Publications by authors named "A Kala"

47 Publications

Microencapsulated and Lyophilized Lactobacillus acidophilus Improved Gut Health and Immune Status of Preruminant Calves.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Livestock Production and Management Section, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122, UP, India.

The present study was conducted to study the effect of microencapsulated, lyophilized, or fermented milk using Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC15 as a probiotic to improve gut health, growth, nutrient utilization, and immunity status of young crossbred calves. The viable culture of L. acidophilus was used for preparation of different probiotic forms/products. To compare the efficacy of probiotic products, twenty crossbred calves (3-day old) were divided into four groups (n = 5), control (C), fed only milk and basal diet, and treatment groups, supplemented with microencapsulated, fermented, and lyophilized probiotic at 10 colony-forming units, respectively. Probiotic-supplemented groups showed reduction in faecal score, faecal pH, and ammonia concentration as compared to control indicating decreased diarrheal incidence. There was an increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of faecal lactate and butyrate in the probiotic-supplemented groups. The faecal count (log10 (CFU)/g of fresh faeces) of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was higher (P < 0.05), whereas faecal coliforms and clostridia count were reduced (P < 0.001) in all the probiotic fed groups as compared to control. The cell-mediated immunity was improved (P < 0.05) in the microencapsulated and fermented probiotic groups. However, there was no effect on the nutrient utilization, average daily gain, and blood biochemical profile. Therefore, it is concluded that the fermented, microencapsulated and lyophilized probiotic products were superior in improving the gut health in terms of its microbiota and metabolites and cell-mediated immunity response in calves, irrespective of form of probiotic. The increased population of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium decreased the colonization of the gut by pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Clostridium by exclusion and production of organic acids in the intestine. This decreased the diarrhoeal incidence (1.3 vs 1.8) and days in diarrhoea (3.9 vs 5.8) in calves in probiotic fed groups as compared to control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-021-09821-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Contrast enhanced X-ray computed tomography imaging of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer disease rat model on lab based micro CT system.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 16;11(1):5999. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Amyloid plaques are small (~ 50 μm), highly-dense aggregates of amyloid beta (Aβ) protein in brain tissue, supposed to play a key role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Plaques´ in vivo detection, spatial distribution and quantitative characterization could be an essential marker in diagnostics and evaluation of AD progress. However, current imaging methods in clinics possess substantial limits in sensitivity towards Aβ plaques to play a considerable role in AD screening. Contrast enhanced X-ray micro computed tomography (micro CT) is an emerging highly sensitive imaging technique capable of high resolution visualization of rodent brain. In this study we show the absorption based contrast enhanced X-ray micro CT imaging is viable method for detection and 3D analysis of Aβ plaques in transgenic rodent models of Alzheimer's disease. Using iodine contrasted brain tissue isolated from the Tg-F344-AD rat model we show the micro CT imaging is capable of precise imaging of Aβ plaques, making possible to further analyze various aspects of their 3D spatial distribution and other properties.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84579-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7966753PMC
March 2021

Exploring the socio-economic and environmental components of infectious diseases using multivariate geovisualization: West Nile Virus.

PeerJ 2020 27;8:e9577. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Advanced Environmental Research Institute, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA.

Background: This study postulates that underlying environmental conditions and a susceptible population's socio-economic status should be explored simultaneously to adequately understand a vector borne disease infection risk. Here we focus on West Nile Virus (WNV), a mosquito borne pathogen, as a case study for spatial data visualization of environmental characteristics of a vector's habitat alongside human demographic composition for understanding potential public health risks of infectious disease. Multiple efforts have attempted to predict WNV environmental risk, while others have documented factors related to human vulnerability to the disease. However, analytical modeling that combines the two is difficult due to the number of potential explanatory variables, varying spatial resolutions of available data, and differing research questions that drove the initial data collection. We propose that the use of geovisualization may provide a glimpse into the large number of potential variables influencing the disease and help distill them into a smaller number that might reveal hidden and unknown patterns. This geovisual look at the data might then guide development of analytical models that can combine environmental and socio-economic data.

Methods: Geovisualization was used to integrate an environmental model of the disease vector's habitat alongside human risk factors derived from socio-economic variables. County level WNV incidence rates from California, USA, were used to define a geographically constrained study area where environmental and socio-economic data were extracted from 1,133 census tracts. A previously developed mosquito habitat model that was significantly related to WNV infected dead birds was used to describe the environmental components of the study area. Self-organizing maps found 49 clusters, each of which contained census tracts that were more similar to each other in terms of WNV environmental and socio-economic data. Parallel coordinate plots permitted visualization of each cluster's data, uncovering patterns that allowed final census tract mapping exposing complex spatial patterns contained within the clusters.

Results: Our results suggest that simultaneously visualizing environmental and socio-economic data supports a fuller understanding of the underlying spatial processes for risks to vector-borne disease. Unexpected patterns were revealed in our study that would be useful for developing future multilevel analytical models. For example, when the cluster that contained census tracts with the highest median age was examined, it was determined that those census tracts only contained moderate mosquito habitat risk. Likewise, the cluster that contained census tracts with the highest mosquito habitat risk had populations with moderate median age. Finally, the cluster that contained census tracts with the highest WNV human incidence rates had unexpectedly low mosquito habitat risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391972PMC
July 2020

Impact of pH on citric acid antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2021 Mar 22;72(3):332-340. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Solvay, Novecare CRTB, Bristol, PA, USA.

The antimicrobial activity of citric acid (CA) is often evaluated without pH adjustment or control and its impact on micro-organisms is better understood in acidic conditions. However, the biocidal action of the fully ionized CA molecule, predominantly available at higher pH, has not been previously investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of high (10%) and low (1%) concentrations of CA, each adjusted over a wide range of pH values (4·5, 6·5 and 9·5) relative to the controls exposed to corresponding pH levels alone (no CA). The viability and morphology of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerogenes were evaluated using a culture-based enumeration assay in parallel with direct SEM imaging. Overall, the highest membrane damage and loss in viability were achieved with 10% CA at pH 9·5, which yielded at least 4·6 log CFU per ml (P < 0·001) reductions in both organisms. Insight into the superior efficacy of CA at high pH is proposed based on zeta potential measurements which reveal a more negatively charged bacterial surface at higher pH. This pH-dependent increase in surface charge may have rendered the cells potentially more sensitive towards chelants such as CA that interact with membrane-stabilizing divalent metals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/lam.13420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984346PMC
March 2021

Insights into Metatranscriptome, and CAZymes of Buffalo Rumen Supplemented with Blend of Essential Oils.

Indian J Microbiol 2020 Dec 6;60(4):485-493. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Science, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat India.

The aim of this study was to investigate the rumen microbial diversity and functionality in buffaloes fed with a blend of essential oils (BEO) using LSD switch over design. The BEO consisting of blend of (Ajwain) oil, (lemon grass) oil and (clove bud) oleoresin mixed in equal proportion, was fed at the rate of 0, 0.75 and 1.5 ml/100 kg of body weight in 0 (control), 0.75 and 1.5 groups, respectively. The metatranscriptomic libraries of the rumen microbiome were represented by 7 domains, 84 phyla, 64 archeal genera and 663 bacterial genera with Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes constituting 80% of phyla abundance irrespective of feeding regime. Methanogenic archaea was represented by 22 phyla with as the major genus. BEO feeding reduced the abundance of and ( < 0.05) at all levels. The results revealed that the feeding of BEO shifted the archeal and bacterial population at very low magnitude. The study explored the vast diversity of buffalo rumen bacteria and archaea, and the diverse wealth of rumen enzymes (CAZymes), which revealed that a major part of CAZymes comes from the less known rumen microbes indicating alternative paths of fiber degradation along with the very well known ones.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12088-020-00894-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539254PMC
December 2020
-->