%, 6.3% and 1.5% relative to water was determined for bone, lung and soft-tissue surrogates in the head setup, respectively. Slightly smaller variations were observed in the body phantom (6.2%, 3.1%, 1.3%). This translated into inter-centre variation of integral range prediction (2σ) of 2.9%, 2.6% and 1.3% for typical beam paths of prostate-, lung- and primary brain-tumour treatments, respectively. The absolute error in range exceeded 2% in every fourth participating centre. The consideration of beam hardening and the execution of an independent HLUT validation had a positive effect, on average.

Conclusion: The large inter-centre variations in SPR and range prediction justify the currently clinically used margins accounting for range uncertainty, which are of the same magnitude as the inter-centre variation. This study underlines the necessity of higher standardisation in CT-number-to-SPR conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2021.07.019DOI Listing
July 2021

Non-invasive recognition of eye torsion through optical imaging of the iris pattern in ocular proton therapy.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 1;66(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland.

The introduction of non-invasive imaging techniques such as MRI imaging for treatment planning and optical eye tracking for in-room eye localization would obviate the requirement of clips implantation for many patients undergoing ocular proton therapy. This study specifically addresses the issue of torsional eye movement detection during patient positioning. Non-invasive detection of eye torsion is performed by measuring the iris pattern rotations using a beams eye view optical camera. When handling images of patients to be treated using proton therapy, a number of additional challenges are encountered, such as changing eye position, pupil dilatation and illumination. A method is proposed to address these extra challenges while also compensating for the effect of cornea distortion in eye torsion computation. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm was evaluated against corresponding measurement of eye torsion using the clips configuration measured on x-ray images. This study involves twenty patients who received ocular proton therapy at Paul Scherrer Institute and it is covered by ethical approval (EKNZ 2019-01987).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ac0afbDOI Listing
July 2021

Enhanced Deep-Inspiration Breath Hold Superior to High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation for Respiratory Motion Mitigation: A Physiology-Driven, MRI-Guided Assessment Toward Optimized Lung Cancer Treatment With Proton Therapy.

Front Oncol 2021 29;11:621350. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Exercise Physiology Lab, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

To safely treat lung tumors using particle radiation therapy (PRT), motion-mitigation strategies are of critical importance to ensure precise irradiation. Therefore, we compared applicability, effectiveness, reproducibility, and subjects' acceptance of enhanced deep-inspiration breath hold (eDIBH) with high-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) by MRI assessment within 1 month. Twenty-one healthy subjects (12 males/9 females; age: 49.5 ± 5.8 years; BMI: 24.7 ± 3.3 kg/m) performed two 1.5 T MRI scans in four visits at weekly intervals under eDIBH and HFPV conditions, accompanied by daily, home-based breath-hold training and spirometric assessments over a 3-week period. eDIBH consisted of 8-min 100% O breathing (3 min resting ventilation, 5 min controlled hyperventilation) prior to breath hold. HFPV was set at 200-250 pulses min and 0.8-1.2 bar. Subjects' acceptance and preference were evaluated by questionnaire. To quantify inter- and intrafractional changes, a lung distance metric representing lung topography was computed for 10 reference points: a motion-invariant spinal cord and nine lung structure contours (LSCs: apex, carina, diaphragm, and six vessels as tumor surrogates distributed equally across the lung). To parameterize individual LSC localizability, measures of their spatial variabilities were introduced and lung volumes calculated by automated MRI analysis. eDIBH increased breath-hold duration by > 100% up to 173 ± 73 s at visit 1, and to 217 ± 67 s after 3 weeks of home-based training at visit 4 ( < 0.001). Measures of vital capacity and lung volume remained constant over the 3-week period. Two vessels in the lower lung segment and the diaphragm yielded a two- to threefold improved positional stability with eDIBH, whereby absolute distance variability was significantly smaller for five LSCs; ≥70% of subjects showed significantly better intrafractional lung motion mitigation under reproducible conditions with eDIBH compared with HFPV with smaller ranges most apparent in the anterior-posterior and cranial-caudal directions. Approximately 80% of subjects preferred eDIBH over HFPV, with "less discomfort" named as most frequent reason. Both, eDIBH, and HFPV were well-tolerated. eDIBH duration was long enough to allow for potential PRT. Variability in lung volume was smaller and position of lung structures more precise with eDIBH. Subjects preferred eDIBH over HFPV. Thus, eDIBH is a very promising tool for lung tumor therapy with PRT, and further investigation of its applicability in patients is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.621350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116693PMC
April 2021

Technical assessment of the NDI Polaris Vega optical tracking system.

Radiat Oncol 2021 May 12;16(1):87. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Forschungsstrasse 111, 5232, Villigen, Switzerland.

The Polaris product line from Northern Digital Inc. is well known for accurate optical tracking measurements in research and medical environments. The Spectra position sensor, to date often found in image guided radiotherapy suites, has however reached its end-of-life, being replaced by the new Vega model. The performance in static and dynamic measurements of this new device has been assessed in controlled laboratory conditions, against the strict requirements for system integration in radiation therapy. The system accuracy has improved with respect to the Spectra in both static (0.045 mm RMSE) and dynamic (0.09 mm IQR, < 20 cm/s) tracking and brings marginal improvement in the measurement latency (14.2 ± 1.8 ms). The system performance was further confirmed under clinical settings with the report of early results from periodic QA tests within specifications. Based on our tests, the Polaris Vega meets the quality standards of radiotherapy applications and can be safely used for monitoring respiratory breathing motion or verifying patient positioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-021-01804-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114517PMC
May 2021

Commissioning of a clinical pencil beam scanning proton therapy unit for ultra-high dose rates (FLASH).

Med Phys 2021 Jul 25;48(7):4017-4026. Epub 2021 May 25.

Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland.

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to provide a flexible platform for FLASH research with protons by adapting a former clinical pencil beam scanning gantry to irradiations with ultra-high dose rates.

Methods: PSI Gantry 1 treated patients until December 2018. We optimized the beamline parameters to transport the 250 MeV beam extracted from the PSI COMET accelerator to the treatment room, maximizing the transmission of beam intensity to the sample. We characterized a dose monitor on the gantry to ensure good control of the dose, delivered in spot-scanning mode. We characterized the beam for different dose rates and field sizes for transmission irradiations. We explored scanning possibilities in order to enable conformal irradiations or transmission irradiations of large targets (with transverse scanning).

Results: We achieved a transmission of 86% from the cyclotron to the treatment room. We reached a peak dose rate of 9000 Gy/s at 3 mm water equivalent depth, along the central axis of a single pencil beam. Field sizes of up to 5 × 5 mm were achieved for single-spot FLASH irradiations. Fast transverse scanning allowed to cover a field of 16 × 1.2 cm . With the use of a nozzle-mounted range shifter, we are able to span depths in water ranging from 19.6 to 37.9 cm. Various dose levels were delivered with precision within less than 1%.

Conclusions: We have realized a proton FLASH irradiation setup able to investigate continuously a wide dose rate spectrum, from 1 to 9000 Gy/s in single-spot irradiation as well as in the pencil beam scanning mode. As such, we have developed a versatile test bench for FLASH research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.14933DOI Listing
July 2021
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