Publications by authors named "Zhang Qiang"

3,724 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ulmoidol, an unusual nortriterpenoid from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Leaves prevents neuroinflammation by targeting the PU.1 transcriptional signaling pathway.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Sep 9;116:105345. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products & Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry & Pharmacy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Chronic neuroinflammation is closely associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the current study, 13 anti-neuroinflammatory compounds were isolated from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. leaves. Among these compounds, trans-sinapaldehyde (6), 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-3-methylflavone (7), and amarusine A (13) were isolated from E. ulmoides leaves for the first time. The ursane-type C-triterpenoid, ulmoidol (ULM, 9), significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory mediators and reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Moreover, ULM inhibited the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14)/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway and consequently limited the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Notably, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and molecular docking analyses indicated that ULM could prevent PU box binding-1 (PU.1) from binding to DNA, suggesting that PU.1 might be a potential ULM target. In conclusion, ULM alleviates neuroinflammatory responses in microglia, which could be partly explained by its targeting of PU.1 and the resulting suppression of the TLR4/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways. These results suggested that ULM may have therapeutic potential as an agent for treating neuroinflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105345DOI Listing
September 2021

Unusual Exchange Couplings and Intermediate Temperature Weyl State in Co_{3}Sn_{2}S_{2}.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(11):117201

Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA.

Understanding magnetism and its possible correlations to topological properties has emerged to the forefront as a difficult topic in studying magnetic Weyl semimetals. Co_{3}Sn_{2}S_{2} is a newly discovered magnetic Weyl semimetal with a kagome lattice of cobalt ions and has triggered intense interest for rich fantastic phenomena. Here, we report the magnetic exchange couplings of Co_{3}Sn_{2}S_{2} using inelastic neutron scattering and two density functional theory (DFT) based methods: constrained magnetism and multiple-scattering Green's function methods. Co_{3}Sn_{2}S_{2} exhibits highly anisotropic magnon dispersions and linewidths below T_{C}, and paramagnetic excitations above T_{C}. The spin-wave spectra in the ferromagnetic ground state is well described by the dominant third-neighbor "across-hexagon" J_{d} model. Our density functional theory calculations reveal that both the symmetry-allowed 120° antiferromagnetic orders support Weyl points in the intermediate temperature region, with distinct numbers and the locations of Weyl points. Our study highlights the important role Co_{3}Sn_{2}S_{2} can play in advancing our understanding of kagome physics and exploring the interplay between magnetism and band topology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.117201DOI Listing
September 2021

Perceived social support and diet quality among ethnic minority groups in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 23;21(1):1726. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Yunnan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Kunming, 650022, China.

Background: Social support is an important health determinant and may affect dietary behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between perceived social support and the Chinese Diet Balance Index-16 (DBI-16) among ethnic minority groups in Southwest China.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between May 2019 and August 2020 among six ethnic minority groups native to Yunnan Province (n = 3564). Perceived social support from family, friends and significant others were measured with the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Dietary data were obtained using a 100-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a lifestyle questionnaire. Lower Bound Score (LBS), Higher Bound Score (HBS) and Diet Quality Distance (DQD) which represent inadequate, excessive and unbalanced food intake respectively were calculated to measure the compliance with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese 2016.

Results: One thousand four hundred ninety-six men and two thousand sixty-eight women were included. 51.2% of the subjects had moderate or high levels of inadequate intake; 21.3% had moderate or high levels of excessive intake; and 74.0% had moderate or high levels of unbalanced dietary intake. With potential confounders adjusted, support from family was negatively associated with inadequate intake, while support from friends was positively associated with inadequate and excessive intake. No significant associations were found between perceived social support from significant others and diet quality indicators.

Conclusions: An unbalanced diet is common among adults of the ethnic minority groups in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Social support should be taken into account in designing nutrition interventions rather than focusing solely on individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11787-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8459473PMC
September 2021

The effectiveness and safety profile of netarsudil 0.02% in glaucoma treatment: real-world 6-month outcomes.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, 840 Walnut Street, Suite 1100, Philadelphia, PA, 19107, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of netarsudil 0.02% ophthalmic solution in a tertiary glaucoma referral center.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with glaucoma initiated on netarsudil 0.02% at a single institution from November 2017 to September 2018. Demographic and clinical data were collected, including intraocular pressure (IOP) and drug side effects at baseline and 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up visits.

Results: A total of 340 eyes of 233 patients were included; mean ± SD patient age was 69.1 ± 12.5 years. One hundred twenty (48%) eyes experienced ≥ 20% decreases in IOP at the 1-month study visit; this effect was maintained through the 6-month visit. IOP-lowering effects in patients using ≥ 3 topical glaucoma medications were similar (all p > 0.1). Eighteen (7.4%) and 7 (2.9%) patients experienced increases in IOP of ≥ 3 and ≥ 5 mmHg, respectively. Across all study visits, conjunctival hyperemia was noted at a rate of 27.6%, and though frequently reported, complaints of blurred vision (31.1%) did not manifest in significant worsening of visual acuity. The rate of drug discontinuation due to insufficient IOP-lowering and side effects was 15.6% and 24.8%, respectively. Twenty-nine (11.4%) and 82 (32.3%) eyes required additional medical and surgical/laser intervention, respectively.

Conclusion: Commonly used as the last-line medical therapy in this case series, netarsudil safely and significantly reduced IOP in patients with glaucoma, even in those using ≥ 3 glaucoma medications. Increases in IOP of ≥ 3 mmHg occurred in a small number of patients. Subjective vision changes and conjunctival hyperemia were the most frequently reported side effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-021-05410-xDOI Listing
September 2021

Synthesis and evaluation of Grateloupia Livida polysaccharides-functionalized selenium nanoparticles.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

College of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; The State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou, Hainan, China. Electronic address:

Grateloupia Livida polysaccharides-functionalized selenium nanoparticles (GLP-SeNPs) have been successfully prepared in a simple redox system of sodium selenite and ascorbic acid. The size, morphology, structure, stability and thermal behavior were analyzed by various characterization methods. These results showed that, GLP-SeNPs (particle size of 115.54 nm) prepared in optimal synthesis conditions (temperature of 45 °C, reaction time of 3 h, GLP concentration of 1.0 mg/mL and ascorbic acid concentration of 0.04 M) obtained by orthogonal experiments were uniform spherical and could be stable for 30 days at 4 °C. GLP-SeNPs exhibited significant scavenging ability on DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical when compared to GLP and NaSeO. GLP-SeNPs showed selective cytotoxicity toward various human cancer cells, but not normal cells. Besides, GLP-SeNPs exhibited low oral acute toxicity. Taken together, GLP-SeNPs might be used as potential diet nutritional supplement or anticancer agent.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.09.087DOI Listing
September 2021

Adaptive kernel selection network with attention constraint for surgical instrument classification.

Neural Comput Appl 2021 Sep 13:1-15. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.

Computer vision (CV) technologies are assisting the health care industry in many respects, i.e., disease diagnosis. However, as a pivotal procedure before and after surgery, the inventory work of surgical instruments has not been researched with the CV-powered technologies. To reduce the risk and hazard of surgical tools' loss, we propose a study of systematic surgical instrument classification and introduce a novel attention-based deep neural network called SKA-ResNet which is mainly composed of: () A feature extractor with selective kernel attention module to automatically adjust the receptive fields of neurons and enhance the learnt expression and () A multi-scale regularizer with KL-divergence as the constraint to exploit the relationships between feature maps. Our method is easily trained end-to-end in only one stage with few additional calculation burdens. Moreover, to facilitate our study, we create a new surgical instrument dataset called SID19 (with 19 kinds of surgical tools consisting of 3800 images) for the first time. Experimental results show the superiority of SKA-ResNet for the classification of surgical tools on SID19 when compared with state-of-the-art models. The classification accuracy of our method reaches up to 97.703%, which is well supportive for the inventory and recognition study of surgical tools. Also, our method can achieve state-of-the-art performance on four challenging fine-grained visual classification datasets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00521-021-06368-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435567PMC
September 2021

Significant but Spatiotemporal-Heterogeneous Health Risks Caused by Airborne Exposure to Multiple Toxic Trace Elements in China.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Airborne trace elements (TEs) pose a notable threat to human health due to their toxicity and carcinogenicity, whereas their exposures and associated health risks in China remain unclear. Here, we present the first nationwide assessment of spatiotemporal exposure to 11 TEs in China by coupling a bottom-up emission inventory with a modified CMAQ model capable of TE simulation. Associated health risks of 11 TEs are then evaluated using a set of risk assessment models. Our results show that the CMAQ model could reasonably reproduce the spatiotemporal variations of 11 TEs in China compared to observations. We find significant but spatiotemporal-heterogeneous cancer risks associated with high-level exposure of TEs in China. Gridded cell concentrations of hexavalent chromium, arsenic, and nickel in eastern and central China usually exceed China's air quality standard limits, resulting in significant cancer risks that affected over 85% of the entire population in China in 2015. National annual mean population-weighted concentrations of 11 TEs decrease by 9.8-35.6% from 2012 to 2015, largely attributed to emission reduction from coal combustion. Our study provides critical insights for policymakers to implement stricter measures to alleviate health burdens and benefit relevant epidemiological research on airborne TEs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c01775DOI Listing
September 2021

Busulfan impairs blood-testis barrier and spermatogenesis by increasing noncollagenous 1 domain peptide via matrix metalloproteinase 9.

Andrology 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, China Medical University, Shen Yang, 110122, China.

Backgrounds: Sterility induced by anti-cancer treatments has caused significant concern, yet the mechanism and treatment exploration are little for male infertility after cancer therapy. Busulfan (BU), the antineoplastic that widely applied before bone marrow transplantation, was known to induce male reproductive disorder.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of busulfan on blood-testis barrier (BTB) function in adult rats and determine whether noncollagenous 1 (NC1) domain peptide, the biologically active fragment proteolyzed from the collagen α3 chain (IV) by matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), was involved during this process.

Materials And Methods: Adult male rats were treated with one-dose or double-dose of busulfan (10 mg/kg) before euthanized at day 35. BTB integrity assay, HE staining, immunofluorescence, and Western blot were used to validate the effect of busulfan on BTB permeability and spermatogenesis. JNJ0966 was applied to specifically inhibit the MMP-9 activity. The polymerization activity of F-actin/G-actin and microtubule (MT)/tubulin in the testis were assessed by using commercial kits.

Results: A noteworthy BTB injury and significant up-regulation of MMP-9 activity and NC1 level after a single-dose BU (10 mg/kg) treatment in adult rat testis were revealed. The application of JNJ0966 was found to decrease NC1 level and rescue the BU-induced BTB injury including the mis-localization of junction proteins across the seminiferous epithelium, by recovering the organization and polymerization of both F-actin and MT. The BU-induced spermatogenesis impairment was also improved by JNJ0966.

Conclusion: These findings thus demonstrate that the elevation in MMP-9 and NC1 might participate in BU-induced BTB disruption in adult male rats. As such, BU-induced male infertility could possibly be managed through interventions on NC1 production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/andr.13112DOI Listing
September 2021

Improved Spatial Resolution Achieved by Chromatic Intensity Interferometry.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Sep;127(10):103601

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

Interferometers are widely used in imaging technologies to achieve enhanced spatial resolution, but require that the incoming photons be indistinguishable. In previous work, we built and analyzed color erasure detectors, which expand the scope of intensity interferometry to accommodate sources of different colors. Here we demonstrate experimentally how color erasure detectors can achieve improved spatial resolution in an imaging task, well beyond the diffraction limit. Utilizing two 10.9-mm-aperture telescopes and a 0.8 m baseline, we measure the distance between a 1063.6 and a 1064.4 nm source separated by 4.2 mm at a distance of 1.43 km, which surpasses the diffraction limit of a single telescope by about 40 times. Moreover, chromatic intensity interferometry allows us to recover the phase of the Fourier transform of the imaged objects-a quantity that is, in the presence of modest noise, inaccessible to conventional intensity interferometry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.103601DOI Listing
September 2021

Differential Abundance of Brain Mitochondrial Proteins in Yak and Cattle: A Proteomics-Based Study.

Front Vet Sci 2021 31;8:663031. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Animal Science Department, Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

The plateau adaptability and stress resistance of yaks are widely known based on their capacity to survive under severe habitat conditions. However, a few studies on brain mitochondria have characterized these adaptations at the protein level. We identified and quantified the brain mitochondrial proteins using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and Proteomics. Western blotting was used to verify changes in the expression of target proteins. A total of 57 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were identified in the yak brain tissue. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed molecular functions of these DAPs including downregulated oxidoreductase activity but upregulated coenzyme binding. Significantly enriched biological processes were oxidation-reduction process (downregulated) and small molecule metabolic processes (upregulated). STRING protein interaction analysis indicated a complex interaction between dehydrogenase, transaminase, and ATP synthetase families. Reactome pathway analysis highlighted that the majority of DAPs participated in aerobic metabolic pathways such as metabolism, citric acid cycle, and respiratory electron transport. Immunoblotting confirmed that changes in FKBP4 and ATPAF2 expression were consistent with the results of mass spectrometry. We performed a high-throughput screening to identify DAPs in brain mitochondria between yak and cattle, which could explain the plateau adaptability of yaks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.663031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438127PMC
August 2021

USP21 deubiquitinase elevates macropinocytosis to enable oncogenic KRAS bypass in pancreatic cancer.

Genes Dev 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Cancer Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Activating mutations in KRAS (KRAS*) are present in nearly all pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cases and critical for tumor maintenance. By using an inducible KRAS* PDAC mouse model, we identified a deubiquitinase USP21-driven resistance mechanism to anti-KRAS* therapy. USP21 promotes KRAS*-independent tumor growth via its regulation of MARK3-induced macropinocytosis, which serves to maintain intracellular amino acid levels for anabolic growth. The USP21-mediated KRAS* bypass, coupled with the frequent amplification of USP21 in human PDAC tumors, encourages the assessment of USP21 as a novel drug target as well as a potential parameter that may affect responsiveness to emergent anti-KRAS* therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.348787.121DOI Listing
September 2021

Droughts across China: Drought factors, prediction and impacts.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 1;803:150018. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Change and Natural Disaster, Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; Faculty of Geographical Science, Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resources Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Drought is a complicated and costly natural hazard and identification of critical drought factors is critical for modeling and forecasting of droughts and hence development of drought mitigation measures (the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index) in both space and time. Here we quantified relationships between drought and 23 drought factors using remote sensing data during the period of 2002-2016. Based on the Gradient Boosting Algorithm (GBM), we found that precipitation and soil moisture had relatively large contributions to droughts. During the growing season, the relative importance of Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI-7) for SPEI3, SPEI6, SPEI9, and SPEI12 reached as high as 50%. However, during the non-growing season, the Snow Cover Fraction (SCF) had larger fractional relative importance for short-term droughts in the Inner Mongolia and the Loess Plateau which can reach as high as 10%. We also compared Extremely Randomized Trees (ERT), H2O-based Deep Learning (Model developed by H2O.deep learning in R H2O.DL), and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) for drought prediction at various time scales, and found that the ERT model had the highest prediction performance with R > 0.72. Based on the Meta-Gaussian model, we quantified the probability of maize yield reduction in the North China Plain under different compound dry-hot conditions. Due to extreme drought and hot conditions, Shandong Province in North China had the highest probability of >80% of the maize yield reduction; due to the extreme hot conditions, Jiangsu Province in East China had the largest probability of >86% of the maize yield reduction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150018DOI Listing
September 2021

The carrier transition from Li atoms to Li vacancies in solid-state lithium alloy anodes.

Sci Adv 2021 Sep 15;7(38):eabi5520. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

[Figure: see text].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abi5520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8443184PMC
September 2021

Enzyme-responsive micellar JQ1 induces enhanced BET protein inhibition and immunotherapy of malignant tumors.

Biomater Sci 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Biomedical Polymers Laboratory, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, and State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.

Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are attractive targets for treating various malignancies including melanoma. The inhibition of BET bromodomains, with JQ1, is found to downregulate the expression of both c-MYC oncoprotein and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), which play a crucial role in tumor growth and the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, respectively. The BET bromodomain inhibitors like JQ1 though exhibiting high selectivity and affinity show usually low bioavailability and efficacy due to fast clearance and inferior uptake by tumor cells. The therapeutic effect of JQ1 might further be lowered by drug resistance. Here, enzyme-responsive micellar JQ1 (mJQ1) was fabricated from a poly(ethylene glycol)--poly(L-tyrosine) copolypeptide to enhance JQ1 delivery and the immunotherapy of malignant melanoma. The results showed that mJQ1 induced clearly better repression of c-MYC and PD-L1 proteins, cell cycle arrest, cell inhibition, and apoptotic activity than free JQ1 in B16F10 cancer cells. The intratumoral administration of mJQ1 at 2.5 mg of JQ1 equiv. per kg was found to show better inhibition of B16F10 tumors in C57BL/6 mice than the intraperitoneal administration of free JQ1 at 50 mg kg. In particular, when combined with radiotherapy, mJQ1 effectively suppressed tumor growth and brought about strong local and systemic antitumor immunity as evidenced by elevated CD8+ T cells and increased ratios of CD8+ T cells to Tregs, affording significantly improved survival of B16F10 tumor-bearing mice than their JQ1 counterparts and marked growth suppression of distant tumors. The great potency of enzyme-responsive micellar JQ1 makes it interesting for immunotherapy of various tumors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00724fDOI Listing
September 2021

Biochar derived from spent mushroom substrate reduced NO emissions with lower water content but increased CH emissions under flooded condition from fertilized soils in Camellia oleifera plantations.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 31;287(Pt 1):132110. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Key Laboratory of Silviculture, College of Forestry, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, 330045, China. Electronic address:

Agricultural soils are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that related with intensive fertilizer input. Biochar is widely used to mitigate GHGs, which may interact with soil water content impacting GHG emissions. Camellia oleifera fruit shell (FS) and spent mushroom substrate (MS) are ideal biochar feedstocks. However, the impact of water content and biochar on soil GHG emissions has not been thoroughly understood. Here, we examined CH and NO emissions from C. oleifera plantation soils as affected by biochar (derived from MS or FS, 1 g 25 g soil), water content (60%, 120%, 240% or 360% water holding capacity, WHC), and fertilization (control or chicken manure, CM 2.5 g 25 g soil). We determined the abundance of related microbial functional genes to obtain the underlining mechanisms. The results showed that higher NO emissions occurred in soils with 120%WHC, due to increased abundance of AOA, AOB and nirS. MS or FS biochar differed in their effects on soil GHG emissions with different WHC. MS biochar was higher in pH, C/N and specific surface area, and mitigated more NO emissions from soils with CM and 120%WHC relative to FS biochar (by 92.9% and 34.6%, respectively). MS biochar significantly decreased abundance of nitrification related functional genes (AOA, AOB) in soils with 120%WHC and CM, which explained the decrease in NO emissions. However, MS biochar increased cumulative CH emissions from flooded soils via increase in mcrA abundance. Thereby, biochar feedstocks should be considered in CH and NO mitigations from soils with different water contents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132110DOI Listing
August 2021

A review of existing strategies for designing long-acting parenteral formulations: Focus on underlying mechanisms, and future perspectives.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2021 Aug 17;11(8):2396-2415. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmaceutics and New Drug Delivery Systems, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

The need for long-term treatments of chronic diseases has motivated the widespread development of long-acting parenteral formulations (LAPFs) with the aim of improving drug pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy. LAPFs have been proven to extend the half-life of therapeutics, as well as to improve patient adherence; consequently, this enhances the outcome of therapy positively. Over past decades, considerable progress has been made in designing effective LAPFs in both preclinical and clinical settings. Here we review the latest advances of LAPFs in preclinical and clinical stages, focusing on the strategies and underlying mechanisms for achieving long acting. Existing strategies are classified into manipulation of clearance and manipulation of drug release from delivery systems, respectively. And the current challenges and prospects of each strategy are discussed. In addition, we also briefly discuss the design principles of LAPFs and provide future perspectives of the rational design of more effective LAPFs for their further clinical translation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2021.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424287PMC
August 2021

The complete chloroplast genome of var. (Lamiaceae) from Guilin, China, a potential medicinal plant.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 27;6(9):2779-2780. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

College of Pharmacy, Guilin Medical University, Guilin, China.

var. is one of the traditional medical herbs which has the potential for multiple diseases' treatment. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome sequence of var. was sequenced and assembled. A typical quadripartite structure was observed in the chloroplast genome of var. which was 154179 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (each 51396 bp) separated by a large single-copy region (LSC) of 84927 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 17856 bp, and the overall GC contents of the chloroplast genome was 38.08%. Additionally, we annotated 132 genes, including 86 protein-coding genes, 38 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis was adopted which confirmed the position of var. was close to the congeneric
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1969696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425756PMC
August 2021

Protective effect of extracorporeal membrane pulmonary oxygenation combined with cardiopulmonary resuscitation on post-resuscitation lung injury.

World J Emerg Med 2021 ;12(4):303-308

Department of Emergency Medicine, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, China.

Background: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a critical condition that is a concern to healthcare workers. Comparative studies on extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) and conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCPR) technologies have shown that ECPR is superior to CCPR. However, there is a lack of studies that compare the protective effects of these two resuscitative methods on organs. Therefore, we aim to perform experiments in swine models of ventricular fibrillation-induced CA to study whether the early application of ECPR has advantages over CCPR in the lung injury and to explore the protective mechanism of ECPR on the post-resuscitation pulmonary injury.

Methods: Sixteen male swine were randomized to CCPR (CCPR; =8; CCPR alone) and ECPR (ECPR; =8; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with CCPR) groups, with the restoration of spontaneous circulation at 6 hours as an endpoint.

Results: For the two groups, the survival rates between the two groups were not statistically significant (>0.05), the blood and lung biomarkers were statistically significant (<0.05), and the extravascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability index were statistically significant (<0.01). Compared with the ECPR group, electron microscopy revealed mostly vacuolated intracellular alveolar type II lamellar bodies and a fuzzy lamellar structure with widening and blurring of the blood-gas barrier in the CCPR group.

Conclusions: ECPR may have pulmonary protective effects, possibly related to the regulation of alveolar surface-active proteins and mitigated oxidative stress response post-resuscitation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2021.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8390345PMC
January 2021

Waste image classification based on transfer learning and convolutional neural network.

Waste Manag 2021 Sep 8;135:150-157. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730070, China. Electronic address:

The rapid economic and social development has led to a rapid increase in the output of domestic waste. How to realize waste classification through intelligent methods has become a key factor for human beings to achieve sustainable development. Traditional waste classification technology has low efficiency and low accuracy. To improve the efficiency and accuracy of waste classification processing, this paper proposes a DenseNet169 waste image classification model based on transfer learning. Because of the disadvantages of the existing public waste dataset, such as uneven distribution of data, single background, obvious features, and small sample size of the waste image, the waste image dataset NWNU-TRASH is constructed. The dataset has the advantages of balanced distribution, high diversity, and rich background, which is more in line with real needs. 70% of the dataset is used as the training set and 30% as the test set. Based on the deep learning network DenseNet169 pre-trained model, we can form a DenseNet169 model suitable for this experimental dataset. The experimental results show that the accuracy of classification is over 82% in the DenseNet169 model after the transfer learning, which is better than other image classification algorithms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.08.038DOI Listing
September 2021

One-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures: Growth mechanism and handedness correlation revealed by nondestructive TEM.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(37)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan;

We recently synthesized one-dimensional (1D) van der Waals heterostructures in which different atomic layers (e.g., boron nitride or molybdenum disulfide) seamlessly wrap around a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and form a coaxial, crystalized heteronanotube. The growth process of 1D heterostructure is unconventional-different crystals need to nucleate on a highly curved surface and extend nanotubes shell by shell-so understanding the formation mechanism is of fundamental research interest. In this work, we perform a follow-up and comprehensive study on the structural details and formation mechanism of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-synthesized 1D heterostructures. Edge structures, nucleation sites, and crystal epitaxial relationships are clearly revealed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is achieved by the direct synthesis of heteronanotubes on a CVD-compatible Si/SiO TEM grid, which enabled a transfer-free and nondestructive access to many intrinsic structural details. In particular, we have distinguished different-shaped boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) edges, which are confirmed by electron diffraction at the same location to be strictly associated with its own chiral angle and polarity. We also demonstrate the importance of surface cleanness and isolation for the formation of perfect 1D heterostructures. Furthermore, we elucidate the handedness correlation between the SWCNT template and BNNT crystals. This work not only provides an in-depth understanding of this 1D heterostructure material group but also, in a more general perspective, serves as an interesting investigation on crystal growth on highly curved (radius of a couple of nanometers) atomic substrates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2107295118DOI Listing
September 2021

Field-tunable toroidal moment in a chiral-lattice magnet.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 9;12(1):5339. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Neutron Scattering Division, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.

Ferrotoroidal order, which represents a spontaneous arrangement of toroidal moments, has recently been found in a few linear magnetoelectric materials. However, tuning toroidal moments in these materials is challenging. Here, we report switching between ferritoroidal and ferrotoroidal phases by a small magnetic field, in a chiral triangular-lattice magnet BaCoSiO with tri-spin vortices. Upon applying a magnetic field, we observe multi-stair metamagnetic transitions, characterized by equidistant steps in the net magnetic and toroidal moments. This highly unusual ferri-ferroic order appears to come as a result of an unusual hierarchy of frustrated isotropic exchange couplings revealed by first principle calculations, and the antisymmetric exchange interactions driven by the structural chirality. In contrast to the previously known toroidal materials identified via a linear magnetoelectric effect, BaCoSiO is a qualitatively new multiferroic with an unusual coupling between several different orders, and opens up new avenues for realizing easily tunable toroidal orders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25657-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429646PMC
September 2021

Heterocyclic Chemistry Applied to the Design of -Acyl Homoserine Lactone Analogues as Bacterial Quorum Sensing Signals Mimics.

Molecules 2021 Aug 24;26(17). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CPE Lyon, UMR 5246, CNRS, ICBMS, Institut de Chimie et de Biochimie Moléculaires et Supramoléculaires, Bât. E. Lederer, 1 Rue Victor Grignard, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.

-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are small signaling molecules used by many Gram-negative bacteria for coordinating their behavior as a function of their population density. This process, based on the biosynthesis and the sensing of such molecular signals, and referred to as Quorum Sensing (QS), regulates various gene expressions, including growth, virulence, biofilms formation, and toxin production. Considering the role of QS in bacterial pathogenicity, its modulation appears as a possible complementary approach in antibacterial strategies. Analogues and mimics of AHLs are therefore biologically relevant targets, including several families in which heterocyclic chemistry provides a strategic contribution in the molecular design and the synthetic approach. AHLs consist of three main sections, the homoserine lactone ring, the central amide group, and the side chain, which can vary in length and level of oxygenation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the contribution of heterocyclic chemistry in the design of AHLs analogues, insisting on the way heterocyclic building blocks can serve as replacements of the lactone moiety, as a bioisostere for the amide group, or as an additional pattern appended to the side chain. A few non-AHL-related heterocyclic compounds with AHL-like QS activity are also mentioned.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433848PMC
August 2021

Integrated, Highly Flexible, and Tailorable Thermoelectric Type Temperature Detectors Based on a Continuous Carbon Nanotube Fiber.

Small 2021 Sep 9:e2102825. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

As possible alternatives to traditional thermoelectric (TE) materials, carbon nanomaterials and their hybrid materials have great potential in the future application of flexible and lightweight temperature detection. In this work, an integrated, highly flexible, and tailorable TE temperature detector with high performance has been fabricated based on a continuous single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fiber. The detector consists of more than one pairs of thermocouples composed of p-type SWCNT fiber and n-type SWCNT hybrid fiber in situ doped by polyethylenimine. Due to the node contact mechanism of the detection, the sensitivity of the detector can be improved with the increase of the number of p-n thermocouples, independent of the length of the thermocouple. The temperature detection process of the detector has been studied in detail. In particular, the integrated and flexible detector can be divided into several sub-detectors easily by cutting, illustrating the prospect of large-scale preparation of this kind of novel temperature detectors. Its high flexibility ensures the detector to maintain excellent detection performance after 15 000 bending circles. Furthermore, the as-designed TE type temperature detector demonstrates a great application promise for real-time temperature detection and temperature change sensing even in complex surface and harsh environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102825DOI Listing
September 2021

Differences in proteomic profiles between yak and three cattle strains provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying high-altitude adaptation.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

State Key Laboratory of Hulless Barley and Yak Germplasm Resources and Genetic Improvement, Lhasa, China.

Yaks display unique properties of the lung and heart, enabling their adaptation to high-altitude environments, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. In the present study, the proteome differences in lung and heart tissues were compared between yak (Bos grunniens) and three cattle strains (Bos taurus, Holstein, Sanjiang and Tibetan cattle) using the sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra/data-independent acquisition (SWATH/DIA) proteomic method. In total, 51,755 peptides and 7215 proteins were identified. In the lung tissue, there were 162, 310 and 118 differential abundance proteins (DAPs) in Tibetan, Holstein and Sanjiang cattle compared to yak respectively. In the heart tissue, there were 71, 57 and 78 DAPs in Tibetan, Holstein and Sanjiang cattle compared to yak respectively. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed that the DAPs were enriched for the retinol metabolism and toll-like receptor categories in lung tissue. The changes in these two pathways may regulate hypoxia-induced factor and immune function in yaks. Moreover, DAPs in heart tissues were enriched for cardiac muscle contraction, Huntington's disease, chemical carcinogenesis and drug metabolism-cytochrome P450. Further exploration indicated that yaks may alter cardiac function through regulation of type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and Ca -release channels. The present results are useful to further develop an understanding of the mechanisms underlying adaptation of animals to high-altitude conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13629DOI Listing
September 2021

First Report of Leaf Spot Caused by Alternaria alternata on Yucca gloriosa in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Henan Institute of Science and Technology, School of Resources and Environment, Xinxiang, Henan, China.

Yucca gloriosa L. is introduced to China as a garden plant because of its attractive tubular flowers (Ding et al. 2020). In 2020 and 2021, a foliar disease occurred on approximately 10% of the Y. gloriosa plants in the campus of Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang (35°18'N, 113°54'E), Henan Province, China. At the early stages, symptoms appeared as small brown spots on the tip of the leaves. As the disease developed, the spots gradually expanded and turned into necrotic tissue with a clear brown border. The length of lesions ranged from 1 to 3 cm. Infected tissue samples were cut into small pieces, surface sterilized with 75% ethanol for 30 s followed by 0.5% NaClO for 2 min, rinsed thrice with sterile water and plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA). After incubation at 25℃ for 3 days, five fungal isolates were collected and purified using single spore culturing. Morphological observations were made on the 7-day-old cultures. Colonies on PDA were white at first and then turned to dark olive or black along with profuse sporulation. Conidia were borne on branched conidiophores, light brown to dark brown, ellipsoidal to obpyriform, and 20.5 to 43.6 ×7.5 to 15.4 μm in size, with 2-6 transverse septa and 0-3 longitudinal septa (n = 50). The morphological characteristics of the five isolates were consistent with the description for Alternaria alternata (Simmons 2007). One representative isolate (ZQ20) was selected for molecular identification. The internal transcribed spacers (ITS)-rDNA, translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α), Alternaria major allergen (Alt a1), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene regions were amplified with primer pairs ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990), EFl-728F/ EFI-986R (Carbone and Kohn, 1999), Alt-for/Alt-rev (Hong et al. 2005), and gpd1/gpd2 (Berbee et al. 1999), respectively. Their sequences were submitted to GenBank (ITS, MW832377; TEF-1α, MW848791; Alt a1, MW848792; GAPDH, MW848793). BLAST searches showed ≥99% nucleotide identity to the sequences of A. alternata (ITS, 100% to KF465761; TEF-1α, 100% to MT133312; Alt a1, 100% to KY923227; and GAPDH, 99% to MK683863). Thus, the fungus was identified as A. alternata based on its morphological and molecular characteristics. To confirm its pathogenicity, 25 healthy leaves of five 2-year-old Y. gloriosa plants were used. Leaves were wounded with one sterile needle and inoculated with 5-mm-diameter fungal agar disks obtained from 5-day-old cultures. Sterile PDA disks of the same size were used as the controls. Treated plants were covered with a plastic bag at 12 to 25℃ for 48 h to ensure a high level of moisture. After 15 days, the inoculated plants developed the symptoms similar to those observed in naturally infected plants, whereas the control plants were symptomless. The fungus was reisolated from the symptomatic leaves with the same morphological and molecular characteristics as the original isolates, fulfilling the Koch's postulates. Leaf spot caused by A. alternata in the Yucca plants has been reported in India (Pandey 2019). To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. alternata causing leaf spot on Y. gloriosa in China. Identification of the cause of the disease is important to developing effective disease management strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-21-0857-PDNDOI Listing
September 2021

Improved diagnosis of thyroid cancer aided with deep learning applied to sonographic text reports: a retrospective, multi-cohort, diagnostic study.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Maxillofacial and Otorhinolaryngology Oncology, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cancer Epidemiology of Tianjin, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy of Tianjin, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300060, China.

Objective: Large volume radiological text data have been accumulated since the incorporation of electronic health record (EHR) systems in clinical practice. We aimed to determine whether deep natural language processing algorithms could aid radiologists in improving thyroid cancer diagnosis.

Methods: Sonographic EHR data were obtained from the EHR database. Pathological reports were used as the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid cancer. We developed thyroid cancer diagnosis based on natural language processing (THCaDxNLP) to interpret unstructured sonographic text reports for thyroid cancer diagnosis. We used the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) as the primary metric to measure the performance of the THCaDxNLP. We compared the performance of thyroid ultrasound radiologists aided with THCaDxNLP those without THCaDxNLP using 5 independent test sets.

Results: We obtained a total number of 788,129 sonographic radiological reports. The number of thyroid sonographic data points was 132,277, 18,400 of which were thyroid cancer patients. Among the 5 test sets, the numbers of patients per set were 439, 186, 82, 343, and 171. THCaDxNLP achieved high performance in identifying thyroid cancer patients (the AUROC ranged from 0.857-0.932). Thyroid ultrasound radiologists aided with THCaDxNLP achieved significantly higher performances than those without THCaDxNLP in terms of accuracy (93.8% 87.2%; one-sided -test, adjusted = 0.003), precision (92.5% 86.0%; = 0.018), and F1 metric (94.2% 86.4%; = 0.007).

Conclusions: THCaDxNLP achieved a high AUROC for the identification of thyroid cancer, and improved the accuracy, sensitivity, and precision of thyroid ultrasound radiologists. This warrants further investigation of THCaDxNLP in prospective clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0509DOI Listing
September 2021

Colloid-mediated transport of tetracycline in saturated porous media: Comparison between ferrihydrite and montmorillonite.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 3;299:113638. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Henan Joint International Research Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, China. Electronic address:

Given the ubiquitous mineral (e.g., clays and iron oxides) playing critical roles in impacting the fate of antibiotics in the subsurface environment, the effects of two mineral colloids (i.e., ferrihydrite and montmorillonite) on tetracycline (TC, a representative of antibiotic) transport in sand columns were investigated in this study. Interestingly, the results clearly showed that ferrihydrite colloids inhibited TC transport, while montmorillonite colloids enhanced TC mobility under neutral conditions (pH 7.0). This phenomenon resulted from the positively charged ferrihydrite colloids with weak mobility, which assisted TC deposition; besides, providing additional deposition sites for TC by the deposited ferrihydrite colloids was another important mechanism. In contrast, the transport-enhancement effect of montmorillonite on TC was attributed to the strong binding affinity of TC to clay particles as well as the competition between colloids and TC for deposition sites on sand surfaces. Moreover, the transport-inhibition effect of ferrihydrite at pH 7.0 was greater than that at pH 5.0, mainly due to more colloid-associated TC under neutral conditions. Surprisingly, ferrihydrite colloids could act as carriers of antibiotics and enhanced TC transport at pH 9.0. Because the surface charge of colloids was altered to negative and could break through the column. Meanwhile, the transport-enhancement effect of montmorillonite decreased with increasing pH from 5.0 to 9.0, resulting from the decrease of colloid-adsorbed TC. Furthermore, colloid-mediated transport of TC was influenced by ionic strength, which affected the aggregation characteristics of colloids and the binding affinities of TC to minerals. These findings provide critical information for assessing the risks of antibiotics in aquatic ecosystems where abundant natural minerals are present.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113638DOI Listing
September 2021

Nanosheet-assembled NiCo-LDH hollow spheres as high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 18;606(Pt 2):1120-1127. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

College of Chemical Engineering and Safety, Binzhou University, Binzhou, Shandong 256603, China. Electronic address:

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been considered as favorable pseudocapacitive electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their tunable layered structure/compositions and low cost. Here, we report the NiCo-LDH hollow spheres prepared with Co-glycerate as the sacrificial template and cobalt source. The hollow spheres are assembled with frizzy NiCo-LDH nanosheets, where the hollow structure can inhibit agglomeration of the LDH nanosheets to expose more active sites and shorten the diffusion path of electrolyte ions. The prepared NiCo-LDH hollow spheres show a high specific capacitance of 1962 F g at 1 A g and good capacitance retention rate of 66.4 % at 30 A g. The asymmetric supercapacitors fabricated using NiCo-LDH hollow spheres as positive electrode yields a large energy density 62.9 Wh kg at the power density of 0.8 kW kg. This research may develop a facile synthesis way to prepare LDH hollow spheres for supercapacitors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.094DOI Listing
August 2021

Gut Bacterial Characteristics of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Application Potential.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:722206. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex disorder comprehensively influenced by genetic and environmental risk, and research increasingly has indicated the role of microbial dysbiosis in T2DM pathogenesis. However, studies comparing the microbiome characteristics between T2DM and healthy controls have reported inconsistent results. To further identify and describe the characteristics of the intestinal flora of T2DM patients, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of stool microbial profiles to discern and describe microbial dysbiosis in T2DM and to explore heterogeneity among 7 studies (600 T2DM cases, 543 controls, 1143 samples in total). Using a random effects model and a fixed effects model, we observed significant differences in beta diversity, but not alpha diversity, between individuals with T2DM and controls. We identified various operational taxonomic unit (OTUs) and bacterial genera with significant odds ratios for T2DM. The T2DM signatures derived from a single study by stepwise feature selection could be applied in other studies. By training on multiple studies, we improved the detection accuracy and disease specificity for T2DM. We also discuss the relationship between T2DM-enriched or T2DM-depleted genera and probiotics and provide new ideas for diabetes prevention and improvement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.722206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415158PMC
August 2021

Transcriptome and metabolome analyses revealed the response mechanism of apple to different phosphorus stresses.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Aug 30;167:639-650. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Beijing Academy of Forestry and Pomology Sciences, Beijing Engineering Research Center for Deciduous Fruit Trees, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing, 100093, China. Electronic address:

Phosphorus (P) is an important element in numerous metabolic reactions and signalling pathways, but the molecular details of these pathways remain largely unknown. In this study, physiological, transcriptome and metabolite analyses of apple leaves and roots were compared under different P conditions. The results showed that different P stresses influenced phenotypic characteristics, soil plant analytical development (SPAD) values and the contents of flavonoids and anthocyanins in apple seedlings. The contents of hydrogen peroxide (HO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), acid phosphatase (ACP) and purple acid phosphatase (PAP) were also affected by different P stresses. In addition, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to characterize the influence of different P stresses on apple seedlings. Compared with control apple plants, there were 1246 and 1183 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in leaves and roots under the low-P treatment and 60 and 1030 DEGs in leaves and roots under the high-P treatment, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that apple trees might change their responses to metabolic processes, cell proliferation, regulation of biological processes, reactive oxygen species metabolic processes and flavonoid metabolic processes under P stress. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis further indicated that DEGs act on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway, flavonoid biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The metabolome analysis revealed that the levels of most amino acids and their derivatives, organic acids and flavonoids in roots treated with low-P stress were higher than those in roots of apple seedlings under control growth conditions. Apple seedlings regulate the flavonoid pathway to respond to different phosphorus environments. The results provide a framework for understanding the metabolic processes underlying different P responses and provide a foundation for improving the utilization efficiency of P in apple trees.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.08.040DOI Listing
August 2021
-->