Publications by authors named "A C Bradshaw"

383 Publications

Convergence in voice fundamental frequency during synchronous speech.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(10):e0258747. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Speech, Hearing & Phonetic Sciences, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Joint speech behaviours where speakers produce speech in unison are found in a variety of everyday settings, and have clinical relevance as a temporary fluency-enhancing technique for people who stutter. It is currently unknown whether such synchronisation of speech timing among two speakers is also accompanied by alignment in their vocal characteristics, for example in acoustic measures such as pitch. The current study investigated this by testing whether convergence in voice fundamental frequency (F0) between speakers could be demonstrated during synchronous speech. Sixty participants across two online experiments were audio recorded whilst reading a series of sentences, first on their own, and then in synchrony with another speaker (the accompanist) in a number of between-subject conditions. Experiment 1 demonstrated significant convergence in participants' F0 to a pre-recorded accompanist voice, in the form of both upward (high F0 accompanist condition) and downward (low and extra-low F0 accompanist conditions) changes in F0. Experiment 2 demonstrated that such convergence was not seen during a visual synchronous speech condition, in which participants spoke in synchrony with silent video recordings of the accompanist. An audiovisual condition in which participants were able to both see and hear the accompanist in pre-recorded videos did not result in greater convergence in F0 compared to synchronisation with the pre-recorded voice alone. These findings suggest the need for models of speech motor control to incorporate interactions between self- and other-speech feedback during speech production, and suggest a novel hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the fluency-enhancing effects of synchronous speech in people who stutter.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258747PLOS
October 2021

Microbiological literacy and the role of social science: a response to Timmis et al.

Authors:
Aaron Bradshaw

Environ Microbiol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Clinical and Movement Neuroscience, University College London, G04, Darwin Building, London, WC1E 6AA, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15808DOI Listing
October 2021

Prohibit, Protect, or Adapt? The Changing Role of Volunteers in Palliative and Hospice Care Services During the COVID-19 Pandemic. A Multinational Survey (Covpall).

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Cicely Saunders Institute of Palliative Care, Policy & Rehabilitation, King's College, London, UK.

Background: Volunteers are common within palliative care services, and provide support that enhances care quality. The support they provided, and any role changes, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are unknown. The aim of this study is to understand volunteer deployment and activities within palliative care services, and to identify what may affect any changes in volunteer service provision, during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: Multi-national online survey disseminated via key stakeholders to specialist palliative care services, completed by lead clinicians. Data collected on volunteer roles, deployment, and changes in volunteer engagement. Analysis included descriptive statistics, a multivariable logistic regression, and analysis of free-text comments using a content analysis approach.

Results: 458 respondents: 277 UK, 85 rest of Europe, and 95 rest of the world. 68.5% indicated volunteer use pre-COVID-19 across a number of roles (from 458): direct patient facing support (58.7%), indirect support (52.0%), back office (48.5%) and fundraising (45.6%). 11% had volunteers with COVID-19. Of those responding to a question on change in volunteer deployment (328 of 458) most (256/328, 78%) indicated less or much less use of volunteers. Less use of volunteers was associated with being an in-patient hospice, (odds ratio [OR]=0.15, 95% CI=0.07-0.3, <.001). This reduction in volunteers was felt to protect potentially vulnerable volunteers, with policy changes preventing volunteer support. However, adapting was also seen where new roles were created, or existing roles pivoted to provide virtual support.

Conclusion: Volunteers were mostly prevented from supporting many forms of palliative care which may have quality and safety implications given their previously central roles. Volunteer re-deployment plans are needed that take a more considered approach, using volunteers more flexibly to enhance care while ensuring safe working practices. Consideration needs to be given to widening the volunteer base away from those who may be considered to be most vulnerable to COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2021.128DOI Listing
September 2021

LOW PREVALENCE OF HAEMOSPORIDIANS IN BLOOD AND TISSUE SAMPLES FROM HUMMINGBIRDS.

J Parasitol 2021 Sep;107(5):794-798

Department of Biology, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132.

Hummingbirds are vital members of terrestrial ecosystems, and because of their high metabolic requirements, they serve as indicators of ecosystem health. Monitoring the parasitic infections of hummingbirds is thus especially important. Haemosporidians, a widespread group of avian blood parasites, are known to infect hummingbirds, but little is known about the prevalence and diversity of these parasites in hummingbirds. The prevalence of haemosporidians in several hummingbird species was examined and we compared 4 different tissue types in detecting parasites by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blood samples from 339 individuals of 3 different hummingbird species were tested, and 4 individuals were found positive for haemosporidian infection, a prevalence of 1.2%. Hummingbird carcasses (n = 70) from 5 different hummingbird species were also sampled to assess differences in detection success of haemosporidians in heart, kidney, liver, and pectoral muscle tissue samples. Detection success was similar among tissue types, with haemosporidian prevalence of 9.96% in heart tissue, 9.52% in kidney tissue, 10.76% in liver tissue, and 11.76% in pectoral muscle tissue. All tissue samples positive for haemosporidian infection were from the Black-chinned Hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri). Possible reasons for low prevalence of these blood parasites could include low susceptibility to insect vectors or parasite incompatibility in these hummingbirds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/20-168DOI Listing
September 2021

Optimum identification of round spermatid in men with non-obstructive azoospermia: A commentary.

Andrology 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Urology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/andr.13113DOI Listing
October 2021
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