Publications by authors named "A Carr"

2,068 Publications

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From "Heart and Reins" to Clinical Syndromes: Origin and Evolution of Cardio-Renal Disease.

Heart Views 2021 Jan-Mar;22(1):80-84. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_210_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254159PMC
April 2021

100 years of insulin: celebrating the past, present and future of diabetes therapy.

Nat Med 2021 Jul 15;27(7):1154-1164. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

The year 2021 marks the centennial of Banting and Best's landmark description of the discovery of insulin. This discovery and insulin's rapid clinical deployment effectively transformed type 1 diabetes from a fatal diagnosis into a medically manageable chronic condition. In this Review, we describe key accomplishments leading to and building on this momentous occasion in medical history, including advancements in our understanding of the role of insulin in diabetes pathophysiology, the molecular characterization of insulin and the clinical use of insulin. Achievements are also viewed through the lens of patients impacted by insulin therapy and the evolution of insulin pharmacokinetics and delivery over the past 100 years. Finally, we reflect on the future of insulin therapy and diabetes treatment, as well as challenges to be addressed moving forward, so that the full potential of this transformative discovery may be realized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01418-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Progressive exercise compared with best practice advice, with or without corticosteroid injection, for the treatment of patients with rotator cuff disorders (GRASP): a multicentre, pragmatic, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; College of Medicine and Health, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background: Corticosteroid injections and physiotherapy exercise programmes are commonly used to treat rotator cuff disorders but the treatments' effectiveness is uncertain. We aimed to compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a progressive exercise programme with a single session of best practice physiotherapy advice, with or without corticosteroid injection, in adults with a rotator cuff disorder.

Methods: In this pragmatic, multicentre, superiority, randomised controlled trial (2 × 2 factorial), we recruited patients from 20 UK National Health Service trusts. We included patients aged 18 years or older with a rotator cuff disorder (new episode within the past 6 months). Patients were excluded if they had a history of significant shoulder trauma (eg, dislocation, fracture, or full-thickness tear requiring surgery), neurological disease affecting the shoulder, other shoulder conditions (eg, inflammatory arthritis, frozen shoulder, or glenohumeral joint instability), received corticosteroid injection or physiotherapy for shoulder pain in the past 6 months, or were being considered for surgery. Patients were randomly assigned (centralised computer-generated system, 1:1:1:1) to progressive exercise (≤6 sessions), best practice advice (one session), corticosteroid injection then progressive exercise, or corticosteroid injection then best practice advice. The primary outcome was the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) score over 12 months, analysed on an intention-to-treat basis (statistical significance set at 1%). The trial was registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Register, ISRCTN16539266, and EuDRACT, 2016-002991-28.

Findings: Between March 10, 2017, and May 2, 2019, we screened 2287 patients. 708 patients were randomly assigned to progressive exercise (n=174), best practice advice (n=174), corticosteroid injection then progressive exercise (n=182), or corticosteroid injection then best practice advice (n=178). Over 12 months, SPADI data were available for 166 (95%) patients in the progressive exercise group, 164 (94%) in the best practice advice group, 177 (97%) in the corticosteroid injection then progressive exercise group, and 175 (98%) in the corticosteroid injection then best practice advice group. We found no evidence of a difference in SPADI score between progressive exercise and best practice advice when analysed over 12 months (adjusted mean difference -0·66 [99% CI -4·52 to 3·20]). We also found no evidence of a difference between corticosteroid injection compared with no injection when analysed over 12 months (-1·11 [-4·47 to 2·26]). No serious adverse events were reported.

Interpretation: Progressive exercise was not superior to a best practice advice session with a physiotherapist in improving shoulder pain and function. Subacromial corticosteroid injection provided no long-term benefit in patients with rotator cuff disorders.

Funding: UK National Institute for Health Research Technology Assessment Programme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00846-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Long-term protection from HIV infection with oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in gay and bisexual men: findings from the expanded and extended EPIC-NSW prospective implementation study.

Lancet HIV 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Clinic 16, St Leonards, NSW, Australia.

Background: Daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective in preventing HIV, but few long-term data are available on effectiveness and adherence in real-world settings. Here, we report trends in HIV incidence over 3 years in individuals at high risk who were prescribed PrEP in New South Wales (NSW), as well as adherence before the transition to subsidised PrEP.

Methods: Expanded PrEP Implementation in Communities-New South Wales (EPIC-NSW) was a pragmatic, prospective, single-arm, implementation study of daily, oral PrEP in 31 sites (sexual health clinics, general practices, and a hospital) in NSW, Australia. Eligible participants were HIV-negative adults (aged ≥18 years) who were at high risk of HIV infection as defined in local PrEP guidelines. Participants were prescribed coformulated (once-daily, oral tablet) tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) as HIV PrEP and were followed up with HIV testing, sexually transmitted infection testing, and PrEP dispensing. Originally planned for 3700 participants followed for 1 year, the study was expanded so that all eligible participants in the state could obtain PrEP and extended until publicly subsidised PrEP became available in Australia. The primary outcome was new HIV infection among all participants who were dispensed PrEP at least once and had at least one follow-up HIV test result. Adherence was estimated by medication possession ratio (MPR), defined as the proportion of PrEP pills dispensed in 90 days, assuming daily dosing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02870790.

Findings: Between March 1, 2016, and April 30, 2018, we enrolled 9709 participants. 9596 participants were dispensed PrEP, of whom 9448 (98·3%) were gay or bisexual men. Participants were followed up until March 31, 2019, with at least one follow-up HIV test available in 9520 (99·2%) participants. Mean MPR declined from 0·93 to 0·64 from the first to the ninth quarter. There were 30 HIV seroconversions over 18 628 person-years, an incidence of 1·61 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 1·13-2·30). Being younger, living in a postcode with fewer gay men, reporting more risk behaviours at baseline, and having an MPR of less than 0·6 were each univariately associated with increased HIV incidence. In the final year of follow-up, when PrEP was mostly purchased rather than provided free by the study, HIV incidence remained low at 2·24 per 1000 person-years (1·46-3·44).

Interpretation: HIV incidence remained low over up to 3 years of follow-up, including during a transition from study-provided to publicly subsidised PrEP. In a setting of affordable PrEP and associated health-care services, very low HIV incidence of 1 to 2 per 1000 person-years can be maintained in gay and bisexual men who were previously at high risk.

Funding: New South Wales Ministry of Health, Australian Capital Territory Health Directorate, Gilead Sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(21)00074-6DOI Listing
June 2021