Publications by authors named "A Cano"

876 Publications

Variants translating reduced expression of the beta estrogen receptor gene were associated with increased carotid intima media thickness: A cross-sectional study in late postmenopausal women.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26216

Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Valencia and Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, INCLIVA, Av Menéndez y Pelayo, Valencia, Spain.

Abstract: There is debate on the role of estrogens in modulating the risk for atherosclerosis in women. Our purpose was to investigate whether the size of the estrogenic impact was independently associated with variation of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy late postmenopausal women. The levels of circulating estrogens have been used in previous studies but the influence of SNPs of the estrogen receptors (ER) α and β have not been investigated.We performed a crossed-sectional study of 91 women in a university hospital. We used a double approach in which, in addition to the measurement of estradiol levels by ultrasensitive methods, genetic variants (SNPs) associated with differing expression of the ER α and β genes were assessed. Multivariable analysis was used to examine the association of candidate factors with the value of IMT and plaque detection at both the carotid wall and the sinus.A genotype combination translating reduced gene expression of the ERβ was directly associated with IMT at both the carotid wall (P = .001) and the sinus (P = .002). Other predictors of IMT were the levels of glucose, positively associated with IMT at both the carotid wall (P < .001) and the sinus (P = .001), age positively associated with IMT at the sinus (P = .003), and levels of vitamin D, positively associated with IMT at the carotid wall (P = .04).Poorer estrogenic impact, as concordant with a SNP variant imposing reduced expression of the ERβ, was directly associated with IMT at both the carotid wall and the sinus. Glucose level, vitamin D only for the carotid wall, and age only for the sinus, also emerged as independent factors in the IMT variance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026216DOI Listing
June 2021

From genotypes to organisms: State-of-the-art and perspectives of a cornerstone in evolutionary dynamics.

Phys Life Rev 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Sainsbury Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Understanding how genotypes map onto phenotypes, fitness, and eventually organisms is arguably the next major missing piece in a fully predictive theory of evolution. We refer to this generally as the problem of the genotype-phenotype map. Though we are still far from achieving a complete picture of these relationships, our current understanding of simpler questions, such as the structure induced in the space of genotypes by sequences mapped to molecular structures, has revealed important facts that deeply affect the dynamical description of evolutionary processes. Empirical evidence supporting the fundamental relevance of features such as phenotypic bias is mounting as well, while the synthesis of conceptual and experimental progress leads to questioning current assumptions on the nature of evolutionary dynamics-cancer progression models or synthetic biology approaches being notable examples. This work delves with a critical and constructive attitude into our current knowledge of how genotypes map onto molecular phenotypes and organismal functions, and discusses theoretical and empirical avenues to broaden and improve this comprehension. As a final goal, this community should aim at deriving an updated picture of evolutionary processes soundly relying on the structural properties of genotype spaces, as revealed by modern techniques of molecular and functional analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2021.03.004DOI Listing
May 2021

Psoriasis: From Pathogenesis to Pharmacological and Nano-Technological-Based Therapeutics.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 7;22(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Research in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases, such as skin dermatitis and psoriasis, has experienced some relevant breakthroughs in recent years. The understanding of age-related factors, gender, and genetic predisposition of these multifactorial diseases has been instrumental for the development of new pharmacological and technological treatment approaches. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms behind the pathological features of psoriasis, also addressing the currently available treatments and novel therapies that are under clinical trials. Innovative therapies developed over the last 10 years have been researched. In this area, advantages of nanotechnological approaches to provide an effective drug concentration in the disease site are highlighted, together with microneedles as innovative candidates for drug delivery systems in psoriasis and other inflammatory chronic skin diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125586PMC
May 2021

Impact of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on the Incidence of Carbapenem Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 May 16;10(5). Epub 2021 May 16.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Maimonides, Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba (UCO), 14004 Cordoba, Spain.

Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR-GNB) are a critical public health threat, and carbapenem use contributes to their spread. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) have proven successful in reducing antimicrobial use. However, evidence on the impact of carbapenem resistance remains unclear. We evaluated the impact of a multifaceted ASP on carbapenem use and incidence of CR-GNB in a high-endemic hospital. An interrupted time-series analysis was conducted one year before and two years after starting the ASP to assess carbapenem consumption, CR-GNB incidence, death rates of sentinel events, and other variables potentially related to CR-GNB incidence. An intense reduction in carbapenem consumption occurred after starting the intervention and was sustained two years later (relative effect -83.51%; 95% CI -87.23 to -79.79). The incidence density of CR-GNB decreased by -0.915 cases per 1000 occupied bed days (95% CI -1.743 to -0.087). This effect was especially marked in CR- and CR-, reversing the pre-intervention upward trend and leading to a relative reduction of -91.15% (95% CI -105.53 to -76.76) and -89.93% (95% CI -107.03 to -72.83), respectively, two years after starting the program. Death rates did not change. This ASP contributed to decreasing CR-GNB incidence through a sustained reduction in antibiotic use without increasing mortality rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10050586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190633PMC
May 2021

Quantitative analysis of the natural history of prolidase deficiency: description of 17 families and systematic review of published cases.

Genet Med 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.

Purpose: Prolidase deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism causing ulcers and other skin disorders, splenomegaly, developmental delay, and recurrent infections. Most of the literature is constituted of isolated case reports. We aim to provide a quantitative description of the natural history of the condition by describing 19 affected individuals and reviewing the literature.

Methods: Nineteen patients were phenotyped per local institutional procedures. A systematic review following PRISMA criteria identified 132 articles describing 161 patients. Main outcome analyses were performed for manifestation frequency, diagnostic delay, overall survival, symptom-free survival, and ulcer-free survival.

Results: Our cohort presented a wide variability of severity. Autoimmune disorders were found in 6/19, including Crohn disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and arthritis. Another immune finding was hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Half of published patients were symptomatic by age 4 and had a delayed diagnosis (mean delay 11.6 years). Ulcers were present initially in only 30% of cases, with a median age of onset at 12 years old.

Conclusion: Prolidase deficiency has a broad range of manifestations. Symptoms at onset may be nonspecific, likely contributing to the diagnostic delay. Testing for this disorder should be considered in any child with unexplained autoimmunity, lower extremity ulcers, splenomegaly, or HLH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01200-2DOI Listing
May 2021