Publications by authors named "Parveen"

1,419 Publications

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Plant hormone profile and control over isoprene biosynthesis in a tropical tree Ficus septica.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.

Plant hormone signalling and the circadian clock have been implicated in the transcriptional control of isoprene biosynthesis. To gain more insight into the hormonal control of isoprene biosynthesis, the present study measured plant hormone concentrations in jasmonic acid (JA)-treated leaves of our previous model study, examined their relationship with gene expression of isoprene synthase (IspS) and hormone signalling transcription factors. Of the plant hormones, IAA and JA-Ile and their related transcription factors (MYC2 and SAUR21) were significantly correlated with IspS gene expression. Concentrations of cytokinins, isopentenyladenine (iP), trans-zeatin riboside (tZR) and cis-zeatin riboside (cZR), were similarly significantly correlated with IspS expression. However, there was no significant correlation between their related transcription factor (ARR-B) and IspS expression. The circadian clock-related gene PRR7, but not the transcription factor LHY, was highly correlated with IspS expression. These results suggest that the hormonal balance between JA-Ile and IAA plays a central role in transcriptional regulation of IspS through the transcription factors MYC2 and SAUR21, the early auxin responsive genes. The putative cis-acting elements for SAUR on the IspS promoter (TGTCNN and CATATG), in addition to the G-box for MYC2, support the above proposal. These results provide insightful information on the core components of plant hormone-related regulation of IspS under coordination with the circadian clock genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/plb.13386DOI Listing
January 2022

Synthesis of Novel Suramin Analogs With Anti-Proliferative Activity FGF1 and FGFRD2 Blockade.

Front Chem 2021 3;9:764200. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Chemistry Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

A promising approach in cancer therapy is the inhibition of cell proliferation using small molecules. In this study, we report the synthesis of suramin derivatives and their applications. We used NMR spectroscopy and docking simulations to confirm binding sites and three-dimensional models of the ligand-protein complex. The WST-1 assay was used to assess cell viability and cell proliferation to evaluate the inhibition of protein-protein interactions and to investigate the anti-proliferative activities in a breast cancer cell line. All the suramin derivatives showed anti-proliferative activity by blocking FGF1 binding to its receptor FGFRD2. The dissociation constant was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. The suramin compound derivatives synthesized herein show potential as novel therapeutic agents for their anti-proliferative activity the inhibition of protein-protein interactions. The cytotoxicity of these suramin derivatives was lower than that of the parent suramin compound, which may be considered a significant advancement in this field. Thus, these novel suramin derivatives may be considered superior anti-metastasis molecules than those of suramin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.764200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8763243PMC
January 2022

Metabolomic Profiling and Immunomodulatory Activity of a Polyherbal Combination in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppressed Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2021 3;12:647244. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

The study was aimed to develop a characterized polyherbal combination as an immunomodulator containing L., L., (L.) Dunal, and (Willd.) Miers. Through response surface methodology (RSM), the ratio of aqueous extracts of four plant materials was optimized and comprised 49.76% of , 1.35% of , 5.41% of , and 43.43% of for optimum immunomodulatory activity. The optimized combination showed antioxidant potential and contains more than 180 metabolites, out of which gallic acid, quercetin, ellagic acid, caffeic acid, kaempferitrin, and -coumaric acid are some common and significant metabolites found in plant extracts and in polyherbal combination. Treatment with the polyherbal combination of different doses in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced the subsets of immune cells such as natural killer (NK) cells (60%), B cells (18%), CD4 cells (14%), and CD8 cells (7%). The characterized polyherbal combination exhibited potent immunomodulatory activity, which can be further explored clinically for its therapeutic applicability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.647244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8762268PMC
January 2022

Macrolides from rare actinomycetes: Structures and bioactivities.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2022 Jan 15:106523. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Institute of Biological, Environmental & Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA, United Kingdom.

Rare actinomycetes are the sources of numerous biologically active secondary metabolites with diverse structures. Among them are macrolides, which have been shown to display several antibiotic activities. In this review, twenty-six groups of macrolides from rare actinomycetes are presented, with their bioactivities and structures of representatives from each group. It has been divided according to the classes of macrolides. The most interesting groups with a wide range of biological activities are ammocidins, bafilomycins, neomaclafungins, rosaramicins, spinosyns, and tiacumicins. Most macrolides are obtained from the genus, Micromonospora, with smaller contributions from genera such as Saccharothrix, Amycolatopsis, Nocardiopsis and Catenulispora. These macrolides display unique cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-trypanosomal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antimycobacterial and anti-herpetic activity. Based on their noticeable bioactivities and diverse structures, macrolides from rare actinomycetes deserve to be investigated further for future applications in medicine. This work highlights the bioactivities and structures of important classes of macrolides from rare actinomycetes, which could be used in medicine in the future or which are already in the market.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2022.106523DOI Listing
January 2022

Nonsurgical treatment of a surgically prepared skeletal class III patient using skeletal anchorage.

J Clin Orthod 2021 Sep;55(9):901-910

Yenepoya Dental University, Karnataka, India.

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September 2021

Development of Multi-Scale Carbon Nanofiber and Nanotube-Based Cementitious Composites for Reliable Sensing of Tensile Stresses.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Dec 28;12(1). Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal.

In this work, multi-scale cementitious composites containing short carbon fibers (CFs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied for their tensile stress sensing properties. CF-based composites were prepared by mixing 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 wt.% CFs (of cement) with water using magnetic stirring and Pluronic F-127 surfactant and adding the mixture to the cement paste. In multi-scale composites, CNFs/MWCNTs (0.1 and 0.15 wt.% of cement) were dispersed in water using Pluronic F-127 and ultrasonication and CFs were then added before mixing with the cement paste. All composites showed a reversible change in the electrical resistivity with tensile loading; the electrical resistivity increased and decreased with the increase and decrease in the tensile load/stress, respectively. Although CF-based composites showed the highest stress sensitivity among all specimens at 0.25% CF content, the fractional change in resistivity (FCR) did not show a linear correlation with the tensile load/stress. On the contrary, multi-scale composites containing CNFs (0.15% CNFs with 0.75% CFs) and MWCNTs (0.1% MWCNTs with 0.5% CFs) showed good stress sensitivity, along with a linear correlation between FCR and tensile load/stress. Stress sensitivities of 6.36 and 11.82%/MPa were obtained for the best CNF and MWCNT-based multi-scale composite sensors, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12010074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8746329PMC
December 2021

Circulating Placental Alkaline Phosphatase Expressing Exosomes in Maternal Blood Showed Temporal Regulation of Placental Genes.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:758971. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Molecular Medicine & Biotechnology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.

Analysis of placental genes could unravel maternal-fetal complications. However, inaccessibility to placental tissue during early pregnancy has limited this effort. We tested if exosomes (Exo) released by human placenta in the maternal circulation harbor crucial placental genes. Placental alkaline phosphate positive exosomes (ExoPLAP) were enriched from maternal blood collected at the following gestational weeks; 6-8th (T1), 12-14th (T2), 20-24th (T3), and 28th-32nd (T4). Nanotracking analysis, electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and immunoblotting were used for characterization. We used microarray for transcriptome and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for gene analysis in ExoPLAP. Physical characterization and presence of CD63 and CD9 proteins confirmed the successful ExoPLAP enrichment. Four of the selected 36 placental genes did not amplify in ExoPLAP, while 32 showed regulations ( = 3-8/time point). Most genes in ExoPLAP showed significantly lower expression at T2-T4, relative to T1 ( < 0.05), such as , and . In contrast, genes, such as , and , had significantly higher expression at T2-T4 relative to T1. Unbiased gene profiling by microarray also confirmed expression of above genes in ExoPLAP-transcriptome. In addition, repeated measure ANOVA showed a significant change in the ExoPLAP transcriptome from T2 to T4 ( = 5/time point). Placental alkaline phosphate positive exosomes transcriptome changed with gestational age advancement in healthy women. The transcriptome expressed crucial placental genes involved in early embryonic development, such as actin cytoskeleton organization, appropriate cell positioning, DNA replication, and B-cell regulation for protecting mammalian fetuses from rejection. Thus, ExoPLAP in maternal blood could be a promising source to study the placental genes regulation for non-invasive monitoring of placental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.758971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8739800PMC
December 2021

TLC-Based Metabolite Profiling and Bioactivity-Based Scientific Validation for Use of Water Extracts in AYUSH Formulations.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 31;2021:2847440. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Bioactive Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India.

We aimed to develop a chromatographic method for scientific validation of water extract of some important Indian traditional plants used in AYUSH-based formulation as immunomodulator and to evaluate their bioactive potential. Fruits of L. and L., stem of (Willd.) Miers, rhizome of L., leaves of L. and L., roots of L., and stem bark of A. Juss. were coarsely powdered and extracted in three different solvents (water, ethanol, and hydroethanol). The antioxidant potential was determined through 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing capacity methods. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was carried out for the comparative metabolite profiling of the extracts using toluene, ethyl acetate, and formic acid (5 : 4 : 1, v/v/v) as a solvent system. immunomodulatory activity of the extracts has been tested on splenocyte proliferation and pinocytic assay. Hydroethanolic extract (HEE) of most of the plant materials has the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents, followed by water extract (WE) and ethanolic extract (EE), whereas the water extracts of most of the plant material showed better antioxidant activity. Almost all extract exhibited splenocyte proliferation and pinocytic activity in a dose-dependent manner. But water extract showed significantly higher splenocyte proliferation and pinocytic activity as compared to the other two extracts. TLC analysis resulted in detection of totally 63 and 56 metabolites at 254 nm and 366 nm, respectively. Through principal component analysis (PCA), it was observed that metabolite pattern of different extracts from same plant materials may be different or similar. This preliminary result can be used for quality evaluation and to develop a synergy-based polyherbal combination of water extracts of selected plant materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/2847440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8741349PMC
December 2021

The Impact of Psychological Factors on Women Entrepreneurial Inclination: Mediating Role of Self-Leadership.

Front Psychol 2021 23;12:796272. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

College of Law, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The worth of women's entrepreneurship is accepted globally, but there is less focus on it in developing countries, and societal expectations mean women often lack the confidence to start their own business. The core purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of personality traits on women's inclination toward entrepreneurship. The personality traits are measured through the dimensions of openness, neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. Further, the study introduced the mediator of self-leadership on personality traits and entrepreneurial intentions of women. The study is quantitative in nature and used a questionnaire survey to collect the data by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected in the context of Pakistan, and Smart PLS was chosen for further analysis. The findings revealed the significance of the relationship between personality traits and entrepreneurial intention. Furthermore, the study also highlighted the significance of self-leadership as a mediator and proposed significant relationships. The study suggested that personality issues should be considered and used from a business perspective, and self-leadership is important for women. The study provides room for policymakers and institutes to inform educational policies to motivate women entrepreneurs for the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.796272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8733164PMC
December 2021

First report on molecular epidemiology, seasonality and phylogeny of Toxoplasma gondii infecting goats from Khanewal district in Punjab, Pakistan.

Acta Trop 2022 Jan 6;228:106304. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Zoology Division, Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, 60800, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Raising small ruminants is the main source of income for farmers in Pakistan. Economic losses caused by Toxoplasma gondii to small ruminants have been reported worldwide, however reports on molecular detection of T. gondii are lacking in Pakistan despite a large goat population. The current study was carried out from March 2019 till February 2020 to report the seasonal and molecular prevalence of T. gondii in different breeds of goats located in Khanewal district of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 898 blood goat samples were collected during the four seasons and screened for T. gondii DNA by using PCR based on the amplification of ITS-1 partial sequence. Out of 898 goats, 48 (5.3%) were found positive to T. gondii. The prevalence of T. gondii varied according to season (Chi square test,P = 0.016) and the highest prevalence was observed in goats tested during the summer (8.8%) followed by the spring (5.7%), the winter (4.4%) and the autumn season (2.2%). PCR products positive to T. gondii were confirmed by DNA sequencing and BLAST analysis. Phylogenetic study based on ITS 1 gene provided evidence that the amplified isolates of T. gondii were highly conserved in Pakistani goats. Buck (Fischer exact test, P = 0.002) and farms containing other dairy animals next to goats (Fischer exact test, P = 0.001) and farms with a water supply from pools (Fischer exact test, P = 0.001) were more infected with T. gondii. Infected goats had a reduction on red blood cell count (Two-sample t test, P = 0.01) and hemoglobin concentration (Two-sample t test, P = 0.03) and an increase in the number of monocytes (%) (Two-sample t test, P = 0.05), mean cell hemoglobin (Two-sample t test, P = 0.01) and serum creatinine (Two-sample t test, P = 0.01) as compared to T. gondii uninfected goats. In conclusion, we report a relatively low PCR based prevalence of T. gondii in goats from Khanewal district as previously the serum ELISA test based prevalence of T. gondii in Pakistani goats varied between 19-52%. Control measures should be taken to eradicate T. gondii infection in goats of the study area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2022.106304DOI Listing
January 2022

Evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of intradermal administration of QR678 Neo hair growth factor formulation: A phase-IV, open-label, single-arm multi-ethnicity clinical trial.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2022 Jan 8. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

09 Clinic, Kuwait, Kuwait.

Background: Intradermal administration of QR678 Neo hair re-growth factor formulation has already proven its effectiveness and safety in treating androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss.

Aim: This study aims to evaluate effectiveness and safety of hair re-growth factor formulation at multiple centers for reduction of hair fall and regrowth of hair in androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss.

Materials And Methods: An open-label, prospective, and interventional study was carried out at multiple centers of different countries. A total of 2428 patients with androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss within the age range of 18-65 years were included in the study. Hair pull test, global photographic assessment, videomicroscopic assessment tests were performed at the beginning, after fourth and eighth sessions, and self-assessment through questionnaire related to satisfaction and side effects was carried out at beginning and at after eight session.

Results: Hair pull test was positive in only 12% of the patients after eight sessions. Beneficial results were noted in the global assessment score (mean-6) after fourth session and eighth session (mean-8). Huge improvement was noted in terminal hair count, vellus hair count, and hair density after eighth sessions. Also, with self-assessment score, a higher satisfaction score was noted. On long-term follow-up as well, no side effects were noted.

Conclusion: Intradermal administration of QR678 Neo is an innovative, efficacious, and safe technique for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.14715DOI Listing
January 2022

Fibrinolytic Enzyme - An Overview.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2022 Jan 4. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Department of Biotechnology, Biotechnology, Aarupadai Institute of Technology, Vinayaka Missions University, Chennai, India.

Cardiovascular diseases, like coronary heart disease or artery disorders (arteriosclerosis, including artery solidification), heart failure (myocardial infarction), arrhythmias, congestive heart condition, stroke, elevated vital signs (hypertension), rheumatic heart disorder, and other circulatory system dysfunctions are the most common causes of death worldwide. Cardiovascular disorders are treated with stenting, coronary bypass surgery grafting, anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and other pharmacological and surgical procedures; however, these have limitations due to their adverse effects. Fibrinolytic agents degrade fibrin through enzymatic and biochemical processes. There are various enzymes that are currently used as a treatment for CVDs, like Streptokinase, Nattokinase, Staphylokinase, Urokinase, etc. These enzymes are derived from various sources like bacteria, fungi, algae, marine organisms, plants, snakes, and other organisms. This review deals with the fibrinolytic enzymes, their mechanisms, sources, and their therapeutic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201023666220104143113DOI Listing
January 2022

Pattern of medication utilization in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in three District Headquarters Hospitals in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm 2022 Mar 29;5:100101. Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Department of Pharmacy, School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, United Kingdom.

Purpose: In Pakistan, a wide range of repurposed drugs are recommended to manage hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the pattern of utilization of repurposed drugs and other potential therapeutic options among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Pakistan.

Methods: This retrospective, multicenter, descriptive study enrolled consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who were admitted between March 1, 2021, and April 30, 2021, from three District Headquarter Hospitals in the Punjab province of Pakistan. We described patient and clinical characteristics and medications, stratified by COVID-19 severity during hospitalization: mild, moderate, and severe. In addition, an analytical study of drug utilization was conducted.

Findings: A total of 444 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. Remdesvir, corticosteroids, antibiotics, and antithrombotics were administered to 45.0%, 93.9%, 84.9%, and 60.1% of patients, respectively. Specifically, dexamethasone was the most commonly used corticosteroid among the included patients ( = 405; 91.2%), irrespective of their clinical severity. Only 60.1% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in our cohort received antithrombotic therapy, and the prevalence of use was especially low (27.8%) in patients with mild illness. Of 444 patientsscreened, 399 (89.9%) patients had been discharged, and 45 patients (10.1%) died.

Implications: We provided an important glimpse into the utilization patterns of several medications of interest for the treatment of COVID-19 in Pakistan, which had not been entirely evidence-based, especially concerning systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rcsop.2021.100101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8715623PMC
March 2022

SARS-CoV-2: Emergence of New Variants and Effectiveness of Vaccines.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 14;11:777212. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Gachon Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Gachon University, Incheon, South Korea.

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants may cause resistance at the immunity level against current vaccines. Some emergent new variants have increased transmissibility, infectivity, hospitalization, and mortality. Since the administration of the first SARS-CoV-2 vaccine to a human in March 2020, there is an ongoing global race against SARS-CoV-2 to control the current pandemic situation. Spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 is the main target for current vaccine development, which can neutralize the infection. Companies and academic institutions have developed vaccines based on the S glycoprotein, as well as its antigenic domains and epitopes, which have been proven effective in generating neutralizing antibodies. The effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and other therapeutics developments are limited by the new emergent variants at the global level. We have discussed the emergent variants of SARS-CoV-2 on the efficacy of developed vaccines. Presently, most of the vaccines have been tremendously effective in severe diseases. However, there are still noteworthy challenges in certifying impartial vaccines; the stories of re-infections are generating more stressful conditions, and this needs further clinical evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.777212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8713083PMC
January 2022

In Vitro and In Vivo Analysis of Fentanyl and Fentalog Metabolites using Hyphenated Chromatographic Techniques: A Review.

Chem Res Toxicol 2022 Jan 25;35(1):30-42. Epub 2021 Dec 25.

Department of Life Science, School of Sciences, Jain (Deemed-to-be University), Bengaluru 560027, Karnataka, India.

Fentanyl and fentanyl analogues (also called fentalogs) are used as medical prescriptions to treat pain for a long time. Apart from their pharmaceutical applications, they are misused immensely, causing the opioid crisis. Fentanyl and its analogues are produced in clandestine laboratories and sold over dark Web markets to different parts of the world, leading to a rise in the death rate due to drug overdose. This is because the users are unaware of the lethal effects of the newer forms of fentalogs. Unlike other drugs, these fentalogs cannot be detected easily, as very little data are available, and this is one of the major reasons for the risk of life-threatening poisoning or deaths. Hence, rigorous studies of these drugs and their possible metabolites are required. It is also necessary to develop techniques for the detection of minute traces of metabolites in biological fluids. This Review provides an overview of the application of hyphenated chromatographic techniques used to analyze multiple novel fentalogs, using in vivo and in vitro methods. The article focuses on the metabolites formed in phase I and phase II processes in biological specimens obtained in recent cases of drug abuse and overdose deaths that could be useful for the detection and differentiation of multiple fentalogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.1c00225DOI Listing
January 2022

Pesticide residues in and from river Ganga, India, and assessment of human health risk.

Toxicol Rep 2021 1;8:1638-1644. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Limnology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002, India.

Present study was carried out to determine the concentration and bioaccumulation of pesticide residues in two commonly edible fishes: bagrid fish, and common carp, collected from river Ganga at Narora, India. The human health risk via consumption of these fishes was also assessed. The n-hexane extract of the muscle tissues was characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and quantified by electron capture detector for pesticide residues. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in bagrid fish for detected pesticides was found to be higher than those in common carp. Estimated daily intake (EDI) values in our study were insignificantly higher than Average daily intake (ADI) values. Target hazard quotient (THQ) via consumption of selected fishes was found to be lower than the set 1.0, inferring non-carcinogenic risk. With regard to contaminants carcinogenic effects the total risk ratio (R) values of each pesticide was found lower than threshold risk limit except of heptachlor which indicates carcinogenic risk. The results justify pesticide pollution in river Ganga at Narora and thus more attention is required in order to help improve the health status of this ecosystem and reduce contamination of fishes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.08.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8674587PMC
September 2021

Nutritional status and growth centiles using anthropometric measures of school-aged children and adolescents from Multan district.

Arch Pediatr 2021 Dec 23. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Bureau of Statistics Punjab, P&D Department, Multan, Pakistan.

Background: Nutritional status among children and adolescents is assessed using growth rates. The aim of this study was to assess age- and gender-specific height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) centiles among children and adolescents relative to World Health Organization (WHO) references.

Methods: A sample of 1040 school-aged children and adolescents aged 3-18 years from Multan District in Pakistan were selected for the study between January and March 2020. Multistage stratified random sampling was used for sample selection. Centile curves of height, weight, and BMI for age and gender were obtained using the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method, and results were compared with WHO 2007 references.

Results: For boys and girls, the average height was 137.37 ± 8.24 and 135.62 ± 9.64 cm, average weight was 36.32 ± 6.84 and 35.21 ± 7.27 kg, and average BMI was 18.44 ± 2.67 and 18.36 ± 2.91, respectively. The height centiles of boys were higher than the WHO reference, and during the prepubertal period (age 8 years or older) the centiles were lower than the WHO reference. The height centiles of girls were higher than the WHO reference, and during the pubertal period (age 10 years or older) the centiles were lower than the WHO reference. The gender-wise BMI centiles were higher compared to the WHO reference.

Conclusion: The prevalence of thinness, overweight, and obesity in boys and girls was significantly higher than the WHO reference. The results of this study on centiles are up-to-date and will be used as a standard for comparison.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcped.2021.11.010DOI Listing
December 2021

Final efficacy analysis, interim safety analysis, and immunogenicity of a single dose of recombinant novel coronavirus vaccine (adenovirus type 5 vector) in adults 18 years and older: an international, multicentre, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2022 01 23;399(10321):237-248. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

CanSino Biologics, Tianjin, China.

Background: The Ad5-nCoV vaccine is a single-dose adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectored vaccine expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that was well-tolerated and immunogenic in phase 1 and 2 studies. In this study, we report results on the final efficacy and interim safety analyses of the phase 3 trial.

Methods: This double-blind, randomised, international, placebo-controlled, endpoint-case driven, phase 3, clinical trial enrolled adults aged 18 years older at study centres in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Pakistan, and Russia. Participants were eligible for the study if they had no unstable or severe underlying medical or psychiatric conditions; had no history of a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection; were not pregnant or breastfeeding; and had no previous receipt of an adenovirus-vectored, coronavirus, or SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. After informed consent was obtained, 25 mL of whole blood was withdrawn from all eligible participants who were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single intramuscular dose of 0·5 mL placebo or a 0·5 mL dose of 5 × 10 viral particle (vp)/mL Ad5-nCoV vaccine; study staff and participants were blinded to treatment allocation. All participants were contacted weekly by email, telephone, or text message to self-report any symptoms of COVID-19 illness, and laboratory testing for SARS-CoV-2 was done for all participants with any symptoms. The primary efficacy objective evaluated Ad5-nCoV in preventing symptomatic, PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection occurring at least 28 days after vaccination in all participants who were at least 28 days postvaccination on Jan 15, 2021. The primary safety objective evaluated the incidence of any serious adverse events or medically attended adverse events postvaccination in all participants who received a study injection. This trial is closed for enrolment and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04526990).

Findings: Study enrolment began on Sept 22, 2020, in Pakistan, Nov 6, 2020, in Mexico, Dec 2, 2020, in Russia and Chile, and Dec 17, 2020, in Argentina; 150 endpoint cases were reached on Jan 15, 2021, triggering the final primary efficacy analysis. One dose of Ad5-nCoV showed a 57·5% (95% CI 39·7-70·0, p=0·0026) efficacy against symptomatic, PCR-confirmed, COVID-19 infection at 28 days or more postvaccination (21 250 participants; 45 days median duration of follow-up [IQR 36-58]). In the primary safety analysis undertaken at the time of the efficacy analysis (36 717 participants), there was no significant difference in the incidence of serious adverse events (14 [0·1%] of 18 363 Ad5-nCoV recipients and 10 [0·1%] of 18 354 placebo recipients, p=0·54) or medically attended adverse events (442 [2·4%] of 18 363 Ad5-nCoV recipients and 411 [2·2%] of 18 354 placebo recipients, p=0·30) between the Ad5-nCoV or placebo groups, or any serious adverse events considered related to the study product (none in both Ad5-nCoV and placebo recipients). In the extended safety cohort, 1004 (63·5%) of 1582 of Ad5-nCoV recipients and 729 (46·4%) of 1572 placebo recipients reported a solicited systemic adverse event (p<0·0001), of which headache was the most common (699 [44%] of Ad5-nCoV recipients and 481 [30·6%] of placebo recipients; p<0·0001). 971 (61·3%) of 1584 Ad5-nCoV recipients and 314 (20·0%) of 1573 placebo recipients reported an injection-site adverse event (p<0·0001), of which pain at the injection site was the most frequent; reported by 939 (59%) Ad5-nCoV recipients and 303 (19%) placebo recipients.

Interpretation: One dose of Ad5-nCoV is efficacious and safe in healthy adults aged 18 years and older.

Funding: CanSino Biologics and the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02753-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8700283PMC
January 2022

Combination of Strobilurin and Triazole Chemicals for the Management of Blast Disease in Mushk Budji -Aromatic Rice.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Dec 10;7(12). Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Shaikh 33516, Egypt.

Rice blast is considered one of the most important fungal diseases of rice. Although diseases can be managed by using resistant cultivars, the blast pathogen has successfully overcome the single gene resistance in a short period and rendered several varieties susceptible to blast which were otherwise intended to be resistant. As such, chemical control is still the most efficient method of disease control for reducing the losses caused due to diseases. Field experiments were conducted over two successive years, 2018 and 2019, in temperate rice growing areas in northern India. All the fungicides effectively reduced leaf blast incidence and intensity, and neck blast incidence under field conditions. Tricyclazole proved most effective against rice blast and recorded a leaf blast incidence of only 8.41%. Among the combinations of fungicides, azoxystrobin + difenoconazole and azoxystrobin + tebuconazole were highly effective, recording a leaf blast incidence of 9.19 and 10.40%, respectively. The chemical combination mancozeb + carbendazim proved less effective in controlling the blast and it recorded a disease incidence of 27.61%. A similar trend was followed in neck blast incidence with tricyclazole, azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, and azoxystrobin + tebuconazole showing the highest levels of blast reductions. It is evident from the current study that the tested fungicide combinations can be used as alternatives to tricyclazole which is facing the challenges of fungicide resistance development and other environmental concerns and has been banned from use in India and other countries. The manuscript may provide a guideline of fungicide application to farmers cultivating susceptible varieties of rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7121060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8707660PMC
December 2021

Influence of Manure Application on the Soil Bacterial Microbiome in Integrated Crop-Livestock Farms in Maryland.

Microorganisms 2021 Dec 15;9(12). Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

As a traditional agricultural system, integrated crop-livestock farms (ICLFs) involve the production of animals and crops in a shared environment. The ICLFs in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States practice sustainable manure aging or composting processes to provide an on-farm source of soil amendment for use as natural fertilizer and soil conditioner for crop production. However, crop fertilization by soil incorporation of aged manure or compost may introduce different microbes and alter the soil microbial community. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of aged or composted manure application on the diversity of soil bacterial community in ICLFs. Soil samples from six ICLFs in Maryland were collected before (pre-crop) and during the season (2020-2021) and used to analyze soil bacterial microbiome by 16S rDNA sequencing. Results showed that both phylum- and genus-level alterations of soil bacterial communities were associated with amendment of aged or composted manure. Particularly, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were enriched, while Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi were reduced after manure product application. Meanwhile, the relative abundance of was decreased, while two zoonotic pathogens, and , were enriched by manure amendments. Overall, animal manure amendment of soil increased the phylogenetic diversity, but reduced the richness and evenness of the soil bacterial communities. Although manure composting management in ICLFs benefits agricultural sustainable production, the amendments altered the soil bacterial communities and were associated with the finding of two major zoonotic bacterial pathogens, which raises the possibility of their potential transfer to fresh horticultural produce crops that may be produced on the manured soils and then subsequently consumed without cooking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8706570PMC
December 2021

Molecular Epidemiology of in Cattle from Two Districts in Punjab (Pakistan).

Animals (Basel) 2021 Dec 2;11(12). Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Zoology Division, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

The present study was designed to report the molecular prevalence of in cattle blood samples collected from Punjab in Pakistan. A total of 428 cattle blood samples were collected from Districts Lodhran ( = 218) and Dera Ghazi Khan ( = 210). The prevalence of was determined by the amplification of a fragment from its gene and parasite prevalence was significantly higher ( = 0.03) in the blood samples of cattle collected from Dera Ghazi Khan (70/210; 33%) as compared to Lodhran (52/218; 24%). Presence of was also confirmed by the amplification of a fragment from their gene. The amplified PCR products of both genes were confirmed by DNA sequencing and these partial DNA sequences were submitted to GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that amplified partial gene sequences resembled previously reported sequences in cattle from India, China, Iran, Tunisia, Turkey and Egypt. The incidence of infection was higher in Sahiwal cattle ( = 0.04) than the other enrolled cattle breed from Dera Ghazi Khan. Female cattle from Lodhran ( = 0.02), while males ( = 0.02), animals housed in close compounds ( = 0.04), animals with a tick burden ( = 0.005) and farms with only cattle ( = 0.01) in Dear Ghazi Khan were found to be more susceptible to infection. We recommend that large-scale tick and tick-borne disease control strategies be implemented in both districts under investigation, especially in Dera Ghazi Khan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11123443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8697919PMC
December 2021

Diabetes Mellitus during the Pandemic Covid-19: Prevelance, Pathophysiology, Mechanism, and Management: An updated overview.

Curr Diabetes Rev 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Pharmacognosy, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2457-11451, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the most frequently reported comorbidities in patients tainted with the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With a high pervasiveness of diabetes mellitus, there is an urgency to understand the special aspects of COVID-19 in hyperglycemic patients. Diabetic patients are at higher possibility than the general population of viral or bacterial infections thus require special attention since diabetes is linked with severe, critical, and lethal modes of COVID-19.

Objective: The objectives of this study were to focus on epidemiology, pathophysiology, mechanism, and management of DM with COVID-19.

Method: The search was carried out on databases such as Pubmed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and CINAHL with the keywords, i.e., COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, diabetes & covid-19, etc. Result: DM and COVID-19 disease conditions can impact each other in terms of clinical progression and outcome. Available laboratory/clinical observations suggest that hyperglycemia-induced immune dysfunction, inflated lactate grades, and cytokines storm may play critical roles in the seriousness of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes; however, the exact mechanisms linking diabetes and COVID-19 remain to be further clarified.

Conclusion: Standards to constrain the disease spread at the individual and community level are the key to extenuate the speedily rising pandemic. At the same time, definitive treatment like plasma therapy, chemoprophylaxis, or vaccine for COVID-19 has yet to be discovered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573399817666210712160651DOI Listing
July 2021

Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Turner Syndrome (45XO) Fetal Cells for Downstream Modelling of Neurological Deficits Associated with the Syndrome.

J Vis Exp 2021 Dec 4(178). Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Manipal Institute of Regenerative Medicine, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India-576104;

Chromosomal aneuploidies cause severe congenital malformations including central nervous system malformations and fetal death. Prenatal genetic screening is purely diagnostic and does not elucidate disease mechanism. Although cells from aneuploid fetuses are valuable biological material bearing the chromosomal aneuploidy, these cells are short lived, limiting their use for downstream research experiments. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models is an effective method of cell preparation for perpetual conservation of aneuploid traits. They are self-renewing and differentiate into specialized cells reminiscent of embryonic development. Thus, iPSCs serve as excellent tools to study early developmental events. Turner syndrome (TS) is a rare condition associated with a completely or partially missing X chromosome. The syndrome is characterized by infertility, short stature, endocrine, metabolic, autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders and neurocognitive defects. The following protocol describes isolation and culturing of fibroblasts from TS (45XO) fetal tissue, generation of integration free TSiPSCs through delivery of episomal reprogramming plasmids by nucleofection followed by characterization. The reprogramming TSiPSCs were initially screened by live cell alkaline phosphatase staining followed by extensive probing for pluripotency biomarkers. Selected colonies were mechanically dissected, passaged several times and stable self-renewing cells were used for further experiments. The cells expressed pluripotency transcription factors OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, cell surface markers SSEA 4 and TRA1-81 typical of pluripotent stem cells. The original 45XO karyotype was retained post reprogramming. The TSiPSCs were able to form embryoid bodies and differentiate into cells of endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm expressing lineage specific biomarkers ((SRY BOX17), (MYOSIN VENTRICULAR HEAVY CHAINα/β), (βIII TUBULIN)). The exogenous episomal plasmids were lost spontaneously and not detected after passage 15 in cells. These TSiPSCs are a valuable cellular resource for modelling defective molecular and cellular neurodevelopment causing neurocognitive deficits associated with Turner syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/62240DOI Listing
December 2021

Fungal interactions induce changes in hyphal morphology and enzyme production.

Mycology 2021 4;12(4):279-295. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam, India.

In nature, species interacts/competes with one other within their surrounding for food and space and the type of interactions are unique to each species. The interacting partners secrete different metabolites, which may have high importance in human welfare. Fungal-fungal interactions are complex mechanisms that need better understanding. Here, 14 fungal isolates were facilitated in 105 possible combinations to interact on potato dextrose agar. Morphologically, no changes were observed when the same fungal isolates were allowed to interact within them. However, 10 interactions between different fungal isolates showed mutual replacement with each fungus; capturing territory from the other. Contrastingly, 35 interactions resulted into complete replacement as one of the fungi was inhibited by rapid growth of the other fungus. In 46 interactions, formation of barrage was observed leading to deadlock type of interaction wherein both fungi have restricted growth. To study in details about the barrage formation, two fungal interactions were taken (i) vs. and (ii) . Microscopic changes in the hyphal growth during interaction were observed. There was significant increase in the enzymatic activities including cellulase, xylanase and chitinase during fungal-fungal interaction, suggesting the importance of such interactions for commercial enzyme production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21501203.2021.1932627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8654418PMC
June 2021

Structural Characterization of Ectodomain G Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Its Interaction with Heparan Sulfate: Multi-Spectroscopic and In Silico Studies Elucidating Host-Pathogen Interactions.

Molecules 2021 Dec 6;26(23). Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India.

The global burden of disease caused by a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is becoming more widely recognized in young children and adults. Heparan sulfate helps in attaching the virion through G protein with the host cell membrane. In this study, we examined the structural changes of ectodomain G protein (edG) in a wide pH range. The absorbance results revealed that protein maintains its tertiary structure at physiological and highly acidic and alkaline pH. However, visible aggregation of protein was observed in mild acidic pH. The intrinsic fluorescence study shows no significant change in the λ except at pH 12.0. The ANS fluorescence of edG at pH 2.0 and 3.0 forms an acid-induced molten globule-like state. The denaturation transition curve monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that urea and GdmCl induced denaturation native (N) ↔ denatured (D) state follows a two-state process. The fluorescence quenching, molecular docking, and 50 ns simulation measurements suggested that heparan sulfate showed excellent binding affinity to edG. Our binding study provides a preliminary insight into the interaction of edG to the host cell membrane via heparan sulfate. This binding can be inhibited using experimental approaches at the molecular level leading to the prevention of effective host-pathogen interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8658883PMC
December 2021

Synthesis and Computational Characterization of Organic UV-Dyes for Cosensitization of Transparent Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

Molecules 2021 Dec 3;26(23). Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21321, Egypt.

The fabrication of colorless and see-through dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) requires the photosensitizers to have little or no absorption in the visible light region of the solar spectrum. However, a trade-off between transparency and power conversion efficiency (PCE) has to be tackled, since most transparent DSCs are showing low PCE when compared to colorful and opaque DSCs. One strategy to increase PCE is applying two cosensitizers with selective conversion of the UV and NIR radiation, therefore, the non-visible part only is absorbed. In this study, we report synthesis of novel five UV-selective absorbers, based on diimide and Schiff bases incorporating carboxyl and pyridyl anchoring groups. A systematic computational investigation using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT approaches was employed to evaluate their prospect of application in transparent DSCs. Experimental UV/Vis absorption spectra showed that all dyes exhibit an absorption band covering the mid/near-UV region of solar spectrum, with a bathochromic shift and a hyperchromic shifts for Py-1 dye. Computational results showed that the studied dyes satisfied the basic photophysical and energetics requirements of operating DSC as well as the stability and thermodynamical spontaneity of adsorption onto surface of TiO. However, results revealed outperformance of the thienothiophene core-containing Py-1 UV-dye, owing to its advantageous structural attributes, improved conjugation, intense emission, large Stokes shift and maximum charge transferred to the anchor. Chemical compatibility of Py-1 dye was then theoretically investigated as a potential cosensitizer of a reference VG20-C2 NIR-dye. By the judicious selection of pyridyl anchor-based UV-absorber (Py-1) and carboxyl anchor-based NIR-absorber (VG20), the advantage of the optical complementarity and selectivity of different TiO-adsorption-site (Lewis- and Bronsted-acidic) can be achieved. An improved overall PCE is estimated accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8658785PMC
December 2021

Pollen morphology and its taxonomic potential in some selected taxa of Caesalpiniaceae observed under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Nov 30. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Pollen micromorphology is not only used to check the functional and structural evolution in plants but also to solve the taxonomic problem related to the classification of plants. Therefore, keeping in view the significance of pollen traits, selected taxa of the subfamily Caesalpiniaceae was collected from different geographical regions of Pakistan. The species were then analyzed under both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques to investigate the importance of micromorphological characters of pollen in the identification and classification of species. Great variation was recorded in equatorial shape, surface ornamentation, tectum, polar diameter, equatorial diameter, and exine thickness. However, little variation was observed in pollen type, polar shape, and fertility of pollen. The equatorial shape of five types was observed: prolate, prolate-spheroidal, spheroidal-subprolate, subspheroidal-prolate, and subspheroidal. Four types of surface ornamentation, psilate, granulate, clavate, and perforate, were recorded. Tectum of five types, intactate, reticulate regulate, medium reticulate, tactate, and striate, was observed. Sexine was thicker than nexine in all studied species. The largest polar diameter was observed in Caesalpinia pulcherrima 64.1 μm while the smallest in Parkinsonia aculeata 26.1 μm. The largest equatorial diameter was found in C. pulcherrima of 70.25 μm whereas the smallest in P. aculeata 27.57 μm. All the pollens analyzed were tricolporate. All studied species have a fertility ratio of more than 90%. A taxonomic key was developed to show the variation in pollen features and delimit species for the correct identification. In conclusion, the pollen traits were found useful to define species boundaries at various taxonomic ranks and will strengthen the taxonomy of this subfamily. Besides, this study also explored the palynological traits and their implication in the taxonomy of the subfamily Caesalpiniaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.24004DOI Listing
November 2021

Toxicology of Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery.

Curr Pathobiol Rep 2021 Nov 24:1-12. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

School of Engineering, Ajeenkya DY Patil University, Pune, Maharashtra 412105 India.

Nanoparticles have revolutionized biomedicine especially in the field of drug delivery due to their intriguing properties such as systemic stability, level of solubility, and target site specificity. It can, however, be both beneficial and damaging depending on the properties in different environments, thus highlighting the importance of nanotoxicology studies before use in humans. Different types of nanoparticles have been used in drug delivery, and this review summarizes the recent toxicity studies of these nanoparticles. The toxicological evaluation of three widely used nanoparticles in drug delivery that are metal, lipid, and protein nanoparticles has been discussed in detail. Studies have recorded several toxic effects of various nanoparticles such as metal-based nanoparticles have been linked to increased oxidative stress and have the potential to infiltrate the cell nucleus and protein-based nanoparticles have been observed to have hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity as their adverse effects. Considering the increasing application of nanoparticles in drug delivery and the growing concerns of regulatory authorities regarding the toxicity of nanocarriers in living organisms, it requires urgent attention to identify the gap in toxicity studies. The review highlights the gap in toxicity studies and potential focus areas to overcome the existing challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40139-021-00227-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8611175PMC
November 2021

Wood transcriptome analysis and expression variation of lignin biosynthetic pathway transcripts in Roxb., a multi-purpose tropical tree species.

J Biosci 2021 ;46

Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Forest Campus, R.S. Puram, Coimbatore 641 002, India.

Safety matches are an essential consumer commodity which faces considerable shortage of raw material due to specific requirements like color, wax stability, consistent burning and splinting ability in wood. Roxb. is a multi-purpose tropical tree species which is predominantly used for production of match splints. It is a data deficient species with no information on molecular regulation governing the wood phenotypes. Hence, with the aim to identify the lignin biosynthetic pathway transcripts, transcriptome sequencing of pooled developing secondary wood tissues of a 22-month-old tree was conducted. The processed reads were assembled and 48,493 unigenes were annotated. Quantitative real time PCR was conducted in six even-aged trees to document the natural expression profiles of nine major transcripts from the monolignol pathway. Significant differential expression of Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (), Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (), Cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (), Laccase () and Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyl Transferase () was documented across all genotypes studied. Transcriptome-wise microsatellites were also mined and is the first co-dominant marker resource in this species. The genomic resource generated in A. excelsa will facilitate understanding the molecular mechanisms of wood formation and accelerate trait-based breeding program through diversity assessment, population structure analysis, clonal discrimination and marker assisted selection.
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January 2021
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