Publications by authors named "A J Timothy Jull"

124 Publications

A Single-Year Cosmic Ray Event at 5410 BCE Registered in C of Tree Rings.

Geophys Res Lett 2021 Jun 9;48(11):e2021GL093419. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Laboratory for Ion Beam Physics ETH Zürich Zürich Switzerland.

The annual C data in tree rings is an outstanding proxy for uncovering extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) events in the past. Signatures of extreme SEP events have been reported in 774/775 CE, 992/993 CE, and ∼660 BCE. Here, we report another rapid increase of C concentration in tree rings from California, Switzerland, and Finland around 5410 BCE. These C data series show a significant increase of ∼6‰ in 5411-5410 BCE. The signature of C variation is very similar to the confirmed three SEP events and points to an extreme short-term flux of cosmic ray radiation into the atmosphere. The rapid C increase in 5411/5410 BCE rings occurred during a period of high solar activity and 60 years after a grand C excursion during 5481-5471 BCE. The similarity of our C data to previous events suggests that the origin of the 5410 BCE event is an extreme SEP event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2021GL093419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365682PMC
June 2021

Radiocarbon in the atmospheric gases and PM aerosol around the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary.

J Environ Radioact 2021 Oct 15;237:106670. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

International Radiocarbon AMS Competence and Training (INTERACT) Center, Institute for Nuclear Research, Debrecen, H-4026, Hungary.

Our study shows a one-year-long, monthly integrated continuous monitoring campaign of gaseous radiocarbon emission and ambient air compared with 4 event-like, weekly (168 h) atmospheric aerosol radiocarbon data in every season of 2019, at 4 locations (n = 16 aerosol sample) around the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. The study shows the first aerosol radiocarbon results around a nuclear power plant measured by accelerator mass spectrometry in Hungary. There was no dominant contribution detected in the atmospheric CO gas fraction, but we could detect excess radiocarbon in the total gaseous carbon fraction at almost every sampling point around the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. The highest ΔC value in the total gaseous carbon form was 157.9 ± 4.6‰ in November and the highest Δ C value in the CO fraction was 86.1 ± 4.0‰ in December during 2019. Observed C activity excess is not higher than previously published values around the Paks Nuclear Power plant at the same sampling points (Molnár et al., 2007; Varga et al., 2020). Our aerosol radiocarbon measurements show that there is no significant contribution from the nuclear power plant to the atmospheric PM fraction. We could not detect a Δ C value higher than 0‰ in any season. The results show that the simple aerosol sampling, without pre-treatment of the filters, is appropriate for the measurement of excess radiocarbon at the vicinity of nuclear power plants. The applied preparation and measurement method can be applicable for detection of hot (C) particles and early identification of radiocarbon emission from nuclear power plants in the PM fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2021.106670DOI Listing
October 2021

Prescribed exercise regimen versus usual care and hypochlorous acid wound solution versus placebo for treating venous leg ulcers: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (Factorial4VLU).

BMJ Open 2021 02 18;11(2):e043420. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

School of Nursing, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia.

Introduction: Compression is the mainstay of treatment for venous leg ulcers (VLUs) and there are few effective adjuvant treatments. There is only observational evidence supporting the use of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as a topical wound solution on VLU and some limited randomised evidence for the effect of a prescribed regimen of exercise.

Methods And Analysis: The Factorial4VLU trial is a pragmatic, blinded, factorial randomised controlled trial, with 380 participants receiving either a prescribed exercise regimen compared with usual care and either active HOCl wound solution or placebo wound solution at each dressing change for up to 24 weeks. All participants will receive compression therapy. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants with healed VLU at 12 weeks after randomisation as adjudicated by blinded review of ulcer photographs. Secondary outcomes are proportion healed at 24 weeks, time to healing, estimated change in ulcer area, change in 2-Minute Walk Test, change in health-related quality of life, incidence of infection and incidence of all-cause adverse events. If either of the interventions shows a statistically significant positive difference on healing outcomes, cost-effectiveness will be modelled using a health service perspective.

Ethics And Dissemination: The Factorial4VLU trial received ethical approval from the Northern B Health and Disability Ethics Committee. We plan to publish the results within 1 year of trial completion and will include the results on the trial registration page.

Trial Registration Numbers: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (http://www.anzctr.org.au) (ACTRN12620000116921); Universal Trial Number (WHO) (U1111-1236-2997).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896607PMC
February 2021

Patient's experiences of endotracheal tubes and suction following cardiac surgery.

Nurs Crit Care 2021 Feb 14. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Cardiothoracic and Vascular Intensive Care Unit, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: There is a growing body of evidence addressing the patient experience of intensive care, including patient reports that the presence of an endotracheal tube is bothersome and distressing, and that endotracheal suction is moderately to extremely painful. Yet there remains little information about the patient experience of the endotracheal tube and suction in those patients receiving planned short-term mechanical ventilation.

Aims And Objectives: This study aimed to describe the patient experience of the endotracheal tube and suction, following mechanical ventilation in post-operative cardiac surgical patients.

Design: This qualitative study used inductive thematic analysis. Participants having planned cardiac surgery, anticipated to receive less than 12-hours mechanical ventilation, were approached pre-operatively and written consent provided.

Methods: Ten participants were recruited using purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between days four and six post-operatively. One researcher interviewed all participants; two researchers independently read, coded, and agreed themes.

Findings: None of the participants recalled endotracheal suction, while half had no recollection of the endotracheal tube. Three themes were identified; the experience of the endotracheal tube and extubation, the experience of emerging from sedation, and participants concerns about the future. The presence of the endotracheal tube was described as bothersome, whilst breathing through the tube and extubation were described as 'weird' and 'strange' but not painful.

Conclusions: Knowledge of the patient experience can help inform nursing practice by improving pre and post-operative care planning.

Relevance To Clinical Practice: This study adds to the body of knowledge about the patient experience of the endotracheal tube and extubation.

Trial Registration: Prospective registration with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. www.anzctr.org.au (ACTRN12616001515482).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nicc.12604DOI Listing
February 2021
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