Publications by authors named "Vijayalaxmi"

131 Publications

Neuroanatomical organization of methionine-enkephalinergic system in the brain of the Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Sep 3;115:101963. Epub 2021 May 3.

Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580 003, India.

Enkephalins are a class of opioid peptides implicated in several physiological and neuroendocrine responses in vertebrates. In this study, using immunocytochemical or immunofluorescence technique, we examined the neuroanatomical distribution of methionine enkephalin (M-ENK) immunoreactivity in the central nervous system (CNS) of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. In the telencephalon, no M-ENK-like-immunoreactive (M-ENK-L-ir) perikarya, but sparsely distributed fibres were detected in the glomerular layer and the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb. Although intensely labeled M-ENK-L-ir cells and fibres were found in the pallium, no M-ENK immunoreactivity was observed in the subpallium. The preoptic area showed a few M-ENK-L-ir somata and dense innervations of fibres. In the hypothalamic area, M-ENK-L-ir cells and fibres were located in magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of the nucleus preopticus, and medial and lateral subdivisions of the nucleus lateralis tuberis. Surrounding the recessus lateralis of the third ventricle, several intensely stained and packed M-ENK-L-ir cells and fibres were seen in dorsal, lateral and ventral subdivisions of the nucleus recessus lateralis. In the diencephalon, M-ENK immunoreactivity was restricted to the habenula, the thalamus, the pretectal area and the nucleus posterior tuberis. Dense aggregations of M-ENK-L-ir fibres were seen in the mesencephalic subdivisions, the optic tectum and the torus semicircularis, whereas a few fusiform M-ENK-L-ir cells and fibres were scattered in the midbrain tegmentum. In the rhombencephalon, different populations of ovoid or spindle shaped M-ENK-L-ir cells were observed in the secondary gustatory nucleus, the sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus, the nucleus reticularis medialis and the vagal motor nucleus, whereas bands of fibres were seen in the rostral spinal cord. Collectively, the widespread distribution of M-ENK immunoreactivity in the CNS suggests a role for this opioid peptide in regulation of neuroendocrine control of reproduction and modulation of sensorimotor functions in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2021.101963DOI Listing
September 2021

Management of umbilical granuloma through chemical cauterization (Ksharakarma)-A case study.

J Ayurveda Integr Med 2021 Jan-Mar;12(1):169-171. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Shalya Tantra, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda & Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India.

An umbilical granuloma is a most common umbilical abnormality in neonates which occurs due to overgrowth of umbilical tissue during the healing process. In Ayurveda, umbilical granuloma can be correlated with conditions like Pindalika(one of the complication of improper cutting of umbilical cord) or NabhigataArsha(extra growth on umbilicus). Aneight-years-old male child presented with a complaint of reddish swelling on umbilicus with discharge and occasional bleeding from umbilicus sincebirth. On examination a single swelling on umbilicus measuring 1 × 0.8 × 0.5 cm, cherry red in color with serous discharge was present. It was soft, non-tender and moist. Surrounding skin was occupied with unhealthy accumulation of chronic discharges.Under aseptic precautions, Apamarga Pratisaraneeya Kshara (alkaline preparation having Achyranthes aspera plant) was applied on the umbilical granuloma. This treatment procedure was repeated for next two days. At seventh day from the first day of the Kshar application, it was completely healed. Umbilical granuloma was successfully treated with Kshara Karma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2020.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039328PMC
December 2020

The opioid peptide dynorphin suppresses pituitary-ovary axis in the tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

J Fish Biol 2020 Mar 13;96(3):747-754. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, India.

The opioid peptides are involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions in vertebrates. Nonetheless, the influence of an opioid peptide, dynorphin A (DYN), on reproduction in fish is understudied. The aim of this work was to study the influence of DYN on the pituitary-ovary axis in Oreochromis mossambicus. Daily injections (ip) of 250 μg DYN kg body weight for 22 days during the ovarian cycle caused a reduction in the intensity and the per cent area of luteinizing hormone (LH) immunoreactive content in the proximal pars distalis region of the pituitary gland compared with an intense immunostaining in time-matched controls. In the ovary, DYN treatment caused a decrease in the number of stage I (previtellogenic) follicles compared with time-matched controls. No difference was observed in the number of stage IV (vitellogenic) follicles among different experimental groups, whereas the numbers of stage II and stage III follicles (previtellogenic) were higher in DYN-treated fish than in time-matched controls. Nonetheless, there was a reduction in the number of stage V (preovulatory) follicles in DYN-treated fish compared with time-matched controls. Taken together, these results indicate that DYN exerts an inhibitory effect on follicular recruitment at the late vitellogenic stage, through the suppression of LH secretion in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14269DOI Listing
March 2020

Comments on the "Evaluation of the Genotoxicity of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Male and Female Rats and Mice Following Subchronic Exposure" by Smith-Roe et al.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2020 02 7;61(2):291-293. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Service Risk and Health Impact Assessment, Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.22353DOI Listing
February 2020

Leucine-enkephalin-immunoreactive neurons in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

Neuropeptides 2020 Jun 14;81:101999. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, India. Electronic address:

Enkephalins are the pentapeptides involved in pain relief and neuroendocrine responses with high affinity for delta opioid receptors in vertebrates. In the present investigation, we studied the distribution of leucine-enkephalin-immunoreactive (L-ENK-ir) neurons in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Application of the antisera against L-ENK revealed the presence of numerous L-ENK-ir perikarya and fibres in subdivisions of the dorsal and the ventral telencephalon, the medial olfactory tract and the nucleus entopeduncularis, whereas intensely labelled L-ENK-ir fibres were noticed in the olfactory bulb. Furthermore, the presence of L-ENK-ir cells and dense accumulations of fibres in the preoptic area and its subdivisions, the nucleus preopticus pars magnocellularis and the nucleus preopticus pars parvocellularis suggested a role for this peptide in regulation of reproduction. While intensely labelled cells and fibres were found in the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars lateralis as well as the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars medialis, some L-ENK-ir fibres were seen at the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract indicating the possible hypophysiotrophic role for this peptide. Numerous L-ENK-ir cells and dense network of fibres were observed in the subdivisions of the nucleus recess lateralis and the pretectal area, whereas intensely labelled thick network of L-ENK- fibres were found in the ventromedial thalamic nucleus, the sub-layers of the optic tectum and the rostral spinal cord. The widespread distribution of L-ENK-immunoreactivity in the olfactory bulb, the telencephalon, the diencephalon and the mesencephalon regions of the brain as well as the spinal cord suggests the possible involvement of this peptide in the regulation of diverse functions such as neuroendocrine, antinociceptive, visual and olfactory responses in O. mossambicus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.npep.2019.101999DOI Listing
June 2020

Influence of endomorphins along the pituitary-ovary axis in the Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2020 Feb 27;46(1):429-438. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Neuroendocrinology Research Lab, Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580003, India.

Endomorphins (EM-1 and EM-2) are the tetrapeptides involved in pain and neuroendocrine responses with a high affinity for μ-opioid receptors in vertebrates. However, their role in fish reproduction is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of EM-1 and EM-2 on the pituitary-ovary axis in the Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. The experimental set-up consisted of four groups, namely, initial controls, controls, EM-1- and EM-2-treated groups (n = 10 in each group consisting of two replicates). Although the number of stage IV (vitellogenic) follicles was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in controls compared to initial controls, the stage V (preovulatory) follicles were present in controls in contrast to their absence in initial controls. Treatment of 40 μg EM-1/0.1 ml saline/fish/day for 22 days resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in the number of stage I follicles compared to controls. While similar treatment of EM-2 did not significantly alter the number of stage I follicles compared to controls, the number of stage II follicles was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in this group compared to those of controls and EM-1 treated fish. The number of stage III and IV follicles did not significantly differ among controls, EM-1- and EM-2-treated groups. However, a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the mean number of stage V follicles was observed in EM-1- and EM-2-treated fish compared to controls. These changes were concomitant with significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the intensity and the percent area of immunoreactivity of luteinizing hormone (LH) secreting cells in the proximal pars distalis (PPD) of the pituitary gland and significantly higher (P < 0.05) percent occurrence of follicular atresia in EM-1- and EM-2-treated fish compared to those of controls. Taken together, these results suggest an inhibitory effect for endomorphins along the pituitary-ovary axis, for the first time in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-019-00731-5DOI Listing
February 2020

Funding Source, Quality of Publications and Outcome in Genetic Damage in Mammalian Cells Exposed to Non-Ionizing Radiofrequency Fields.

Radiat Res 2019 10 7;192(4):353-362. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Departments of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229.

There has been ongoing debate and discussion concerning whether the funding source influenced the outcome of research on human health effects from exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF, electromagnetic waves that carry energy as they propagate in air and dense media). In a study of 225 publications, in which we sought to determine a possible association between the funding source(s), quality and outcome in a total of 2,160 genetic damage assessment tests of mammalian cells exposed to RF energy, we made several observations. One finding was that a great majority of researchers had acknowledged government agencies as the funding source (53%, 120 of 225 publications), while a small number of scientists mentioned mobile phone industry as the financial source (9%, 20 of 225 publications). Numerous investigators did not mention the funding source (26%, 58 of 225 publications). Secondly, industry-funded investigations were of better quality and utilized quality control measures, i.e., blind evaluation, adequate description of dosimetry, positive controls and/or sham-exposed controls, compared to those funded by the government. Another observation was that in industry-funded studies, the d values (effect size or standardized mean difference between the cells exposed to RF energy and sham-exposed controls) were consistently lower than in government-funded studies. In addition, compared to government-funded studies, a higher percentage of industry-funded studies reported no difference in genetic damage between RF- and sham-exposed cells (80% for industry-funded studies versus 49% for government-funded studies). Finally, we observed that industry-funded studies were less likely to report an increase in genetic damage in cells exposed to RF energy (10%) compared to government-funded studies (23%). In view of the large difference between the percentage of publications funded by government and industry (53% or 122 of 225 publications for government, compared to 9% or 29 of 225 publications for industry), caution should be used when debating and discussing the above observations. Overall, it is important to include the quality control measures in the investigations, and also mention the funding source in published studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15364.1DOI Listing
October 2019

Tinkering with targeting nucleotide signaling for control of intracellular Leishmania parasites.

Cytokine 2019 07 23;119:129-143. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.

Nucleotides are one of the most primitive extracellular signalling molecules across all phyla and regulate a multitude of responses. The biological effects of extracellular nucleotides/sides are mediated via the specific purinergic receptors present on the cell surface. In mammalian system, adenine nucleotides are the predominant nucleotides found in the extracellular milieu and mediate a constellation of physiological functions. In the context of host-pathogen interaction, extracellular ATP is recognized as a danger signal and potentiates the release of pro-inflammatory mediators from activated immune cells, on the other hand, its breakdown product adenosine exerts potential anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions. Therefore, it is increasingly apparent that the interplay between extracellular ATP/adenosine ratios has a significant role in coordinating the regulation of the immune system in health and diseases. Several pathogens express ectonucleotidases on their surface and exploit the purinergic signalling as one of the mechanisms to modulate the host immune response. Leishmania pathogens are one of the most successful intracellular pathogens which survive within host macrophages and manipulate protective Th1 response into disease promoting Th2 response. In this review, we discuss the regulation of extracellular ATP and adenosine levels, the role of ATP/adenosine counter signalling in regulating the inflammation and immune responses during infection and how Leishmania parasites exploit the purinergic signalling to manipulate host response. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities in targeting purinergic signalling and the future prospects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2019.03.005DOI Listing
July 2019

Comprehensive Review of Quality of Publications and Meta-analysis of Genetic Damage in Mammalian Cells Exposed to Non-Ionizing Radiofrequency Fields.

Radiat Res 2019 01 19;191(1):20-30. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

b   Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229.

There have been numerous published studies reporting on the extent of genetic damage observed in animal and human cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF, electromagnetic waves that carry energy as they propagate in air and dense media). Overall, the data are inconsistent; while some studies have suggested significantly increased damage in cells exposed to RF energy compared to unexposed and/or sham-exposed control cells, others have not. Several variables in exposure conditions used in the experiments might have contributed to the controversy. In this comprehensive review, four specific quality control measures were used to determine the quality of 225 published studies in animal and human cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to RF energy, and the results from 2,160 tests with different sample sizes were analyzed. The four specific quality control measures were as follows: 1. "Blind" collection/analysis of the data to eliminate individual/observer "bias"; 2. Adequate description of "dosimetry" for independent replication/confirmation; 3. Inclusion of "positive controls" to confirm the outcomes; and 4. Inclusion of "sham-exposed controls" which are more appropriate to compare the data with those in RF exposure conditions. In addition, meta-analysis of the genetic damage in cells exposed to RF energy and control cells, thus far available in the RF literature database, was performed to obtain the "d" values, i.e., standardized mean difference between these two types of cells or the effect size. The relationship between d values and the above-mentioned quality control measures was ascertained. In addition, the correlation between the quality control measures and the conclusions reported in the publications (no significant difference between the cells exposed to RF energy and control cells; increased damage in former cells compared to the latter; increased, no significant difference and decreased damage in cells exposed to RF energy in the same experiment; or decreased damage in cells exposed to RF energy) was examined. The overall conclusions were as follows: 1. When all four quality control measures were mentioned in the publication, the d values were smaller compared to those when one or more quality control measures were not mentioned in the investigation; 2. Based on the inclusion of quality control measures, the weighted outcome in cells exposed to RF energy (d values) indicated a very small effect, if any; 3. The number of published studies reporting no significant difference in genetic damage of cells exposed to RF energy, compared to that of control cells, increased with increased number of quality control measures employed in investigations; 4. The number of published studies reporting increased genetic damage in cells exposed to RF energy decreased with increased number of quality control measures; and 5. There was a "bias" towards the publications reporting increased genetic damage in cells exposed to RF energy even with very small sample size. Overall, the results from this study underscore the importance of including quality control measures in investigations so that the resulting data are useful, nationally and internationally, in evaluating "potential" health risks from exposure to RF energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/RR15117.1DOI Listing
January 2019

A Prospective Study of Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A New and Pernicious Complication.

Indian J Nephrol 2018 Mar-Apr;28(2):127-134

Department of General Medicine, MVJ Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a recently recognized complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in end-stage renal disease. It has prevalence estimates of 30%-50% and is an independent predictor of increased mortality in CKD patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of PH in patients with CKD, its severity in different stages of CKD, and risk factors for it. One hundred and eight patients with CKD treated at Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli, Karnataka, between January 1, 2014, and June 30, 2015, were selected. Clinical evaluation and relevant investigations including echocardiography were done. Follow-up echocardiography was done at 3 and 6 months and assessed. The mean age of studied population was 43.53 ± 14.63 years. Sex ratio was 2.72:1 (male:female). PH was present in 47 of 108 (43.5%) cases at beginning, 41 of 83 (491.4%) at 3 months, and 32 of 64 (50%) at 6 months. The prevalence and severity of PH increased with progression of CKD stage, although not statistically significant. Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and heart failure with preserved EF were significantly higher among PH group compared to non-PH group ( < 0.01). Mean hemoglobin in PH group was significantly lower, compared to non-PH group ( < 0.01). Mean interdialytic weight gain and central venous pressure were higher among PH group than non-PH group. Higher calcium phosphate product ≥50 was more prevalent in PH group than in non-PH group. The majority of them had moderate PH at the beginning of the study which remained same, despite being on hemodialysis. PH is a common complication in CKD patients with prevalence of 43.5%-50%. Left-sided heart failure, anemia, fluid retention, and increased calcium phosphate product are the risk factors for developing PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijn.IJN_36_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5952451PMC
June 2018

Adaptive response in mouse bone marrow stromal cells exposed to 900MHz radiofrequency fields: Impact of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP).

Mutat Res 2017 08 17;820:19-25. Epub 2017 May 17.

School of Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

This study examined whether non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF) exposure is capable of inducing poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and whether it plays a role in RF-induced adaptive response (AR). Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were exposed to 900MHz RF at 120μW/cm power flux density for 3h/day for 5days and then challenged with a genotoxic dose of 1.5Gy gamma-radiation (GR). Some cells were also treated with 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB, 2mM final concentration), a potent inhibitor of PARP-1. Un-exposed and sham (SH)-exposed control cells as well as positive control cells exposed to gamma radiation (GR) were included in the experiments. The expression of PARP-1 mRNA and its protein levels as well as single strand breaks in the DNA and the kinetics of their repair were evaluated at several times after exposures. The results indicated the following. (a) Cells exposed to RF alone showed significantly increased PARP-1 mRNA expression and its protein levels compared with those exposed to SH- and GR alone. (b) Treatment of RF-exposed cells with 3-AB had diminished such increase in PARP-1. (c) Cells exposed to RF+GR showed significantly decreased genetic damage as well as faster kinetics of repair compared with those exposed to GR alone. (d) Cells exposed to RF+3-AB+GR showed no such decrease in genetic damage. Thus, the overall date suggested that non-ionizing RF exposure was capable of inducing PARP-1 which has a role in RF-induced AR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2017.05.007DOI Listing
August 2017

Neck Circumference and Leg Length as Surrogate Markers of Coronary Artery Disease - Simplifying Cardiac Risk Stratification.

J Clin Diagn Res 2017 May 1;11(5):OC17-OC19. Epub 2017 May 1.

Professor, Department of Medicine, SDM Medical College, Sattur, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.

Introduction: Coronary angiography is the gold standard for quantification of coronary atherosclerosis. But, being invasive, it has inherent complications. Hence, we examined the accuracy of prediction of coronary angiography using simple anthropometric indices.

Aim: To identify a patient friendly method to predict coronary artery disease using simple anthropometric parameters, by testing their correlation with coronary artery disease severity scoring system.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. A total of 48 patients were included in the study. Neck circumference and leg length of the patients were noted. The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was quantified using Jenkin's scoring system. Mean and standard deviation for each continuous variable was calculated. The correlation between Jenkins' score, neck circumference and leg length was tested. The data analysis was done using IBM-SPSS software.

Results: Mean leg length among the study population was 88.70 cm (±2.51 cm) among males, 79.04 cm (±4.32 cm) among females and 83.66 cm (±3.26 cm) overall. Mean neck circumference was 36.87 cm (±4.37 cm) among males, 36.04 cm (±3.65 cm) among females and 36.44 cm (±3.99 cm) when combined together. There was no correlation of Jenkin's scores with leg length. But, there was significant correlation between Jenkin's scores and neck circumference.

Conclusion: Neck circumference can be used as a simple and effective tool and is better than leg length for risk stratification of patients with coronary heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2017/21937.9934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5483729PMC
May 2017

Influence of leucine-enkephalin on pituitary-ovary axis of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2017 Oct 5;43(5):1253-1264. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580 003, India.

The present investigation was conducted to elucidate the influence of an opioid peptide, leucine-enkephalin (L-ENK), on the reproductive axis of the tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. In the first experiment, administration (i.p.) of 25, 100, and 300 μg L-ENK to the stripped female tilapia, for a period of 22 days, resulted in a significantly higher number of stage I follicles compared to those of initial controls and experimental controls, whereas the mean number of stage II and III follicles and serum levels of E did not significantly differ among different experimental groups. A significant increase in the number of stage V (fully ripened) follicles was concomitant with significant reduction in the follicular diameter in 25 or 100 μg L-ENK-treated fish compared to those of experimental controls. However, significant reduction in the mean number and diameter of these follicles was observed in 300 μg L-ENK-treated fish compared to those of experimental controls and 25 or 100 μg L-ENK-treated fish. In the second experiment, the stimulatory effect of 25 μg L-ENK on the ovary was abolished in combination with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-A). In conclusion, these results suggest that L-ENK exerts stimulatory as well as inhibitory effects on the ovary in a dose-dependent manner, and that these effects are possibly mediated through the GnRH, for the first time in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-017-0369-9DOI Listing
October 2017

Distribution of endomorphin-like-immunoreactive neurones in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

J Neuroendocrinol 2017 03;29(3)

Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, India.

Endomorphins (EMs) are tetrapeptides involved in pain and neuroendocrine responses with a high affinity for μ-opioid receptors in mammals. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of EM-like-immunoreactive (EM-L-IR) neurones in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Application of antisera against EM-1 and 2 (EM-1-2) revealed the presence of EM-L-IR somata and fibres throughout the different subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, such as the olfactory nerve layer and the granule cell layer. Although the extensions of EM-L-IR fibres were seen along the medial olfactory tract, intensely labelled EM-L-IR somata were found in different subdivisions of the telencephalon. In the diencephalon, intensely stained EM-L-IR neurones were noted in the preoptic area, the nucleus preopticus pars magnocellularis, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars lateralis and the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars medialis regions, whereas projections of EM-L-IR fibres were also seen along the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract, suggesting a possible hypophysiotrophic role for these neurones. Intense to moderately stained EM-L-IR neurones were noted in different subdivisions of thalamic nucleus, such as the dorsal posterior thalamic nucleus, commissura posterior, ventromedial thalamic nucleus, nucleus posterior tuberis, ventrolateral thalamic nucleus and medial preglomerular nucleus. Numerous intensely stained perikarya and axonal fibres were also noted throughout the inferior lobe, along the periventricular margin of the reccessus lateralis and in the nucleus recesus lateralis regions. In addition, numerous moderately labelled EM-like neuronal populations were found in the secondary gustatory nucleus and rostral spinal cord. The widespread distribution of EM-L-IR neurones throughout the brain and spinal cord indicates the diverse roles for these cells in neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory responses for the first time in fish. The present study provides further insights into the possible existence of EM-like peptides in early vertebrate lines and suggests that these peptides might have been well-conserved during the course of evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12460DOI Listing
March 2017

Biological and health effects of radiofrequency fields: Good study design and quality publications.

Authors:
Vijayalaxmi

Mutat Res 2016 Nov 9;810:6-12. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Department of Radiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA. Electronic address:

During recent decades, researchers have used several different parameters to evaluate the biological and health effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields in animals, humans and their isolated cells. The data reported in many of publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals were reviewed by the international and national expert groups of scientists for human risk assessment of exposure to radiofrequency fields. The criteria used for such assessment depended on the study design, methodology and reporting of the data in the publication. This paper describes the requirements for good study design and quality publications, and provides guidance and a checklist for researchers studying radiofrequency fields and other environmental agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2016.09.007DOI Listing
November 2016

Antigenotoxic effects of a polyherbal drug septilin against the genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide in mice.

Toxicol Rep 2016 14;3:563-571. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Department of Applied Zoology, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, 574 199, D.K., India.

Septilin (Spt) is a polyherbal drug formulation from Himalaya Drug Company, consisting of extracts from different medicinal plants and minerals. In the traditional system of medicine, septilin is being used as immunomodulatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. In the present study, the protective effects of septilin against the genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide (CP) a widely used alkylating anticancer drug was evaluated by using micronucleus (MN) and sperm shape abnormality assays in Swiss albino mice. CP administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. was used as positive mutagen. Different doses of septilin viz., 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. was orally administered for 5 consecutive days. CP was administered intraperitoneally on 5th day. MN and sperm preparations were made after 24 h and 35 days respectively. CP induced significant MN in both bone marrow and peripheral blood cells and also a high frequency of abnormal sperms. In septilin supplemented animals, no significant induction of MN and abnormal sperms was recorded. In septilin supplemented groups, a dose dependent significant decrease in CP induced clastogenicity was observed. Thus the current study revealed the antigenotoxic effects of septilin against CP induced damage, in both somatic and germ cells of Swiss albino mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2016.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5615931PMC
July 2016

DNA double-strand breaks and micronuclei in human blood lymphocytes after repeated whole body exposures to 7T Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Neuroimage 2016 06 16;133:288-293. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany; Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences, Magdeburg, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Site Magdeburg, Germany.

Purpose: To examine the extent of genetic damage, assessed from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand breaks (DSBs) and micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from individuals repeatedly exposed to 7T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

Materials And Methods: The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. Informed consent was obtained from 22 healthy, non-smoking, non-alcoholic male individuals, who had never undergone radio-/chemo-therapy, scintigraphy, and had not undergone X-ray examination one year prior blood withdrawal. Eleven participants were repeatedly exposed to 7T and 3T MRI while working with/around scanners or frequently participating as 7T and lower field MRI research subjects (mean age 34±7years). The other half was never exposed to 7T or lower field MRI and served as controls (mean age 33±9years). The damage in lymphocytes was assessed using anti-γH2AX immunofluorescence staining of DNA DSBs and by quantification of MN. Isolated cells were further exposed in vitro to 7T MRI either alone or in the presence of the DNA damaging drug etoposide, to determine if there is any additional combined effect. The kinetics of DNA damage repair were examined.

Results: The mean base-level of γH2AX foci/cell and incidence of MN between repeatedly exposed and control group were not significantly different (P=0.618 and P=0.535, respectively). The additional in vitro exposure of cells to 7T MRI had no significant impact on MN frequencies and γH2AX foci at 1, 20 and 72h after exposure.

Conclusion: Frequently repeated 7T MRI exposure did not result in a detectable increase in genotoxicity indices and alterations of DNA repair kinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.03.023DOI Listing
June 2016

Dominant lethal mutation test in male mice exposed to 900MHz radiofrequency fields.

Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2015 Oct 17;792:53-7. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

School of Public Health, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Adult male ICR mice were exposed to continuous wave 900MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 1.6mW/cm(2) power intensity (whole body average specific absorption rate of 0.731W/kg) for 4 hour/day for 15 days. At the end of exposure, each mouse was caged with 3 mature virgin female mice for mating. After 7 days, each male mouse was transferred to a fresh cage and mated with a second batch of 3 females. This process was repeated for a total of 4 consecutive weeks. Sham exposed male mice and those subjected to an acute 2Gy γ-irradiation (GR) were handled similarly and used as un-exposed and positive controls, respectively. All females were sacrificed on the 18th day of gestation and presumptive mating and, the contents in their uteri were examined. The overall observations during the 4 weeks of mating indicated that the un-exposed female mice mated to RF-exposed male mice showed no significant differences in the percentage of pregnancies, total implants, live implants and dead implants when compared with those mated with sham-exposed mice. In contrast, female mice mated with GR-exposed males showed a consistent pattern of significant differences in the above indices in each and all 4 weeks of mating. Thus, the data indicated an absence of mutagenic potential of RF exposure in the germ cells of male mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2015.07.004DOI Listing
October 2015

Investigation of Toll-Like Receptor-2 (2258G/A) and Interferon Gamma (+874T/A) Gene Polymorphisms among Infertile Women with Female Genital Tuberculosis.

PLoS One 2015 26;10(6):e0130273. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Owaisi Hospital & Research Centre, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India.

Background: Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) coordinate with a diverse array of cellular programs through the transcriptional regulation of immunologically relevant genes and play an important role in immune system, reproductive physiology and basic pathology. Alterations in the functions of TLR2 2258G (guanine)/ A, IFN-γ (+874T/A) and signalling molecules that result from polymorphisms are often associated with susceptibility or resistance, which may, in turn, establish the innate host response to various infectious diseases. Presently, we proposed to investigate the risk of common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of TLR2 and IFN-γ genes, for their effect on infertility in women with female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) and healthy women as controls.

Methodology/principal Findings: Genotyping of TLR2 and IFN-γ gene polymorphisms was performed by amplification refractory mutation system multi-gene/multi-primer polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism in 175 FGTB patients and 100 healthy control women (HCW). The TLR2 polymorphism [adenine (A) allele] was observed in 57.7 and 58.0% of FGTB patients and HCW, respectively. The IFN-γ (+874T/A) polymorphism (A allele) was significant in 74.3 and 71.0% of FGTB patients and HCW, respectively, while the odds ratios for the AA and TA genotypes for predisposition of FGTB were found to be 0.304 and 1.650 in HCW, respectively. The SNP of TLR2 was not associated with FGTB but the SNP of IFN-γ was found to be associated with mycobacteria infections and to induce infertility.

Conclusions/significance: At present, we hypothesize that infertile women with FGTB and HCW without tuberculosis (TB) have identical frequency of TLR variants, which may be adequate in the production of IFN-γ in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Thus, the study appears to be the first of its kind reporting a mutation in the IFN-γ gene [+874 T (thymine) to A] responsible for susceptibility to TB infections and further inducing infertility.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0130273PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4483232PMC
April 2016

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A review of genetic damage investigations.

Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res 2015 Apr-Jun;764:51-63. Epub 2015 Feb 21.

Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Disease (DZNE) Site, Magdeburg, Germany; Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany; Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences, Magdeburg, Germany.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful, non-invasive diagnostic medical imaging technique widely used to acquire detailed information about anatomy and function of different organs in the body, in both health and disease. It utilizes electromagnetic fields of three different frequency bands: static magnetic field (SMF), time-varying gradient magnetic fields (GMF) in the kHz range and pulsed radiofrequency fields (RF) in the MHz range. There have been some investigations examining the extent of genetic damage following exposure of bacterial and human cells to all three frequency bands of electromagnetic fields, as used during MRI: the rationale for these studies is the well documented evidence of positive correlation between significantly increased genetic damage and carcinogenesis. Overall, the published data were not sufficiently informative and useful because of the small sample size, inappropriate comparison of experimental groups, etc. Besides, when an increased damage was observed in MRI-exposed cells, the fate of such lesions was not further explored from multiple 'down-stream' events. This review provides: (i) information on the basic principles used in MRI technology, (ii) detailed experimental protocols, results and critical comments on the genetic damage investigations thus far conducted using MRI equipment and, (iii) a discussion on several gaps in knowledge in the current scientific literature on MRI. Comprehensive, international, multi-centered collaborative studies, using a common and widely used MRI exposure protocol (cardiac or brain scan) incorporating several genetic/epigenetic damage end-points as well as epidemiological investigations, in large number of individuals/patients are warranted to reduce and perhaps, eliminate uncertainties raised in genetic damage investigations in cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2015.02.002DOI Listing
August 2015

Polyphenols from different agricultural residues: extraction, identification and their antioxidant properties.

J Food Sci Technol 2015 May 23;52(5):2761-9. Epub 2014 Feb 23.

Department of Biochemistry, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, 585106 Karnataka India.

Agricultural residues like sugarcane bagasse (SCB), corn husk (CH), peanut husk (PNH), coffee cherry husk (CCH), rice bran (RB) and wheat bran (WB) are low-value byproducts of agriculture. They have been shown to contain significant levels of phenolic compounds with demonstrated antioxidant properties. In this study, the effects of two types of solvent extraction methods: solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and hot water extraction on the recovery of phenolic compounds from agricultural residues were investigated to optimize the extraction conditions based on total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). Methanol (50 %) was found to be the most efficient solvent for the extraction of phenolics with higher DPPH, nitric oxide radical scavenging and reducing power activity, followed by ethanol and water. The phenolic compounds of methanolic extracts (50 %) were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography; in addition gallic acid became the major phenolic acid present in all the agricultural residues whereas ferulic acid, epicatechin, catechin, quercitin and kampferol present in lesser amounts. The present investigation suggested that agricultural residues are potent antioxidants. The overall results of this research demonstrated the potential of agricultural residues to be an abundant source of natural antioxidants suitable for further development into dietary supplements and various food additives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1295-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4397302PMC
May 2015

Are you willing to treat patients with HIV/AIDS? An anonymous survey among staff and students of dental institution.

Oral Health Dent Manag 2014 Sep;13(3):745-8

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Kamalanagar, Dilsuknagar, Hyderabad 500035, Andhra Pradesh, Tel: 9866612910, e-mail:

Background: India is one of the largest and most populated country in the world, with over one billion inhabitants. Of this number, it is estimated that around 23.9 lakh people are currently suffering with HIV. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) require increasingly competent and compassionate health care, including oral health care.

Objectives: The present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the response of dental health care professionals (staff and students) in willingness to provide treatment to HIV/AIDS patients and whether the training and education provided to them is sufficient to handle such patients, or whether there is necessity for advanced curriculum to be implemented.

Materials And Methods: An anonymous survey with the permission from ethical committee of dental institution was conducted with the use self-administered questionnaire eliciting information on self-rated HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, infection control practices, occupational risk perception and willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patients.

Results: An increase in level of knowledge was observed with the increase in year of study from first BDS to post graduation and MDS staff. It was observed that interns and post graduate students were willing to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. Staff of the institution showed greater concern to undergo training to provide efficient treatment to patients with HIV/AIDS.

Conclusion: It was concluded that there was a positive attitude and willingness of staff and students to treat a patient suffering with HIV/AIDS. Also, there was willingness and interest of the staff and students of the dental institution to participate in training programmes to provide better and more efficient treatment to HIV/AIDS patients.
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September 2014

Mobile phones, non-ionizing radiofrequency fields and brain cancer: is there an adaptive response?

Dose Response 2014 Jul 22;12(3):509-14. Epub 2014 Apr 22.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center.

There is widespread concern among the general public regarding the ever increasing use of mobile phones. The concern is mainly because the antenna which transmits nonionizing radiofrequency fields is held close to the head during use and thus might cause brain cancer. By far, the largest epidemiological study was conducted by the INTER-PHONE study group and the results were published in 2011. The author's conclusions were (i) no increased risk of meningioma and glioma in mobile phone users and (ii) there were suggestions of an increased risk for glioma at the highest exposure levels but, bias and error prevented a causal interpretation. We have carefully examined all of the odd ratios presented in the INTERPHONE study publication: our results showed 24.3% decreased and 0.7% increased risk for meningioma and 22.1% decreased and 6.6% increased risk for glioma. Hence, we hypothesize that the overwhelming evidence for the decreased risk for both diseases may be due to the induction of 'adaptive response' which is well-documented in scientific literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2203/dose-response.14-012.VijayalaxmiDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4146338PMC
July 2014

International and national expert group evaluations: biological/health effects of radiofrequency fields.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014 Sep 10;11(9):9376-408. Epub 2014 Sep 10.

CNR-Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of Environment, Napoli 80124, Italy.

The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the "weight of scientific evidence" approach) for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110909376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199025PMC
September 2014

Complex mucinous cystadenoma of undetermined malignant potential of the urachus: a rare case with review of the literature.

Malays J Pathol 2014 Aug;36(2):145-8

JN Medical College, Belgaum-590010, Karnataka, India.

Urachal carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm. Benign urachal tumours are extremely rare. All urachal mucinous tumours, regardless of tumour type, have the potential to behave in an aggressive clinical manner that includes the development of pseudomyxoma peritonei. We report a 58-year-old man who presented with lower abdominal pain. Ultrasound and CT imaging defined a large lobulated cystic mass superior to the urinary bladder. At laparotomy, the multiloculated cystic mass, 10 x 8 x 6 cm, could be completely separated from the bladder and was excised. It was smooth-walled and filled with thick mucinous fluid. Histology revealed a complex mucinous cystadenoma of undetermined malignant potential of the urachus. The cystic spaces were lined by mucin-secreting columnar epithelium that showed focal areas of mild atypia. The epithelium lacked architectural features of villous adenoma. There was no stromal invasion to support an invasive neoplastic process. No pseudomyxoma peritonei was present. The patient was well, with no tumour recurrence, at 6 months follow-up.
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August 2014

Role of systemic markers in periodontal diseases: a possible inflammatory burden and risk factor for cardiovascular diseases?

Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014 May;4(3):388-92

Department of Periodontics, P.M.N.M Dental College and Hospital, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India.

Background: Periodontitis is a local inflammatory process mediating destruction of periodontium triggered by bacterial insult leading to systemic inflammatory mayhem in the host. Epidemiologically, it has been modestly associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with elevated acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) and rheological variables such as total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count (TLC and DLC), which are potential predictors of CVD.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the serum CRP level, leukocyte count in chronic periodontitis patients and their relation to the severity of chronic periodontitis.

Subjects And Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 30 subjects, of which 20 were diagnosed as chronic periodontitis based on the Gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment levels and 10 healthy subjects as controls. Following, which peripheral blood samples were drawn and serum CRP, TLC and DLC were quantified using the turbidimetric immunoassay. Data was analyzed using Intercooled Stata 9.2 version, (Stata corporation, LP, USA) ANOVA, Mann Whitney U test and Newman-Keuls post hoc procedures. P values less than) 0.05 were considered as significant.

Results: The mean serum CRP levels were statistically significant (P < 0.05) in severe and moderate periodontitis subjects when compared with healthy controls. Leukocytes were significantly elevated in severe periodontitis compared with moderate periodontitis and controls; this finding was primarily explained by the increase in number of neutrophils.

Conclusion: The increased serum CRP levels and neutrophils in chronic periodontitis subjects suggest an addition to the inflammatory burden of the individual potentially striking toward an increasing risk for cardiovascular events. Further research is needed to determine the specificity of these markers and their role in the inflammatory burden of one's systemic health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2141-9248.133465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4071739PMC
May 2014

Assessment of genotoxicity of aluminium acetate in bone marrow, male germ cells and fetal liver cells of Swiss albino mice.

Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2014 May 19;766:16-22. Epub 2014 Mar 19.

Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri 574 199, D.K., India.

Aluminium acetate (AA) has many pharmaceutical applications, which necessitates a thorough evaluation of its toxicity. Dose- and time-dependent genotoxic effects of AA were investigated in Swiss albino mice after exposure via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, by employing assays to detect chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow, MN in fetal liver, and abnormalities in sperm. Animals were treated with single doses of 50, 100 and 150mg/kg body weight (bw), and with daily doses of 50mg/kg bw for seven consecutive days, in order to study the effects of acute and cumulative doses, respectively. Post-treatment sampling was done at 24, 48 and 72h for bone-marrow CA and MN tests, to study time-dependent effects. Both single and repeated exposures of AA induced chromosomal aberrations, which were dose and time-dependent. The MN test failed to demonstrate genotoxicity after the single-dose exposures, indicating that a higher threshold dose is required for MN induction. Repeated treatment of AA, however, induced MN formation even at the low dose (P<0.05), reflecting genotoxicity following chronic/sub-chronic exposure. A significant reduction in mitotic index and in the P/N (polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocytes) ratio suggests that AA also has a mitodepressive effect in bone-marrow cells. AA-induced germinal genotoxicity was evident from a significant and dose-dependent increase in the percentage of abnormal spermatozoa and a reduction in sperm count. Transplacental exposure of AA resulted in the dose-dependent increase in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in the developing fetus. Thus, the current in vivo study revealed genotoxic effects of AA both on somatic and germ cells of Swiss albino mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2014.02.006DOI Listing
May 2014

Smear layer and debris removal using manual Ni-Ti files compared with rotary Protaper Ni- Ti files - An In-Vitro SEM study.

J Int Oral Health 2014 Feb 26;6(1):89-94. Epub 2014 Feb 26.

Department of Conservative Dentistry &Endodntics, Navodaya Dental College & Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka, India.

Background: Predictable successful endodontic therapy depends on correct diagnosis, effective cleaning, shaping and disinfection of the root canals and adequate obturation. Irrigation serves as a flush to remove debris, tissue solvent and lubricant from the canal irregularities; however these irregularities can restrict the complete debridement of root canal by mechanical instrumentation.Various types of hand and rotary instruments are used for the preparation of the root canal system to obtain debris free canals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of smear layer and debris removal on canal walls following the using of manual Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) files compared with rotary ProTaperNiTi files using a Scanning Electron Microscope in two individual groups.

Materials & Methods: A comparative study consisting of 50 subjects randomized into two groups - 25 subjects in Group A (manual) and 25 subjects in Group B (rotary) was undertaken to investigate and compare the effects of smear layer and debris between manual and rotary NiTi instruments. Chi square test was used to find the significance of smear layer and debris removal in the coronal, middle and apical between Group A and Group B.

Results: Both systems of Rotary ProTaperNiTi and manual NiTi files used in the present study, did not create completely clean root canals. Manual NiTi files produced significantly less smear layer and debris compared to Rotary ProTaperNiTi instruments. Rotary instruments were less time consuming when compared to manual instruments. Instrument separation was not found to be significant with both the groups.

Conclusions: Both systems of Rotary ProTaperNiTi and manual NiTi files used did not produce completely clean root canals. Manual NiTi files produced significantly less smear layer and debris compared to Rotary protaper instruments. How to cite the article: Reddy JM, Latha P, Gowda B, Manvikar V, Vijayalaxmi DB, Ponangi KC. Smear layer and debris removal using manual Ni-Ti files compared with rotary Protaper Ni-Ti files - An In-Vitro SEM study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):89-94.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3959144PMC
February 2014

Adaptive response in mammalian cells exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: A review and gaps in knowledge.

Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res 2014 Feb 15. Epub 2014 Feb 15.

Adaptive response is a phenomenon in which cells which were pre-exposed to extremely low and non-toxic doses of a genotoxic agent became resistant to the damage induced by subsequent exposure to a higher and toxic dose of the same, similar (in action) or another genotoxic agent. Such response has been well documented in scientific literature in cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to low doses of physical (especially, ionizing radiation) and chemical mutagens. The existence of similar phenomenon in mammalian cells exposed in vitro and in vivo to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields has been reported in several research publications. In in vitro studies, human blood lymphocytes exposed to radiofrequency fields and then treated with a genotoxic mutagen or subjected to ionizing radiation showed significantly decreased genetic damage. Similar studies in tumor cells showed significantly increased viability, decreased apoptosis, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased intracellular free Ca and, increased Ca-Mg-ATPase activity. In in vivo studies, exposure of rodents to radiofrequency fields and then to lethal/sub-lethal doses of γ-radiation showed survival advantage, significantly decreased damage in hematopoietic tissues, decreased genetic damage in blood leukocytes and bone marrow cells, increased numbers of colony forming units in bone marrow, increased levels of colony stimulating factor and interleukin-3 in the serum and increased expression of genes related to cell cycle. These observations suggested the ability of radiofrequency fields to induce adaptive response and also indicated some potential mechanisms for the induction of such response. Several gaps in knowledge that need to be investigated were discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2014.02.002DOI Listing
February 2014

Oral health status in haemodialysis patients.

J Clin Diagn Res 2013 Sep 10;7(9):2047-50. Epub 2013 Sep 10.

Assistant Professor, Sri Sai College of Dental Surgery , Vikarabad, Andhra Pradesh, India .

Objective: To assess the oral and dental manifestations in non- diabetic and diabetic uraemic patients who were undergoing haemodialysis and to estimate and compare the salivary pH in these two groups.

Material And Methods: Ninety Seven uraemic patients who were undergoing maintenance haemodialysis were included in the study. Subjective and objective findings were evaluated and recorded in a specially designed proforma. Predialytic unstimulated whole salivary pH was recorded by using pH-measuring strips. Dental health assessment consisted of DMFT and CPITN indices.

Results: A subjective oral manifestation of dysguesia was found to be more significant in non-diabetic patients (p<0.008). Statistically, a high significance was observed with mucosal petechiae in 31.9% patients of diabetic group .The overall DMFT score was significantly higher in diabetic group. A moderate significance was found with a CPI score of 5 (p<0.015). The pH of saliva was significantly higher among diabetic patients.

Conclusion: The diabetic subjects who were on haemodialysis were at a high risk for developing periodontal disease and they exhibited a potential threat for dental decay and xerostomia. A lower salivary pH and a poor glycaemic control may affect their oral health. Further research is required to clarify the combined influence of diabetic nephropathy on oral health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2013/5813.3402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3809679PMC
September 2013