Publications by authors named "A Artacho"

37 Publications

Mechanical biofilm disruption causes microbial and immunological shifts in periodontitis patients.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9796. Epub 2021 May 7.

Oral Sciences, Glasgow Dental Hospital and School, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.

Periodontitis is characterized by subgingival biofilm dysbiosis, inflammation and tissue destruction. Current treatment involves mechanical biofilm disruption known as non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). This study sought to characterise the impact of treatment on microbial diversity and overall community, and the parallel impact on host inflammation in the oral cavity. Fourty-two periodontitis patients were included in this study, with periodontal clinical parameters, subgingival plaque and saliva samples collected at baseline and 90 days after treatment. Salivary cytokines were quantified, and subgingival plaque was analysed using 16S rRNA sequencing. After treatment, there were marked health-associated alterations in microbial composition and diversity, including differential abundance of 42 genera and 61 species. These changes were accompanied by substantial clinical improvement (pockets ≥ 5 mm, 27.50% to 9.00%, p < 0.001) and a decrease in salivary IL-1β (p < 0.001)-a putative marker of periodontal inflammation. Despite significant reductions in disease associated anaerobes, several genera (Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Tanenerella, Treponema) remained present and formed a distinct subnetwork associated with residual disease. Collectively, this study shows that current periodontal treatment results in partial restoration of a healthy microbial ecosystem, but features of biofilm dysbiosis and host inflammation remain in some patients, which were surprisingly independent of clinical response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89002-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105330PMC
May 2021

The Pretreatment Gut Microbiome Is Associated With Lack of Response to Methotrexate in New-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Jun 2;73(6):931-942. Epub 2021 May 2.

New York University School of Medicine and NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York.

Objective: Although oral methotrexate (MTX) remains the anchor drug for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), up to 50% of patients do not achieve a clinically adequate outcome. In addition, there is a lack of prognostic tools for treatment response prior to drug initiation. This study was undertaken to investigate whether interindividual differences in the human gut microbiome can aid in the prediction of MTX efficacy in new-onset RA.

Methods: We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing on the baseline gut microbiomes of drug-naive patients with new-onset RA (n = 26). Results were validated in an additional independent cohort (n = 21). To gain insight into potential microbial mechanisms, we conducted ex vivo experiments coupled with metabolomics analysis to evaluate the association between microbiome-driven MTX depletion and clinical response.

Results: Our analysis revealed significant associations of the abundance of gut bacterial taxa and their genes with future clinical response (q < 0.05), including orthologs related to purine and MTX metabolism. Machine learning techniques were applied to the metagenomic data, resulting in a microbiome-based model that predicted lack of response to MTX in an independent group of patients. Finally, MTX levels remaining after ex vivo incubation with distal gut samples from pretreatment RA patients significantly correlated with the magnitude of future clinical response, suggesting a possible direct effect of the gut microbiome on MTX metabolism and treatment outcomes.

Conclusion: Taken together, these findings are the first step toward predicting lack of response to oral MTX in patients with new-onset RA and support the value of the gut microbiome as a possible prognostic tool and as a potential target in RA therapeutics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41622DOI Listing
June 2021

Human milk microbiota in sub-acute lactational mastitis induces inflammation and undergoes changes in composition, diversity and load.

Sci Rep 2020 10 28;10(1):18521. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Biotechnology, Spanish National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, Paterna, Spain.

Sub-acute mastitis (SAM) is a prevalent disease among lactating women, being one of the main reasons for early weaning. Although the etiology and diagnosis of acute mastitis (AM) is well established, little is known about the underlying mechanisms causing SAM. We collected human milk samples from healthy and SAM-suffering mothers, during the course of mastitis and after symptoms disappeared. Total (DNA-based) and active (RNA-based) microbiota were analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR. Furthermore, mammary epithelial cell lines were exposed to milk pellets, and levels of the pro-inflammatory interleukin IL8 were measured. Bacterial load was significantly higher in the mastitis samples and decreased after clinical symptoms disappeared. Bacterial diversity was lower in SAM milk samples, and differences in bacterial composition and activity were also found. Contrary to AM, the same bacterial species were found in samples from healthy and SAM mothers, although at different proportions, indicating a dysbiotic ecological shift. Finally, mammary epithelial cell exposure to SAM milk pellets showed an over-production of IL8. Our work therefore supports that SAM has a bacterial origin, with increased bacterial loads, reduced diversity and altered composition, which partly recovered after treatment, suggesting a polymicrobial and variable etiology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74719-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7595153PMC
October 2020

Topic Application of the Probiotic Improves Clinical and Microbiological Parameters Associated With Oral Health.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 31;10:465. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research of Valencia Region (FISABIO), Valencia, Spain.

7746, isolated from dental plaque of caries-free individuals, has been shown to have several beneficial effects which could contribute to promote oral health, including an antimicrobial activity against oral pathogens by the production of bacteriocins and a pH buffering capacity through ammonia production. Previous work has shown that was able to colonize the oral cavity for 2-4 weeks after application. The aim of the present work was to evaluate its clinical efficacy by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study. Fifty nine volunteers were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to a treatment or placebo group. The treatment consisted of a bucco-adhesive gel application (2.5 10 cfu/dose) with a dental splint for 5 min every 48 h, for a period of 1 month (i.e., 14 doses). Dental plaque and saliva samples were collected at baseline, 15 and 30 days after first application, and 15 days after the end of treatment. At baseline, there was a significant correlation between levels and frequency of toothbrushing. Salivary flow, a major factor influencing oral health, was significantly higher in the probiotic group at day 15 compared with the placebo (4.4 and 3.4 ml/5 min, respectively). In the probiotic group, there was a decrease in the amount of dental plaque and in gingival inflammation, but no differences were observed in the placebo group. The probiotic group showed a significant increase in the levels of salivary ammonia and calcium. Finally, Illumina sequencing of plaque samples showed a beneficial shift in bacterial composition at day 30 relative to baseline, with a reduction of several cariogenic organisms and the key players in plaque formation, probably as a result of bacteriocins production. Only 58% of the participants in the probiotic group showed increased plaque levels of at day 30 and 71% by day 45, indicating that the benefits of application could be augmented by improving colonization efficiency. In conclusion, the application of 7746 improved several clinical and microbiological parameters associated with oral health, supporting its use as a probiotic to prevent tooth decay.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488176PMC
June 2021

Nitrate as a potential prebiotic for the oral microbiome.

Sci Rep 2020 07 30;10(1):12895. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Health and Genomics, Center for Advanced Research in Public Health, FISABIO Foundation, Avenida de Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia, Spain.

The salivary glands actively concentrate plasma nitrate, leading to high salivary nitrate concentrations (5-8 mM) after a nitrate-rich vegetable meal. Nitrate is an ecological factor that can induce rapid changes in structure and function of polymicrobial communities, but the effects on the oral microbiota have not been clarified. To test this, saliva of 12 healthy donors was collected to grow in vitro biofilms with and without 6.5 mM nitrate. Samples were taken at 5 h (most nitrate reduced) and 9 h (all nitrate reduced) of biofilm formation for ammonium, lactate and pH measurements, as well as 16S rRNA gene Illumina sequencing. Nitrate did not affect biofilm growth significantly, but reduced lactate production, while increasing the observed ammonium production and pH (all p < 0.01). Significantly higher levels of the oral health-associated nitrate-reducing genera Neisseria (3.1 ×) and Rothia (2.9 ×) were detected in the nitrate condition already after 5 h (both p < 0.01), while several caries-associated genera (Streptococcus, Veillonella and Oribacterium) and halitosis- and periodontitis-associated genera (Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia, Prevotella, and Alloprevotella) were significantly reduced (p < 0.05 at 5 h and/or 9 h). In conclusion, the addition of nitrate to oral communities led to rapid modulation of microbiome composition and activity that could be beneficial for the host (i.e., increasing eubiosis or decreasing dysbiosis). Nitrate should thus be investigated as a potential prebiotic for oral health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69931-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393384PMC
July 2020