Publications by authors named "A Johar"

86 Publications

An ancient viral epidemic involving host coronavirus interacting genes more than 20,000 years ago in East Asia.

Curr Biol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

University of Arizona Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Tucson, AZ, USA. Electronic address:

The current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has emphasized the vulnerability of human populations to novel viral pressures, despite the vast array of epidemiological and biomedical tools now available. Notably, modern human genomes contain evolutionary information tracing back tens of thousands of years, which may help identify the viruses that have impacted our ancestors-pointing to which viruses have future pandemic potential. Here, we apply evolutionary analyses to human genomic datasets to recover selection events involving tens of human genes that interact with coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, that likely started more than 20,000 years ago. These adaptive events were limited to the population ancestral to East Asian populations. Multiple lines of functional evidence support an ancient viral selective pressure, and East Asia is the geographical origin of several modern coronavirus epidemics. An arms race with an ancient coronavirus, or with a different virus that happened to use similar interactions as coronaviruses with human hosts, may thus have taken place in ancestral East Asian populations. By learning more about our ancient viral foes, our study highlights the promise of evolutionary information to better predict the pandemics of the future. Importantly, adaptation to ancient viral epidemics in specific human populations does not necessarily imply any difference in genetic susceptibility between different human populations, and the current evidence points toward an overwhelming impact of socioeconomic factors in the case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.05.067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223470PMC
June 2021

Health-related quality of life following total minimally invasive, hybrid minimally invasive or open oesophagectomy: a population-based cohort study.

Br J Surg 2021 Jun;108(6):702-708

Surgical Care Science, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Minimally invasive oesophagectomy has been shown to reduce the risk of pulmonary complications compared with open oesophagectomy, but the effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and oesophageal cancer survivorship remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the longitudinal effects of minimally invasive compared with open oesophagectomy for cancer on HRQoL.

Methods: All patients who had surgery for oesophageal cancer in Sweden from January 2013 to April 2018 were identified. The exposure was total or hybrid minimally invasive oesophagectomy, compared with open surgery. The study outcome was HRQoL, evaluated by means of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-OG25 at 1 and 2 years after surgery. Mean differences and 95 per cent confidence intervals were adjusted for confounders.

Results: Of the 246 patients recruited, 153 underwent minimally invasive oesophagectomy, of which 75 were hybrid minimally invasive and 78 were total minimally invasive procedures. After adjustment for age, sex, Charlson Co-morbidity Index score, pathological tumour stage and neoadjuvant therapy, there were no clinically and statistically significant differences in overall or disease-specific HRQoL after oesophagectomy between hybrid minimally invasive and total minimally invasive surgical technique versus open surgery.

Conclusion: In this population-based nationwide Swedish study, longitudinal HRQoL after minimally invasive oesophagectomy was similar to that of the open surgical approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs.11998DOI Listing
June 2021

The Spectrum of Antibiotic Prescribing During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Literature Review.

Microb Drug Resist 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

Over the last decades, there has been a significant increase in antimicrobial prescribing and consumption associated with the development of patients' adverse events and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to the point of becoming a global priority. This study aims at evaluating antibiotic prescribing during COVID-19 pandemic from November 2019 to December 2020. A systematic review was conducted primarily through the NCBI database, using PRISMA guidelines to identify relevant literature for the period between November 1, 2019 and December 19, 2020, using the keywords: COVID-19 OR SARS-Cov-2 AND antibiotics restricted to the English language excluding nonclinical articles. Five hundred twenty-seven titles were identified; all articles fulfilling the study criteria were included, 133 through the NCBI, and 8 through Google Scholar with a combined total of 141 studies. The patient's spectrum included all ages from neonates to elderly with all associated comorbidities, including immune suppression. Of 28,093 patients included in the combined studies, 58.7% received antibiotics (16,490/28,093), ranging from 1.3% to 100% coverage. Antibiotics coverage was less in children (57%) than in adults with comorbidities (75%). Broad-spectrum antibiotics were prescribed presumptively without pathogen identifications, which might contribute to adverse outcomes. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a significant and wide range of antibiotic prescribing in patients affected by the disease, particularly in adults with underlying comorbidities, despite the paucity of evidence of associated bacterial infections. The current practice might increase patients' immediate and long-term risks of adverse events, susceptibility to secondary infections as well as aggravating AMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2020.0619DOI Listing
June 2021

Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Gene Patterns Associated with Avian Pathogenic (APEC) from Broiler Chickens in Qatar.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 May 11;10(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Biomedical Research Center, Microbiology Department, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar.

Avian Pathogenic (APEC) is the contributing agent behind the avian infectious disease colibacillosis, which causes substantial fatalities in poultry industries that has a significant impact on the economy and food safety. Several virulence genes have been shown to be concomitant with the extraintestinal survival of APEC. This study investigates the antibiotic resistance patterns and APEC-associated virulence genes content in isolated from non-healthy and healthy broiler chickens from a commercial poultry farm in Qatar. A total of 158 strains were isolated from 47 chickens from five different organs (air sac, cloacal, kidney, liver, and trachea). Based on genetic criteria, 65% were APEC strains containing five or more virulence genes, and 34% were non-pathogenic (NPEC) strains. The genes , , , , , , /, and were significantly prevalent in all APEC strains. isolates showed 96% resistance to at least one of the 18 antibiotics, with high resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and fosfomycin. Our findings indicate high antibiotic resistance prevalence in non-healthy and healthy chicken carcasses. Such resistant can spread to humans. Hence, special programs are required to monitor the use of antibiotics in chicken production in Qatar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10050564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151107PMC
May 2021

Patient-reported outcomes after oesophagectomy in the multicentre LASER study.

Br J Surg 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Oesophago-gastric Centre, Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Data on the long-term symptom burden in patients surviving oesophageal cancer surgery are scarce. The aim of this study was to identify the most prevalent symptoms and their interactions with health-related quality of life.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of patients who underwent oesophageal cancer surgery in 20 European centres between 2010 and 2016. Patients had to be disease-free for at least 1 year. They were asked to complete a 28-symptom questionnaire at a single time point, at least 1 year after surgery. Principal component analysis was used to assess for clustering and association of symptoms. Risk factors associated with the development of severe symptoms were identified by multivariable logistic regression models.

Results: Of 1081 invited patients, 876 (81.0 per cent) responded. Symptoms in the preceding 6 months associated with previous surgery were experienced by 586 patients (66.9 per cent). The most common severe symptoms included reduced energy or activity tolerance (30.7 per cent), feeling of early fullness after eating (30.0 per cent), tiredness (28.7 per cent), and heartburn/acid or bile regurgitation (19.6 per cent). Clustering analysis showed that symptoms clustered into six domains: lethargy, musculoskeletal pain, dumping, lower gastrointestinal symptoms, regurgitation/reflux, and swallowing/conduit problems; the latter two were the most closely associated. Surgical approach, neoadjuvant therapy, patient age, and sex were factors associated with severe symptoms.

Conclusion: A long-term symptom burden is common after oesophageal cancer surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjs/znab124DOI Listing
May 2021
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